VI The Science of Nutrition

TEA Units of Study: TEKS "Knowledge and skills" subsections covered:

A. Nutrition basics

  • (8) The student understands the functions of enzymes.
    • (C) discuss the enzymes involved in digestion
  • (9) The student understands the role of fermentation in food sciences.
    • (A) explain anaerobic respiration and how it is involved in metabolism and food science
  • (12) The student understands the physiology of digestion.
    • (A) define mechanical and chemical digestive processes
    • (B) explain the difference between mechanical and chemical digestive processes
    • (C) explain absorption as part of the digestive process

B. Digestion and metabolism

  • (13) The student understands metabolism.
    • (A) analyze components and by-products of metabolism
    • (B) define anabolism and catabolism
    • (C) describe conditions needed for metabolism to occur
    • (D) explain the process of osmosis and the role it plays in metabolism
    • (E) discuss basal metabolism and the factors that affect it
    • (F) identify levels of voluntary activity and how these affect the need for kilocalories
    • (G) describe metabolic changes and the effect they have on the body during fasting
    • (H) explain why lactic acid builds up in the muscles during exercise and how this can be prevented or treated
  • (14) The student explains how food provides energy.
    • (A) discuss molecular motion and temperature
    • (B) explain heat transfer
    • (C) explain latent heat in phase changes
    • (D) compare various temperatures on rates of reaction
    • (E) analyze how the body uses energy and calories
    • (F) describe the relationship of energy to physical and chemical reactions
    • (G) analyze relationships between food intake and body weight

C. Nutrients

  • (15) The student describes the basic nutrients and their specific properties as related to food science.
    • (A) identify the recommended daily allowances of the basic nutrients
    • (B) list the five main nutrients and food sources of each
    • (C) explain the use of the five main nutrients in relation to the Food Guide Pyramid and/or the Dietary Guidelines
    • (D) discuss the importance of fiber in the diet
  • (16) The student identifies properties of carbohydrates.
    • (C) describe the regulation of glucose in the blood and the conditions resulting from low and high glucose levels
  • (17) The student describes the properties of fats and lipids.
    • (E) describe the functions of fat in the body
    • (F) explain the role of fat in maintaining optimum health
    • (G) explain the role of cholesterol in maintaining optimum health
  • (18) The student describes the properties of proteins and amino acids.
    • (G) identify the functions of protein in the body
    • (H) compare and contrast complete and incomplete proteins
  • (20) The student analyzes the properties of vitamins and minerals.
    • (A) discuss the functions of vitamins and minerals in the body
    • (B) describe water and fat-soluble vitamins and list the main vitamins in each category
    • (C) explain why megadoses of fat-soluble vitamins can be toxic
    • (D) analyze the food sources for each vitamin and mineral
    • (E) analyze deficiency diseases and explain their causes
    • (F) explain the difference and list examples of major and trace minerals
    • (G) explain the interrelationships among nutrients
  • (23) The student discusses United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) packaging guidelines.
    • (A) research food packaging guidelines established by the USDA
    • (B) explain the rationale and purposes of those guidelines
    • (C) describe properties of containers needed for commercial food packaging
    • (D) identify factors related to the successful use of controlled-atmosphere packaging
    • (E) describe information required on a food label

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