V The Microbiology of Food

TEA Units of Study: TEKS "Knowledge and skills" subsections covered:

A. Keeping food safe

  • (5) The student applies the principles of food safety and microbiology.
    • (A) investigate the properties of microorganisms that cause food spoilage
    • (B) explain the difference between food intoxication and food infection
    • (C) examine the conditions under which the important pathogens are commonly destroyed, inactivated, or rendered harmless in foods
    • (D) discuss the difference between microorganisms that are helpful and those that are harmful
    • (E) analyze sanitary food-handling practices

B. Methods of food preservation C. Preservation technology

  • (9) The student understands the role of fermentation in food sciences.
    • (C) describe how bacteria is used to ferment food, including how lactic acid bacteria creates sauerkraut from cabbage
    • (D) compare fresh-pack pickling and brine pickling
    • (E) describe the process of making vinegar
  • (10) The student understands how leavening agents are used in baking.
    • (A) describe the purpose of leavening agents in baked goods
    • (B) identify and describe major leavening agents
    • (C) explain why baking soda is used with an acid in baked goods
    • (D) describe the types of dough and batters used in making quick breads
    • (E) analyze the ingredients in baking powder
    • (F) discuss how air and stream act as leavening agents
    • (G) identify the purposes of the ingredients used in making yeast
  • (11) The student understands the purposes of additives in food.
    • (A) discuss the use of food additives
    • (B) describe properties of a desirable food preservative
    • (C) explain why additives used as antioxidants are added to food
    • (D) explain the difference between natural and artificial additives
    • (E) identify kinds of sweeteners used in food processing
    • (F) name nutrients that are used as food additives
    • (G) discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using food additives
    • (H) identify agencies involved in regulating food additives
  • (24) The student analyzes the food dehydration process.
    • (A) describe the principles and purposes of dehydration
    • (B) describe methods of dehydration and explain their similarities and differences
    • (C) explain why food is pretreated before dehydrating
    • (D) compare sulfating, sulfuring, and blanching
    • (E) describe types of blanching that can be used as pretreatment methods
    • (F) discuss the role of air temperature and movement in successful dehydration
  • (25) The student analyzes the food canning process.
    • (A) indentify safety practices and equipment use in home and commercial canning
    • (B) describe hot-pack, cold-pack, and pressure canning
    • (C) identify advantages and disadvantages of each canning method
    • (D) identify types of foods that should be processed by each canning method
    • (E) compare heat transfer by conduction and by convection in canning
  • (26) The student analyzes the food freezing process.
    • (A) list steps of the food freezing process
    • (B) identify factors needed for successful freezing of food
    • (C) identify advantages and disadvantages of freezing food
  • (27) The student understands the importance of developing lifelong skills.
    • (O) prepare for a state or national food manager’s sanitation certification or alternative credential within the field of food science technology


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