IV Food Chemistry

TEA Units of Study: TEKS "Knowledge and skills" subsections covered:

A. Enzymes

  • (6) The student studies the chemical properties of food.
    • (A) disuses elements, compounds, mixtures, and formulas
    • (B) explain the Periodic Table of the Elements
    • (C) compare elements and compounds
    • (D) describe heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures
    • (E) explain the similarities and differences between heterogeneous mixtures and homogenous mixtures
    • (F) identify chemical examples of pure substances and mixtures
    • (G) identify chemical symbols, formulas, and equations and explain how they are used in food science
    • (H) analyze the occurrence of specific chemical reactions
    • (I) analyze chemical and physical changes in food

B. Solutions and colloidal dispersions

  • (7) The student analyzes solutions, colloids, solids, gels, foams, and emulsions.
    • (G) identify various food emulsions and the types of each emulsion

C. Leavening agents

  • (8) The student understands the functions of enzymes
    • (A) describe how enzymes act as catalysts in chemical reactions
    • (B) explain the relationship between an enzyme and a substrate
    • (D) identify factors that affect enzyme activity
    • (E) explain how enzyme reactions are involved in food preparation

D. Fermentation of food

  • (9) The student understands the role of fermentation in food sciences.
    • (B) list reasons food is fermented
  • (16) The student identifies properties of carbohydrates.
    • (A) explain the chemical reaction that occurs when plants produce carbohydrates
    • (B) define monosaccharide’s and disaccharides and an example of each
    • (D) explain sugar hydrolysis and list the products of the hydrolysis of sucrose and lactose
    • (E) discuss the process of carmelization
    • (F) compare the structures of amylose and amylopectin and how these structures affect cooking properties
    • (G) describe gelatinization, paste, retrogradation, and syneresis

E. The biochemistry of milk

  • (19) The student understands the coagulation and coalescence processes associated with milk protein and cheese.
    • (A) list the components of milk and explain how each component is dispersed in the milk
    • (B) describe what happens when milk protein is coagulated
    • (C) discuss the processing of milk and how it is treated when it is pasteurized, homogenized, and fortified
    • (D) compare and contrast skim milk, low-fat milk, whole milk, half-and-half, and various creams
    • (E) explain the differences between evaporated milk, condensed milk, and dried milk
    • (F) identify factors that affect the ability of cream to form a foam
    • (G) explain the changes that occur when milk is heated
    • (H) describe the process of making a fermented or cultured milk product and list examples of these products

F. Food additives

  • (17) The student describes the properties of fats and lipids.
    • (A) compare the properties of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids
    • (B) identify foods containing triglycerides and identify which foods contain saturated and unsaturated fat
    • (C) discuss the function of fat in food preparation
    • (D) describe ways lipid oxidation can be controlled in food
    • (H) contrast the properties of saturated and unsaturated fats
    • (I) describe the effects of temperature on fats in food preparation
  • (18) The student describes the properties of proteins and amino acids.
    • (A) name the groups of elements that identify an amino acid
    • (B) describe the chemical structure of protein
    • (C) explain what happens during the denaturation of protein and how the process occurs
    • (D) describe ways in which protein is used in food preparation
    • (E) discuss the composition of eggs and their storage requirements
    • (F) list factors that affect the stability of an egg foam
  • (21) The student explains the properties of water.
    • (A) identify the properties of water that make it a polar molecule
    • (B) describe hydrogen bonds and how they differ from covalent bonds
    • (C) discuss the difference between hard and soft water
    • (D) compare the heat of fusion and the heat of vaporization
    • (E) explain the functions of water in food preparation
    • (F) identify the functions of water in the body
  • (22) The student analyzes the food irradiation process.
    • (A) list the steps in the food irradiation process
    • (B) define the units used to measure the amount of radiation used during the irradiation process
    • (C) describe the effects of irradiation on food


  • Food Science The Biochemistry of Food and Nutrition, Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Division 2002

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