Water – The Essential Molecule for Life!

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Hospitality and Tourism

    Course : Food Science

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (2) The student uses scientific methods and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
      • (E) plan and implement descriptive, comparative and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses and selecting equipment and technology
      • (F) collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools and equipment
      • (G) analyze, evaluate, make inferences and predict trends from data
      • (H) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports and technology-based reports
    • (21) The student explains the properties of water. The student is expected to:
      • (A) identify the properties of water that make it a polar molecule
      • (B) describe hydrogen bonds and how they differ from covalent bonds
      • (C) discuss the differences between hard and soft water
      • (D) compare the heat of fusion and the heat of vaporization
      • (E) explain the functions of water in food preparation
      • (F) identify the functions of water in the body
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • identify the properties of water
    • understand covalent and hydrogen bonds
    • explain the differences between hard and soft water
    • interpret heat fusion and heat vaporization
    • conduct a lab experiment using food and water
    • analyze functions of water in the body
  • Rationale

    Script:

    Water, water everywhere! It is a vital nutrient for our bodies and is found in many of the foods we eat and drink. But what do we know about water? In today’s lesson, we will learn about the properties of water, the functions of water in our bodies and in food preparation and how important water is in our daily living.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Five 45 minute lessons

  • Word Wall

    Covalent bond: A chemical bond formed between atoms by the sharing of electrons

    Hard water: Water that contains salts of calcium and magnesium principally as bicarbonates, chlorides and sulfates

    Heat of fusion: Heat required to melt a solid; specifically, the amount required to melt unit mass of a substance at standard pressure

    Heat of vaporization: Heat absorbed when a liquid vaporizes; specifically, the quantity of heat required at a specified temperature to convert unit mass of liquid into vapor.

    Hydrogen bond: An electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen atom in one polar molecule (as of water) and a small electronegative atom (as of oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine) in usually another molecule of the same or a different polar substance

    Soft water: Water that is free from dissolved salts of such metals as calcium, iron or magnesium, which form insoluble deposits such as appear as scale in boilers or soap curds in bathtubs and laundry equipment

    Water: The clear liquid that has no color, taste or smell, that falls from clouds as rain, that forms streams, lakes and seas and that is used for drinking, washing and more

    Note: Many other terms on the slide presentation can be identified. Encourage students to include the definition in the assignment.

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with projector for PowerPoint™ presentation
    • computers with Internet access (be sure to follow school district guidelines)

    Materials:

    • bowls (small) or paper cups
    • cardstock
    • color pencils
    • images of water:
      • beverage drinks
      • boiling
      • bottles
      • faucets
      • ice
      • lakes
      • ocean
      • pools
      • rain
      • rivers
      • snow

    Optional:

    • for food molecules
      • blueberries
      • flour
      • marshmallows (large and small)
      • strawberries
      • toothpicks
      • Twizzlers™
      • water

    Supplies:

    • as needed for lab experiment chosen

    • copies of handouts (see All Lesson Attachments tab)

  • Anticipatory Set

    Before class begins:

    Print on cardstock and cut apart the Water Facts A & Q Game (see All Lesson Attachments tab) from the Environmental Protection Agency for safe water. This activity will be used in the Lesson Closure section.

    Display as many items from the Materials or Specialized Equipment Needed tab as you have available on a table in front of the room so that students may view as they enter.

    Distribute the graphic organizer How Do You Use Water? (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and instruct the students to illustrate how they use water in their daily lives.

    Ask the students the following questions:

    • How long can you survive without water?
    • How much of our body is made up of water?
    • Do you know what water is composed of?
    • What foods are prepared with water? Give examples.

    Allow time for discussion.

  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Select and distribute a handout or graphic organizer from the Instructional Strategies drop down menu in Classroom Essentials or instruct students to take notes in their composition notebooks, journal books or on their own paper.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Categorizing-Notes.pdf
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Note-Taking.pdf

    Introduce the PowerPoint™ Water – The Essential Molecule for Life! (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will be expected to take notes while viewing the slide presentation. Allow time for classroom discussion.

    View YouTube™ video:

    • The Properties of Water
      This four minute animation describes the properties of water that support life. These properties include solvency, cohesion and adhesion, high surface temperature, high heat capacity, high heat of vaporization and varying density.
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aVmU3CLxvgU

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • check for understanding
    • provide a copy of slide presentation

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Distribute the handout Water Properties (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and instruct the students to illustrate several water molecules and identify the covalent and hydrogen bonds. They may use color pencils for this assignment.

    Optional: The molecules may also be created using food.
    Review the teacher resource Water Molecules with Food (see All Lesson Attachments tab) for ideas.

    Distribute the graphic organizer Functions of Water in the Body (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and instruct students to illustrate the functions of water.

    Lead a discussion on the importance of water and the effects of not having enough water in our body.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • peer tutoring
    • reduced assignment

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Divide the class into lab groups.

    Read the following scenario:

    You are employed as a food scientist with the United States Department of Agriculture and your team is researching the functions of water in food preparation for a conference. Experiments will need to be conducted to gather the data and information needed. What will you be able to report?

    Distribute the handout The Scientific Method for Food Science Experiments (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and review each step with the students.

    Distribute the Rubric for Lab Investigation (see All Lesson Attachments tab) so that students will understand what is expected.

    Note: The rubric may be changed to fit the lab experiment chosen. Other rubrics may be found at:
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/classroom-essentials/rubrics/

    There are many food science experiments with water to choose from.
    Select an experiment that will fit your budget and equipment needs.

    Below are a few options for:

    Functions of Water in Food Preparation

    • Chemistry of Ice-Cream Making: Lowering the Freezing Point of Water
      Have you ever made your own ice cream? If you have, you probably surrounded the ice cream container with ice and rock salt to get the mixture cold enough to freeze. But why does that work? How does adding salt (or other substances) affect the freezing point of water? Find out with this ice-cold science project.
      http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/FoodSci_p013.shtml#summary
    • Electrolyte Challenge: Orange Juice Vs. Sports Drink
      The makers of sports drinks spend tens to hundreds of millions of dollars advertising their products each year. Among the benefits often featured in these ads are the beverages’ high level of electrolytes, which your body loses as you sweat. In this science project, you will compare the amount of electrolytes in a sports drink with those in orange juice to find out which has more electrolytes to replenish the ones you lose as you work out or play sports. When you are finished, you might even want to make your own sports drink!
      http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/Chem_p053.shtml#summary
    • Saturated Solutions: Measuring Solubility
      Many essential chemical reactions and natural biochemical processes occur in liquid solutions, so understanding the chemical properties of liquid solutions is fundamentally important. This project asks the basic question, how much of a substance can dissolve in water, for three different substances: ordinary table salt, Epsom salts, and sugar.
      http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_ideas/Chem_p050.shtml#summary

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • providing visual aids

  • Lesson Closure

    Review terms, definitions and objectives.

    Divide the class into subgroups of two teams.

    Distribute half of the cards from the Water Facts A & Q Game (see All Lesson Attachments tab) to each team.

    The game is played by one team reading the Answer from the card and the other team has to guess the correct Question that relates to the Answer.

    Many of the questions were not discussed in this lesson but may have been learned in other science courses.

    The game is also available on the EPA website if computers are available.

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Students will be assessed with appropriate rubric for the lab investigation.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • grading according to work completed
    • providing praise and encouragement

  • References/Resources

    Images:

    • Shutterstock™ images. Photos obtained with subscription.

    Textbooks:

    • Mehas, K. Y. & Rodgers, S. L. (2002). Food science: The biochemistry of food and nutrition. New York, NY: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.
    • Ward, J. D. & Ward, L. T. (2015). Principles of food science. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox Company.

    Websites:

    YouTube™:

    • The Properties of Water
      This four minute animation describes the properties of water that support life. These properties include solvency, cohesion and adhesion, high surface temperature, high heat capacity, high heat of vaporization and varying density.
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aVmU3CLxvgU
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

    • word wall
    • draw visual representations of terms on word wall
    • add terms and definitions to personal dictionary
  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism, and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Recommended Strategies

    Reading Strategies

    Other articles pertaining to this lesson that students may read include:

    • Water Hardness
      The simple definition of water hardness is the amount of dissolved calcium and magnesium in the water. Hard water is high in dissolved minerals, both calcium and magnesium.
      http://water.usgs.gov/edu/hardness.html

    Reading Strategy
    Encourage students to “visualize” as they read. Many students are visual learners and will benefit from making sketches or diagrams on scrap paper as they read. Providing students with graphic organizers to help them organize their thoughts is also helpful.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/rgroup/instructional-strategies/page/4/

  • Quotes

    We never know the worth of water till the well is dry.
    -Thomas Fuller

    You can’t trust water: Even a straight stick turns crooked in it.
    -W.C. Fields

    Water is the driving force of all nature.
    -Leonardo da Vinci

    For many of us, clean water is so plentiful and readily available that we rarely, if ever, pause to consider what life would be like without it.
    -Marcus Samuelsson

    Thousands have lived without love, not one without water.
    -Wystan Hugh (W.H.) Auden

  • Multimedia/Visual Strategies

    PowerPoint™

    • Water – The Essential Molecule for Life!
    • Presentation Notes – Water – The Essential Molecule for Life!

    Technology:

    • TED Talks:
      • The Fourth Phase of Water: Dr. Gerald Pollack at TEDxGuelphU
        Does water have a fourth phase, beyond solid, liquid and vapor?
        University of Washington Bioengineering Professor Gerald Pollack answers this question, and intrigues us to consider the implications of this finding. Not all water is H2O, a radical departure from what you may have learned from textbooks.
        http://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/The-Fourth-Phase-of-Water-Dr-Ge

    Files for downloading:

  • Graphic Organizers/Handout

    Handouts

    • Rethink Your Drink
    • Rubric for Lab Investigation Activity
    • Water Facts A & Q Game (9-12)

    Graphic Organizers:

    • Functions of Water in the Body
    • How Do You Use Water?
    • How Do You Use Water? (examples)
    • The Scientific Method for Food Science Experiments
    • Water Properties
    • Water Properties (Key)

    Teacher Resource:

    • Water Molecules with Food

    Files for downloading:

  • Writing Strategies

    Journal Entries

    • Water is the best drink for me because …
    • Water is amazing because …
    • The properties of water apply to me because …
    • We need water for our bodies because …
    • Without water, I would …

    Writing Strategy:

    • RAFT Writing Strategy:
      • Role – food scientist
      • Audience – high school teachers
      • Topic – water
      • Format – slide presentation

    Design a slide presentation informing teachers the benefits of water.

  • Communication 90 Second Speech Topics

    • Three differences between hard and soft water are …
    • The difference between heat fusion and heat vaporization is …
  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    Students may design a survey asking their classmates how they use water in their daily lives.

    Infographic:

    Infographics are graphic visual representations of information, data or knowledge intended to present complex information quickly and clearly.

    The infographic below is related to this lesson. Allow students to view the image on a projector and lead a discussion concerning the information provided.

    TED Talk:

    TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event.

    The video below is related to this lesson. Allow students to view the video and lead a discussion concerning the TED Talk.

    • The Fourth Phase of Water: Dr. Gerald Pollack at TEDxGuelphU
      Does water have a fourth phase, beyond solid, liquid and vapor?
      University of Washington Bioengineering Professor Gerald Pollack answers this question, and intrigues us to consider the implications of this finding. Not all water is H2O, a radical departure from what you may have learned from textbooks.
      http://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/The-Fourth-Phase-of-Water-Dr-Ge
  • Family/Community Connection

    Students may encourage their families to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water and creating dishes that include water.

  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career and Community Leaders of America

    http://www.fcclainc.org

    • Environmental Ambassador
      Individual or team event that recognizes participants who address environmental issues that adversely impact human health and well-being and who actively empower others to get involved. Participants will research one of five current topics, investigate, develop and carry out stewardship projects and educate others. For competition, participants must prepare a portfolio and an oral presentation.
  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to this lesson.
    www.ysa.org

    Possible ideas:
    Students may collect bottled water that can be made available during disasters such as fires, hurricanes and storms.

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