The Scientific Method of Lab Investigation

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Hospitality and Tourism

    Course : Food Science

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (1) The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to:
      • (A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations
      • (B) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials
    • (2) The student uses scientific methods and equipment during laboratory and field investigations. The student is expected to:
      • (A) know the definition of science and understand that it has limitations, as specified in subsection (b)(2) of this section
      • (E) plan and implement descriptive, comparative and experimental investigations, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses and selecting equipment and technology
      • (F) collect and organize qualitative and quantitative data and make measurements with accuracy and precision using tools and equipment
      • (G) analyze, evaluate, make inferences and predict trends from data
      • (H) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports and technology-based reports
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • define science
    • identify the scientific method
    • judge reliability and create charts, diagrams and graphs
    • participate in a lab investigation activity to become familiar with the scientific method
  • Rationale

    Script:

    Scientists have been solving problems for centuries using a type of system of investigation steps. This system is called the scientific method. It begins with a question, a possible solution – hypothesis, the experiment, analyzing the data and the conclusion. Let’s find out how to do this!

  • Duration of Lesson

    Three 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Control: The standard against which you measure all changes

    Experiment: A scientific procedure undertaken to make a discovery, test a hypothesis or demonstrate a known fact

    Hypothesis: A possible solution to a problem

    Question: A sentence worded or expressed so as to elicit information

    Reliability: The ability to be relied on or depended on, as for having some foundation; based on truth

    Scientific method: A system of steps used to investigate, answer questions and solve problems

    Variable: A factor that is being changed

    Valid: Accuracy, honesty or achievement

    Note: Many other terms on the slide presentation can be identified. Encourage students to include the definition in the assignment.

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with projector for PowerPoint™ presentation
    • computers with Internet access (be sure to follow district guidelines for Internet access)
    • light projector (Elmo)

    Materials:

    Various examples of:

    • charts
    • diagrams
    • graphs
    • Post-It™ Notes

    Supplies:

    for each lab group:

    • bags, clear
    • small items of various colors (3 to 5).
      • buttons
      • candies (Gummy Bears, M&M’ s, Reece’s Pieces)
      • marbles
      • rocks

    Optional:

    • hot air popcorn poppers
    • large bowls (3)
    • pins
    • popcorn kernels (300)

    • copies of handouts (see All Lesson Attachment tab)

  • Anticipatory Set

    Before Class Begins:

    Display as many of the lesson-related supplies (see Materials or Specialized Equipment Needed) that you have available on a table in front of the room.

    As students enter the classroom, hand each student a Post-It™ Note and ask them to write one food-related question they might have always wondered about.

    For example:

    • Why do bacteria grow on food at certain temperatures?
    • Why do bananas turn brown?
    • Why do oil and vinegar not mix?
    • Why do we have to wash our hands before we eat?
    • Where do germs come from? How do they multiply?

    Ask students to share their questions and then ask them how they think scientists have solved some of them.

    The answer – lab investigation!

    Begin the discussion on the scientific method and how it works.

  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Distribute the graphic organizer and handout What is Science and Note-Taking: The Scientific Method of Lab Investigation (see All Lesson Attachments tab) so that students may take notes during the slide presentation.

    Introduce the PowerPoint™ The Scientific Method of Lab Investigation (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and begin the discussion about how lab investigations will be conducted.

    View YouTube™ video:

    • The Scientific Method: Steps, Terms and Examples
      In order to gain knowledge about the world however the steps involved in the
      scientific method vary widely among the different scientific disciplines
      http://youtu.be/BVfI1wat2y8

    Optional video related to this lesson:

    • Science Style (Gangnam Style Parody/Piggyback)
      Piggyback song to teach the scientific method using “Gangnam Style” by PSY.
      http://youtu.be/MyFi6BQfDik

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • providing assistance with note-taking

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Place the handout Judging Reliability (see All Lesson Attachments tab) on the light projector and explain to the students about reliability.

    Assign a scribe who is familiar with creating charts and graphs on Microsoft™ Word to count the show of hands from students for each number of reliability for each question. Ask your students to describe why they chose the number of reliability for the scenario.

    Ask the scribe to demonstrate how quickly and easily it is to create a chart or graph with data collected.

    Allow students to practice on computers using the same data.

    Note: Students may also hand draw charts and graphs if computers are not available.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • providing peer tutoring
    • checking for understanding

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce the following scenario to the students:

    You are a foodservice employee and your job is to count the number of items for packaging. New colors have been introduced for the season and you need to figure how to incorporate them into the package. What is the best way for you to collect the data you need to show your supervisor?

    Distribute the handout The Scientific Method for Food Science Experiments (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and instruct students to complete each section for the lab activity.

    Remind students of the following:

    1. no eating or drinking in the lab
    2. tie long hair back
    3. wear closed toe shoes
    4. wear a lab coat or apron
    5. wash hands before and after lab

    Distribute Rubric for Lab Investigation Activity (see All Lesson Attachments tab) so that students will understand what is expected.

    Option: Additional lab investigation activity if time permits Popping Corn Lab Investigation Activity (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • assisting student in gathering information
    • providing praise and encouragement

  • Lesson Closure

    Review lesson objectives, terms, and definitions.

    Refer to the Post-It™ Notes in the Anticipatory Set and instruct volunteer students to search for the answers from reliable sources such as:

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Students will be assessed with appropriate rubric.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • grading according to work done
    • providing praise and encouragement

  • References/Resources

    Textbook:

    • Mehas, K. Y., & Rodgers, S. L. (2002). Food science: The biochemistry of food and nutrition. New York, NY: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.
    • Ward, J. D., & Ward, L. T. (2013). Principles of food science. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox Company.

    YouTube™:

    • Science Style (Gangnam Style Parody/Piggyback)
      Piggyback song to teach the scientific method using “Gangnam Style” by PSY.
      http://youtu.be/MyFi6BQfDik
    • The Scientific Method: Steps, Terms and Examples
      In order to gain knowledge about the world however the steps involved in the
      scientific method vary widely among the different scientific disciplines
      http://youtu.be/BVfI1wat2y8
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

    • write word wall on the board
    • students may create notecards for unfamiliar words and terms that they need additional help with
    • allow ESL students extra time to respond
    • encourage new learners of English to act out or draw pictures to get their meaning across
  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    Create a T – chart of things that could be tested by science and things that would not fall under the umbrella of science, for example, opinion – which flower smells the best?

    Infographics:

    Infographics are graphic visual representations of information, data or knowledge intended to present complex information quickly and clearly.

    The infographic below is related to this lesson. Allow students to view the image on a projector and lead a discussion concerning the information provided.

    • CDER’s Science and Research Programs Infographic
      Within a science-based regulatory agency, such as the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) at the FDA, the focus of science and research programs is to obtain knowledge that enhances the efficiency and consistency of the regulatory decision-making process.
      http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ScienceResearch/ucm319942.htm

    TED Talk:

    TED-Ed’s commitment to creating lessons worth sharing is an extension of TED’s mission of spreading great ideas. This allows users to take any useful educational video, not just TED’s, and easily create a customized lesson around the video.

    The video below is related to this lesson. Allow students to view the video and lead a discussion concerning the TED Talk.

    • How simple ideas lead to scientific discoveries – Adam Savage
      Adam Savage walks through two spectacular examples of profound scientific discoveries that came from simple, creative methods anyone could have followed — Eratosthenes’ calculation of the Earth’s circumference around 200 BC and Hippolyte Fizeau’s measurement of the speed of light in 1849.
      http://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-simple-ideas-lead-to-scientific-discoveries
  • Family/Community Connection

    Have students research food experiments and share the results with family and community members. Have them discuss the steps taken that make the data reliable.

  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career, and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)

    http://www.texasfccla.org

    • Food Innovations
      Individuals or teams demonstrate knowledge of the basic concepts of food product development by creating an original prototype formula, testing the product through focus groups and developing a marketing strategy. Participants must prepare a display, suggested product packing and an oral presentation. There will be a junior, senior and occupational category
  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to lesson.
    http://www.ysa.org/

    Possible idea:
    Develop a pamphlet or brochure that describes an aspect of food innovation that could be distributed at farmers market. It should include charts, diagrams and/or graphs of data.

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