The Preschool-Aged Child

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Education and Training

    Course : Human Growth and Development

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (4) The student understands the development of children ages three through five years. The student is expected to:
      • (A) analyze the physical, emotional, social, and cognitive development of preschoolers
      • (C) discuss the influences of the family and society on preschoolers
      • (D) summarize strategies for optimizing the development of preschoolers, including those with special needs
      • (E) determine techniques that promote the health and safety of preschoolers
      • (F) determine developmentally appropriate guidance techniques for preschoolers
    • (11) The student understands the skills necessary for career preparation. The student is expected to:
      • (C) practice human-relation skills
      • (D) demonstrate effective verbal, non-verbal, written, and electronic communication skills
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • observe and analyze the physical, emotional, social, and cognitive development of preschoolers
    • create a Glogter™EDU Poster that describes the influences of family and society on preschoolers; strategies for optimizing the development of preschoolers, including those with special needs; techniques that promote the health and safety of preschoolers; and developmentally appropriate guidance techniques for preschoolers
  • Rationale

    Script:

    In this lesson we will examine the physical, emotional, social, and cognitive development of three to five year old children. You will apply this knowledge and create an online presentation about the implications for teaching preschool-aged children.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Ten 45 minute class periods.

  • Word Wall

    Cooperative play: A type of play in which children play and interact with one another

    Egocentrism: Child’s belief that everyone thinks in the same way and has the same ideas as he or she does

    Imitation: Learning by watching and copying others

    Incidental learning: Unplanned learning

    Manipulate: To work with an object by using the hands

    Moral development: The process of learning to base one’s behavior on beliefs about what is right and wrong

    Passive observing: Watching another’s actions without responding

    Peer: Someone close to one’s own age

    Permanent teeth: Teeth that will not be naturally replaced by another set

    Preschool children: A child from age three to about age five

    Reaction time: Time required to respond to a sight, sound, or other stimuli

    Self-concept: How people see themselves

    Self-confidence: Belief in one’s own abilities

    Separation anxiety: Fear of being away from parent, familiar caregivers, or the normal environment

    Trial and error learning: Learning that takes place when a child tries several solutions

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with projector for multimedia presentation
    • presenter/remote
    • computer lab with Internet access

    • copies of handouts (see All Lesson Attachments tab)

  • Anticipatory Set

    Prior to the lesson:

    Have students bring in pictures of themselves ranging in age between three and five years. Instruct the students not to share their photos with other students. You may choose to make a photo copy of the pictures to eliminate the possibility of original photos being damaged.

    Not all students have or will bring a picture. As a back up plan you may choose to allow these students to bring in childhood photos of their favorite celebrity. These photos may be accessed through the internet. Example: http://celebrity-childhood-photos.com/A-Z

    Before class begins: Create a photo gallery by hanging the photos of the students around the classroom, assigning each photo a number.

    —-

    As class begins, instruct students to take out a sheet of paper and and number from one to the number of students in the class. Allow students to take a gallery walk and guess the student name and age of each individual’s picture. Students are to write down this information next to the corresponding number on their sheet of paper. After students have had an opportunity to guess each classmate’s picture and age, reveal the answers to the class.

    Ask the following questions:

    • Who would like to share a special memory about their photograph?
    • How many of you have worked with children aged three to five years before?
    • Who would like to share an experience about working with children aged three to five years before?
    • Who is interested in working/teaching preschool aged children?
  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce objectives, terms, and definitions.

    Distribute graphic organizer, KWHL Chart – Preschool-Aged Children, (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and have students fill out the first three columns of the chart. Ask students to write down what they already know about the topic in the first column, what they want to learn about the topic in the second column and how they can locate more information about the topic in the third column. The last column will be completed during lesson closure.

    Distribute handout, Notetaking – Preschool-Aged Children, and introduce PowerPoint™, Preschool-Aged Children (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will be expected to take notes while viewing the slide presentation. Allow time for classroom discussion.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • check for understanding
    • providing assistance with note-taking
    • providing extra time for oral response
    • frequent feedback

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce handout Observations of the Preschool-Aged Child (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Inform students that they will each be responsible for completing an observation sheet on a preschool-aged child. This can be assigned as a homework assignment or prior arrangements can be with a local daycare/preschool facility.

    Inform students that they will be practicing how to accurately use an observation sheet. Have students view a video of preschool aged child(ren). As a class, practice recording data on the observation sheet.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • check for understanding
    • providing extra time for oral response
    • frequent feedback
    • providing peer tutoring
    • reducing length of assignment
  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Distribute handout, Glogster™EDU Preschool Project (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Inform students that they will be creating an electronic presentation entitled “Teaching the Preschool-Aged Child”, preferably utilizing http://edu.glogster.com.
    Alternative electronic presentation options include PowerPoint™ and http://prezi.com.

    For the purposes of this lesson, a rubric for a Glogster™ presentation has been included, however you may develop a different rubric, see http://cte.sfasu.edu/classroom-essentials/rubrics/.

    Online video tutorials for Glogster™ may be found at http://edu.glogster.com/?page=videos. Inform students that assignment may be prepared individually or with a partner. Explain that information will be expected to be retrieved only from reliable sources. Provide students with project rubric and thoroughly review all components so that students understand how their projects will be assessed. Provide due date within three class periods.

    Review project rubric so that students are aware of assessment procedures.

    Assist students with research and Glogster™ presentation. Keep students focused and on task.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • check for understanding
    • providing extra time for oral response
    • frequent feedback
    • providing peer tutoring
    • reducing length of assignment
    • assisting student in gathering information
    • providing praise and encouragement

  • Lesson Closure

    Review objectives, terms, and definitions.

    Complete graphic organizer, KWHL Chart – Preschool-Aged Children (see All Lesson Attachments tab) to analyze what they have learned about preschool-aged children.

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Student observations will be assessed based upon completion of observation handout.

    —-

    Student oral presentations will be assessed with appropriate rubric provided during Independent Practice.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • grading according to work done
    • providing praise and encouragement

  • References/Resources

    Textbooks:

    • Brisbane, H. (2010). The developing child. Columbus, OH: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.

    Websites:

  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

    • word wall
    • draw visual representations of terms on word wall
  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Recommended Strategies

    Reading Strategies

    Promote the use of the pre-reading strategy prediction.

    Print, distribute and discuss Preschool basics: How children develop during the preschool years from http://extension.missouri.edu/p/GH6122.

  • Quotes

    Parental expectations may be the greatest obstacle to a child’s development and a prime cause for difficulties. Children are doing their absolute best to learn, to imitate our modeling, and to please us. We can trust them and guide them based on their readiness.
    -Naomi Aldort

    Emotional well-being and social competence provide a strong foundation for emerging cognitive abilities, and together they are the bricks and mortar that comprise the foundation of human development.
    -The Science of Early Childhood Development

    The kind of care a child receives plays a big role in how the brain chooses to wire itself. Parents who talk and read to their babies are helping them develop important language connections.
    -Dr. Diane Bales

    School readiness involves a child’s social/emotional and physical development as well as his cognitive development.
    -Ann Barbour

  • Multimedia/Visual Strategies

    PowerPoint™:

    • Preschool-Aged Children
    • Presentation Notes – Preschool-Aged Children

    Technology:

    • Free iPad Apps:
      • ABC Magic Phonics
        Helps children learn the sounds of the letters of the alphabet which is necessary for reading.
        https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/abc-magic-phonics/id404048724?mt=8
      • 123 Number Magic Line Matching
        Helps to strengthen 1-10 number concept while having fun!
        https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/123-number-magic-line-matching/id468534094?mt=8

    TEDx Talks:

    • Temple Grandin – The World Needs All Kinds of Minds
      As an expert on animal behavior and an autism activist, Temple Grandin made huge progress and life-long changes through research on animal behaviors for anyone who owns and raises animals, as well as, successes in the field of autism and child behavior.

    Websites:

    • HealthyChildren.org
      Preschool growth and development
      http://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/preschool/Pages/default.aspx
    • Mayo Clinic Infant and toddler health
      Child development chart: Preschool milestones
      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/child-development/MY00136
    • Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service
      Family and consumer science
      http://fcs.tamu.edu/
    • University of Illinois Extension
      A guide to the business of babysitting
      http://urbanext.illinois.edu/babysitting/age-preschool.html
    • WebMD
      Children’s health
      http://children.webmd.com/tc/growth-and-development-ages-2-to-5-years-topic-overview

    Files for downloading:

  • Graphic Organizers/Handout

    Graphic Organizer:

    • KWHL Chart – Preschool-Aged Children

    Handouts:

    • Notetaking – Preschool-Aged Children
    • Observations of the Preschool-Aged Child
    • Glogster™ EDU Preschool Project

    Files for downloading:

  • Writing Strategies

    Journal entries:

    • Describe the physical development of children aged 3 – 5 years.
    • Describe the social development of children aged 3 – 5 years.
    • Describe the emotional development of children aged 3 – 5 years.
    • Describe the cognitive development of children aged 3 – 5 years.

    Writing strategy:

    • RAFT (Role, Audience, Format and Topic) writing strategy:
      Role: Caregiver
      Audience: Other caregivers
      Format: Informative
      Topic: Parallel play
  • Communication 90 Second Speech Topics

    • Pretend you are a preschool-aged child participating in solitary play. Tell the audience what you are doing (example: playing with blocks alone.)
    • Describe the benefits of parallel play for the preschool-aged child.
  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    Students can create flyers and other advertisements to promote the children’s book drive described in the Service Learning Project component. After books are collected and donated to a local early childhood or headstart program, students could volunteer to read books to the children enrolled in the program.

    Human Growth and Development Math Assessment Question # 6.

    (4) The student understands the development of children ages three through five years. The student is expected to:
    (A) analyze the physical, emotional, social, and cognitive development of preschoolers.
    Question 6. In order to assess her preschool teacher’s performance, the principal at Hope Elementary gathers data on how many children in each class know the alphabet. If 80% of the class is considered acceptable, how many of Miss Kirby’s 18 children need to know the alphabet?
    a. 13
    b. 15
    c. 18
    d. 21

    TEDx Talk:

    TED is a nonprofit organization devoted to spreading ideas, usually in the form of short, powerful talks (18 minutes or less). The video below is related to this lesson. Allow students to view the video and lead a discussion concerning the TED Talk.

    • Temple Grandin – The World Needs All Kinds of Minds
      As an expert on animal behavior and an autism activist, Temple Grandin made huge progress and life-long changes through research on animal behaviors for anyone who owns and raises animals, as well as, successes in the field of autism and child behavior.
      http://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-world-needs-all-kinds-of-minds-temple-grandin
  • Family/Community Connection

    Ask students to ask their parents about their specific developmental milestones and share their stories with the class as they relate to the lesson.

  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)

    http://texasfccla.org

    STAR Events:

    • Focus on Children – An individual or team event – recognizes participants who use Family and Consumer Sciences skills to plan and conduct a child development project that has a positive impact on children and the community.

    Texas Association of Future Educators (TAFE)

    http://tafeonline.org

    • Children’s Literature Competition – The book may be written and illustrated by one individual (the author/illustrator) or two individuals (an author and an illustrator) Assistance with illustrations using graphic design, computer animation or other artist assistance is permissible for the artwork of the book. The participant will prepare the original short story book format designed for a specific age audience (ages 3-5; ages 6-8; ages 9-11).
  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to lesson. For additional information on service learning see http://www.servicelearning.org

    Possible idea:
    Host a children’s book drive to donate to a local early childhood or headstart program.

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