Instructional Methods

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Education and Training

    Course : Practicum in Education and Training

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (4) The student plans and uses effective instruction. The student is expected to:
      • (D) analyze concepts for developing effective instructional strategies
      • (E) analyze instructional strategies for effectiveness
      • (F) explain how learner feedback has been used to guide selection and adjustment of instructional strategies
    • (6) The student assesses instruction and learning. The student is expected to:
      • (A) develop and apply assessments to foster student learning
      • (B) use assessment strategies to promote personal growth and teaching or training improvement
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • explain the role of all teachers in the development of critical thinking skills
    • develop questions appropriate for instruction based on Bloom’s Taxonomy
    • identify the characteristics and uses of specific types of instructional strategies
    • analyze a lesson, identifying the teaching strategies and use of questioning, examples, and closure
    • explain teachers’ primary considerations when deciding which teaching strategies to use
  • Rationale

    Script:

    In this lesson you will learn the importance of the various roles teachers have in the development of critical thinking skills in students. You will also learn the characteristics and uses of specific types of instructional strategies and the primary considerations for deciding how and when to use these strategies.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Five 45 minute classes periods

  • Word Wall

    Bloom’s Taxonomy: An analysis developed by Benjamin Bloom that is used as a basis for understanding and teaching various levels of thought by dividing thinking skills into six levels

    Case Studies: A teaching strategy in which students analyze a particular problem or story that requires a solution

    Closure: A summarizing process that helps students draw conclusions based on what they have learned

    Cooperative Learning: A form of small-group learning that involves students working together to achieve a common goal

    Experimental Lab: A lab experience that uses formal processes to research problems

    Individual Accountability: Holding each person in a group responsible for participating and contributing

    Instructional Methods: Basic teaching formats, such as lectures and discussions, used to develop specific learning activities

    Instructional Strategies: Basic teaching formats, such as lectures and discussions, used to develop specific learning activities

    Learner Centered Methods: Teaching strategies in which the teacher acts as a facilitator, or guide, but students are actively involved in directing and achieving their own learning

    Moderator: In a panel discussion, the person responsible for the introduction, summary, and relaying questions to the panel.

    Open-Ended Questions: Questions designed to require more than a few words as an answer

    Pacing: The rate at which a teacher presents components of a lesson or the lessons throughout the day

    Panel discussions: A discussion format in which a group of people present and discuss a topic and answer questions

    Reflective Responses: A teaching strategy that asks students to think deeply about a situation and describe that thinking process

    Simulations: Learning activities that puts students in a situation that feels real even though the situation is not

    Teacher Centered Methods: Teaching strategies in which the teacher’s role is to present the information and to direct the learning process of students

    Teaching Strategies: Basic teaching formats, such as lectures and discussions, used to develop specific learning activities

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with projector for multimedia presentation
    • presenter/remote
    • computer lab with Internet access

    Materials:

    • paper
    • pen

    • copies of all handouts (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
  • Anticipatory Set

    Prior to the lesson:

    Gather a variety of different types of graphic organizers for students to view.

    Before class begins, arrange the desks in groups and place the graphic organizers in the center of each group. Allow students to view the graphic organizers when they are seated.

    __

    As class begins, have students brainstorm a list of introductory topics that might be taught in any class. Have students work in small groups to create a list of possible introductory lessons that could be taught for the topics using the graphic organizers.

    Ask students the following questions:

    • Why it is important for teachers to know what the students’ level of prior knowledge is before designing lessons?

    Distribute graphic organizer, KWHL Chart – Instructional Methods (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will fill out the first two columns of the chart. Ask students to write down what they already know about instructional methods and what the want to know about instructional methods. The last column will be completed during Lesson Closure.

  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Review lesson objectives, terms, and definitions.

    Introduce PowerPoint™ Instructional Methods (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will be expected to take notes while viewing the slide presentation. More information about instructional methods can be found in the Instructional Practices in Education and Training lesson plan, Assessing Student Work.

    Distribute handout, T-Chart (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will write down the advantages and disadvantages of varying student instruction.

    Individual Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • check for understanding
    • providing assistance with note-taking
    • providing extra time for oral response
    • frequent feedback

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Distribute handout, Teaching Strategies Activity (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

    Have students work in small groups to write a description of each teaching strategy and examples of each. Have students share their answers with the class.

    • Provide students with Student Course Evaluation (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Discuss the importance of student feedback to adjust and improve effectiveness of teaching strategies, lessons and course. Divide students into groups and have them develop various Student Evaluation Forms.
      As a class review and assess the possible effectiveness of each form. Share forms with faculty on your campus.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • providing extra time for oral response
    • frequent feedback
    • providing peer tutoring
    • reducing length of assignment

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Download and print the TAFE Lesson Plan Competition form at: http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.tafeonline.org/resource/resmgr/COMPETITIONS/TAFE_LESSON_PLAN_COMPETITION.pdf

    Inform students they will be completing the project independently. This project allows students to have hands-on experience creating, delivering and analyzing a lesson plan. Afterwards, students can compete in the TAFE Lesson Plan Competition.

    Review assignment rubric so that students are aware of assessment procedures.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • check for understanding
    • providing extra time for oral response
    • frequent feedback
    • providing peer tutoring
    • reducing length of assignment
    • assisting student in gathering information
    • providing praise and encouragement

  • Lesson Closure

    Review lesson objectives, terms, and definitions.

    Complete graphic organizer, KWHL Chart – Instructional Methods (see All Lesson Attachments tab) to analyze what they have learned about student instruction.

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Student presentations will be assessed with appropriate rubric provided during Guided Practice.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • grading according to work done
    • providing praise and encouragement

  • References/Resources

    Textbooks:

    • Cooper, J.M, Ryan, K. (2000). Those Who Can, Teach Ninth Edition. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
    • Henke-Konopasek, N. (2010). Student Workbook Teaching. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox Company.
    • Kato, S.L. (2010). Teaching. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox Company.
    • Wong, H., Wong, R. (1998). The First Days Of School. Mountainview, CA: Harry K. Wong Publications, Inc.
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Recommended Strategies

    Reading Strategies

    Promote the use of the pre-reading strategy prediction.

    Print, distribute and discuss A Teacher’s Guide to Differentiating Instruction from http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_Teacher_s_Guide/.

    Print, distribute and discuss
    Differentiating Instruction: Meeting Students Where They Are from http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/subject/di_meeting.phtml.

  • Quotes

    The best teacher is the one who suggests rather than dogmatizes, and inspires his listener with the wish to teach himself.
    -Edward Bulwer-Lytton

    The authority of those who teach is often an obstacle to those who want to learn.
    -Cicero

    Time is a great teacher, but unfortunately it kills all its pupils.
    -Louis Hector Berlioz

  • Multimedia/Visual Strategies

    PowerPoint™:

    • Instructional Methods

    Technology:

    Files for downloading:

  • Graphic Organizers/Handout

    Graphic Organizer:

    • KWHL Chart – Instructional Methods
    • T-Chart

    Handouts:

    • Student Course Evaluation
    • Student Course Reflection
    • Teaching Strategies Activity
    • Teaching Strategies Activity (Key)
    • 90 Second Speech

    Files for downloading:

  • Writing Strategies

    Journal entries:

    • Explain in your own words why closure is so important to learning. Include an example of what you would use.
    • Some students purposely ask off-track questions to disrupt the flow of lessons. In your experience, how do teachers handle these most effectively?

    Writing Strategies:

    • RAFT Writing Strategy
      • Role: Department chair
      • Audience: Teachers within the department
      • Format: Informative
      • Topic: Varying instruction
  • Communication 90 Second Speech Topics

    • Ways teachers can make lectures more effective for all learners.
    • Why is individual accountability important in cooperative groups?
  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    • Provide students with Student Course Evaluation (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Discus the importance of student feedback to adjust and improve effectiveness of teaching strategies, lessons and course. Divide students into groups and have them develop various Student Evaluation Forms. Have students share forms with the faculty on your campus.
    • Have students develop a board game appropriate for a group of young children. Then analyze the skills the children use while playing the game.
  • Family/Community Connection

    Have students research questioning models that are currently being suggested for use by teachers. Have the students note the similarities and differences between the models. Have students create a list of the resources for other teachers to be able to use while creating lesson plans.

  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career, Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)

    http://www.texasfccla.org

    STAR Events:

    • Teach and Train – An individual event that recognizes participants for their exploration of the education and training fields through research and hand-on experience.
    • Interpersonal Communication – An individual or team event that recognizes participants who use Family and Consumer Sciences and/or related occupations skills and apply communication techniques to develop a project designed to strengthen communication.
    • Job Interviewing – An individual event that recognizes participants who use Family and Consumer Sciences and/or related occupations skills to develop a portfolio, participate in an interview, and communicate a personal understanding of job requirements.

    SkillsUSA

    http://skillsusa.org

    Skills USA Events:

    • Early Childhood Education – an individual event that recognizes participants who demonstrate their knowledge of developmentally appropriate practice and their ability to prepare and implement learning activities for children 3 to 5 years old. Students will prepare a written lesson plan and take a written test assessing their knowledge of child development and effective teaching strategies.

    Texas Association of Future Educators (TAFE)

    http://tafeonline.org

    • Lesson Planning and Delivery Competition – This competition is an individual event where future educators will plan, prepare and deliver a lesson of their choosing to an actual classroom of students. Self-reflection following the lesson is an essential component of this competition as future educators begin the practice of honing their own teaching skills. Participants will prepare a lesson plan and a 10 minute video teaching the lesson to a class. The lesson can focus either on CTE, Humanities or STEM.
  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to lesson. For additional information on service learning see http://www.servicelearningtexas.org

    Possible idea:

    Have students create a brochure on the relationship of child growth and development and the development of higher-order thinking skills for parents at a local preschool or day care center.

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