Child Abuse: The Hidden Epidemic (Revised)

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Human Services

    Course : Child Development

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (1) The student analyzes roles and responsibilities of parenting. The student is expected to:
      • (C) examine skills relating to the prevention of family violence
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • analyze reasons for the high rate of child abuse
    • distinguish between the various types of abuse and neglect
    • determine warning signs for each type of abuse and neglect
    • become aware of the risk factors for child abuse and neglect
    • analyze ways of breaking the cycle of abuse
  • Rationale

    Script:

    Have you ever known someone who has been a victim of child abuse and neglect? Child abuse and neglect are serious problems in our country. There are presently no signs of the problem getting any better. Over three million reports of child abuse are made every year in the United States, involving an estimated six million children. What is child abuse, and how can it be prevented? The first step to preventing child abuse is to know the makeup of healthy family relationships. Once the criterion is established for a healthy relationship, it is then easier to determine what makes a relationship unhealthy.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Three 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Abandonment: Now defined in many states as a form of neglect. A child is considered to be abandoned when the parent’s identity or whereabouts are unknown, the child has been left alone in circumstances where the child suffers serious harm, or the parent has failed to maintain contact with the child or provide reasonable support for a specified period of time

    Child abuse: Any physical or mental threat or injury to a child under the age of 18

    Emotional abuse: A pattern of behavior that impairs a child’s emotional development or sense of self-worth; also called psychological abuse

    Maltreatment: To treat in a rough or cruel way; abuse

    Neglect: The failure of a parent, guardian or other caregiver to provide for a child’s basic needs

    Physical abuse: Non-accidental physical injury (ranging from minor bruises to severe fractures or death) as a result of punching, beating, kicking, biting, shaking, throwing, stabbing, choking, hitting (with a hand, stick, strap or other object), burning or otherwise harming a child, that is inflicted by a parent, caregiver or other person who has responsibility for the child

    Sexual abuse: Includes activities by a parent or caregiver such as fondling a child’s genitals, penetration, incest, rape, sodomy, indecent exposure and exploitation through prostitution or the production of pornographic materials

    Substance abuse: An element of the definition of child abuse or neglect in many states; circumstances that are considered abuse or neglect in some states include prenatal exposure of a child to harm due to the mother’s use of an illegal drug or other substance

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with projector for PowerPoint™ presentation
    • computers with Internet access (be sure to follow district guidelines for Internet access)
    • presenter/remote

    Materials:

    Supplies:

    • cardstock
    • copy of song or lyrics of “Concrete Angel” by Martina McBride
    • glue or glue sticks
    • magazines (to cut out pictures)
    • scissors

    • copies of handouts (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
  • Anticipatory Set

    Prior to class:

    Teacher note: For additional information on child abuse, refer to these courses/lessons:

    Child Guidance
    Strategies to Deter Child Abuse
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/strategies-to-deter-child-abuse

    Child Abuse Prevention
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/child-abuse-prevention

    Rights, Responsibilities and Realities of Parenting
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/rights-responsibilities-and-realities-of-parenting

    Parenting Skills and Relationships
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/parenting-skills-and-relationships

    Print the Child Abuse Statistics cards (see All Lesson Attachments tab) on cardstock. Cut them apart, and place the cards in a basket. Please check sites for updates on statistics or for additional information at:

    Become familiar with the following articles:

    How to Make a Flyer in Microsoft® Word
    Flyers are useful, low-cost advertising tools, and you can use Microsoft® Word to create flyers to your liking.
    http://www.ehow.com/how_4903668_flyer-microsoft-word.html

    Display as many of the lesson-related supplies (see Materials or Specialized Equipment Needed) as you have available on a table in front of the room.

    Become familiar with PowerPoint™, handouts and activities.

    Before class begins:

    Locate and set up the music video “Concrete Angel” by Martina McBride.
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KtNYA4pAGjI

    There is an advertisement at the beginning of the video. Play through the advertisement prior to beginning instruction.

    As the students walk into the classroom, have them draw one card from the basket, and instruct them to read it to themselves and be prepared to read it aloud. After all the students have received a card, you may elect to place the students in a circle or have them remain at their desks. Each student will take turns reading his or her Child Abuse Statistics card.

    • After listening to the statistics on child abuse, what are your views on child abuse? Have your views changed?
    • How can abused and neglected children be protected?
    • How does child protective services handle children who are in dangerous situations?
    • What signs might indicate that a child has been physically abused?
    • What are two examples of physical abuse? Emotional abuse? Sexual abuse?
    • To whom should a teacher or caregiver report a suspected case of child abuse?
    • How many children die each year from child abuse or neglect?
    • What groups of children are most vulnerable?
    • How do these deaths occur?
    • Who are the perpetrators?
    • How do communities respond to child fatalities?
    • How can these fatalities be prevented?

    Note to teacher:

    Abuse may be a sensitive topic for some students in your class. Students may be experiencing family problems related to this subject area. They may have a friend or family member who has been affected by abuse. It is important to demonstrate sensitivity to students while teaching this lesson. Child abuse education can break the cycle of abuse. As an educator or caregiver, you must report any suspected or admission of abuse to the authorities.

    Have the video playing as students enter the classroom.

  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Note to teacher: Prior to beginning this lesson, please review, preview and select the appropriate multimedia for your classes.

    Introduce lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Distribute the Child Abuse: The Hidden Epidemic Note-taking (see All Lessons Attachment tab) handout. Students will be expected to take notes while viewing the slide presentation. Teacher will determine the notes to be recorded by students.

    Introduce the PowerPoint™ Child Abuse: The Hidden Epidemic (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Allow for questions and discussion throughout the presentation.

    Use appropriate notes from Presentation Notes for Child Abuse: The Hidden Epidemic (see All Lesson Attachments tab) for discussion.

    After the slide presentation, have students use Child Abuse: The Hidden Epidemic Note-taking and complete the following information on the handout:

    • Discuss the topic
    • Write down your thoughts
    • Make a real-world connection to the lesson
    • How is this going to help you in the future?

    Videos included in the PowerPoint™ presentation:

    • Alyssa Lies
      Uploaded on January 19, 2010
      Jason Michael Carroll’s ‘Alyssa Lies’ video has become an Internet sensation. It has become an excellent communication tool for abused children to share who they can get help from their situations.
      http://youtu.be/nLh5vbBLpxI
    • Recognizing Child Abuse: Neglect and Emotional Abuse
      This program focuses specifically on the neglect and emotional abuse of children. Provides an overview of this subject and discusses specifically the topics of neglectful caretakers, physical neglect, emotional neglect and emotional abuse.
      http://youtu.be/cLfZXbShgzk?list=PL3mbEMX1-YedQ8Hi61YXVb5uLCkN0gSku

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • allowing instructor or peer assistance with note-taking
    • providing the student with a copy of the slide presentation

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Provide each student with a copy of Myths and Facts About Child Abuse and Neglect (see All Lesson Attachments tab). This activity can be done individually or with a partner.

    Allow ten minutes for students to complete the handout. Discuss answers as a class.

    Teacher Resource Myths and Facts About Child Abuse and Neglect is provided for your use (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Additional child abuse information can be found at: http://www.childhelp.org/pages/statistics

    Allow students to brainstorm and determine ten alternatives to lashing out at a child. Develop a list, and post it in the classroom.

    Ideas may include:

    • Take a deep breath.
    • Close your eyes and imagine you’re hearing what your child is about to hear.
    • Press your lips together and count to ten. Or better yet, count to twenty.
    • Put your child in a time-out chair. (Remember the rule: one time-out minute for each year of age.)
    • If someone can watch the children, go outside and take a walk.
    • Phone a friend.
    • Put yourself in a time-out chair. Think about why you are angry: is it your child, or is your child simply a convenient target for your anger?
    • Take a hot bath, or splash cold water on your face.
    • Hug a pillow.
    • Turn on some music. Maybe even sing along.
    • Pick up a pencil and write down as many helpful words as you can think of.

    Distribute the Break the Cycle (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout and have students complete it with the appropriate information.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • allowing extra time for assignments
    • continuously checking for understanding

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Scenario: You have been hired as an assistant at the Community Outreach Center. You have been assigned to design a flyer for the families who visit the center.

    Divide the class into groups of two. Distribute the Child Abuse Awareness Flyer (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout. Students will design and create a flyer depicting child abuse and neglect awareness.

    Flyers should include:

    • Child abuse prevention resources
    • Factors that influence child abuse within the family
    • National child abuse statistics
    • Recognizing the signs of child abuse
    • Roles and responsibilities of family members
    • Types of child abuse

    Graphics and any other information needed to complete the flyer

    Distribute Rubric for Child Abuse and Neglect Awareness Flyer (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and review it with students so they may understand what is expected.

    Students will use Microsoft® Word Flyer templates to design and create their flyers.

    To learn how to make a flyer using Microsoft® Word, click on link below:

    How to Make a Flyer in Microsoft® Word
    Flyers are useful, low-cost advertising tools, and you can use Microsoft® Word to create flyers to your liking.
    http://www.ehow.com/how_4903668_flyer-microsoft-word.html

    Encourage students to be creative and follow copyright rules for images.

    In preparation for National Child Abuse Prevention month (April), students will develop an informational child abuse and neglect awareness flyer. The flyers will be placed in the counselors’ offices and distributed in April to all faculty, staff and students.

    These resources may be used as references for the Child Abuse Awareness flyer:

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • shortened instructions
    • providing extra time for assignments

  • Lesson Closure

    Review lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Conduct a classroom question and answer session, making sure to cover each of the following objectives:

    • Analyze reasons for the high rate of child abuse
    • Describe the types of abuse and neglect
    • Determine warning signs for each type of abuse and neglect
    • Become aware of the risk factors for child abuse and neglect
    • Analyze ways of breaking the cycle of abuse
  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Students will present their child abuse flyers.

    Students will be assessed with the appropriate rubric.

    The students will write a one-page summary analyzing the importance of understanding ways of breaking the cycle of abuse. Students will reflect on how the lesson, activities and information will assist them in the future. The reflection and various handouts will be submitted for assessment.

    Products meeting the established criteria will be placed in the counselors’ offices and distributed during National Child Abuse Prevention Month.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • providing extra time for assignment
    • working with peer tutor
    • participating in small groups

  • References/Resources

    Images:

    • Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft™.
    • Photos obtained through a license with Shutterstock.com™.

    Textbooks:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child development: Early stages through age 12. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company.

    Websites:

    • Child Abuse Awareness
      Founded in 1959 by Sara O’Meara and Yvonne Fedderson, Childhelp® is a leading national non-profit organization dedicated to helping victims of child abuse and neglect. Childhelp’s approach focuses on prevention, intervention and treatment.
      http://www.childhelp.org
    • Prevent Child Abuse America
      Since 1972, Prevent Child Abuse America (PCA America) has led the way in building awareness, providing education and inspiring hope to everyone involved in the effort to prevent the abuse and neglect of our nation’s children.
      http://www.preventchildabuse.org/index.shtml

    YouTube™:

    • Alyssa Lies
      Uploaded on January 19, 2010
      Jason Michael Carroll’s ‘Alyssa Lies’ video has become an Internet sensation. It has become an excellent communication tool for abused children to share who they can get help from their situations.
      http://youtu.be/nLh5vbBLpxI
    • Recognizing Child Abuse: Neglect and Emotional Abuse
      This program focuses specifically on the neglect and emotional abuse of children. It provides an overview of this subject and discusses specifically the topics of neglectful caretakers, physical neglect, emotional neglect and emotional abuse.
      http://youtu.be/cLfZXbShgzk?list=PL3mbEMX1-YedQ8Hi61YXVb5uLCkN0gSku
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

    • Word wall
    • Develop a graphic organizer for each type of child abuse after viewing the PowerPoint™ presentation. Include the definition and warning signs for each type of abuse.
    • Allow for extra processing time.
  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism, and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Recommended Strategies

    Reading Strategies

    Current Events:
    Assign students to read about child abuse and neglect awareness and prevention. Information can be found in newspaper articles, magazines, journals and online print.
    Suggestions:

    • Maltreatment: Facts at a Glance (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
    • Before reading the Childhelp stories below, have students fill in the blanks in the Knowledge Chart (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will briefly list the facts they already know about the topic and write them down in short phrases. After reading the stories below, have them complete the second column with the new facts they learned from their reading.

    Stories:

    Childhelp Stories and Resources
    https://www.childhelp.org/story-resource-center/?c=personal-stories

    • Encourage students to connect reading to their life experiences or prior knowledge.
  • Quotes

    Child abuse casts a shadow the length of a lifetime.
    -Herbert Ward

    Each day of our life we make deposits in the memory banks of our children.
    -Charles R. Swindoll

    A torn jacket is soon mended, but hard words bruise the heart of a child.
    -Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

    Children will not remember you for the material things you provided but for the feeling you cherished them.
    -Richard L. Evans

  • Multimedia/Visual Strategies

    PowerPoint™:

    • Child Abuse: The Hidden Epidemic
    • Presentation Notes for Child Abuse: The Hidden Epidemic

    Technology:

    • Free iPad App:
    • Infographic:
      • Child Abuse in the USA
        Three million reports of child abuse are made annually. It’s a bigger problem than you might think. Check out the infographic presented by SocialWorkDegreeCenter.com to learn more.
        http://infographicjournal.com/child-abuse-in-the-usa
    • TedxTalk:
      • TEDxNewy 2011 – Liz Mullinar – Treating the core problem of childhood trauma.
        Liz Mullinar is the Founder of Heal for Life Foundation. In 2000 she was awarded the inaugural Australian Humanitarian of the Year Award. In 2009 she was honored with an Achievement Award on Australia Day, as well as being named as NSW Volunteer of the Year. She was a finalist for Australian of the Year in 2010. She has written two books to encourage survivors of childhood trauma to begin healing.
        http://youtu.be/svX3fEdVTLQ

    YouTube:

    • Alyssa Lies
      Uploaded on January 19, 2010
      Jason Michael Carroll’s ‘Alyssa Lies’ video has become an Internet sensation. It has become an excellent communication tool for abused children to share who they can get help from their situations.
      http://youtu.be/nLh5vbBLpxI
    • Recognizing Child Abuse: Neglect and Emotional Abuse
      This program focuses specifically on the neglect and emotional abuse of children. Provides an overview of this subject and discusses specifically the topics of neglectful caretakers, physical neglect, emotional neglect and emotional abuse.
      http://youtu.be/cLfZXbShgzk?list=PL3mbEMX1-YedQ8Hi61YXVb5uLCkN0gSku

    • Files for downloading
  • Graphic Organizers/Handout

    Graphic Organizer:

    • Break the Abuse Cycle
    • Knowledge Chart
    • Child Abuse: The Hidden Epidemic Note-taking

    Handouts:

    • Child Abuse and Neglect Awareness Flyer
    • Child Abuse Statistics
    • Child Maltreatment Data Sheet
    • Hotlines and Online Resources
    • Myths and Facts About Child Abuse and Neglect
    • Rubric for Child Abuse and Neglect Awareness Flyer
    • Teacher Resource Myths and Facts About Child Abuse and Neglect

    • Files for downloading
  • Writing Strategies

    Journal Entries:

    • The number of child abuse cases in the year 2030 will _________________.
    • If I saw a child physically abused, I would ______________________.
    • What is your response to the “Alyssa Lies” song/video?

    Writing Strategies:

    RAFT (Role/Audience/Format/Topic) writing strategy:
    Role: Child care director
    Audience: Parents
    Format: Memo
    Topic: The importance of effective child guidance

  • Communication 90 Second Speech Topics

    • How is abuse a cycle that continues from generation to generation?
    • I would say __________ to a friend/child who had been a victim of abuse.
    • Communities can respond to child fatalities by ____________________.
  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    Develop a video educating others on the types and warning signs of abuse. Include positive ways to break the cycle of abuse.

    TED Talks:

    TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks videos and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event.

    The video below is related to this lesson. Allow students to view the video, and lead a discussion concerning the TED Talk.

    TEDxNewy 2011 – Liz Mullinar – Treating the core problem of childhood trauma.
    Liz Mullinar is the Founder of Heal for Life Foundation. In 2000 she was awarded the inaugural Australian Humanitarian of the Year Award. In 2009 she was honored with an Achievement Award on Australia Day, as well as being named as NSW Volunteer of the Year. She was a finalist for Australian of the Year in 2010. She has written two books to encourage survivors of childhood trauma to begin healing.
    http://youtu.be/svX3fEdVTLQ

  • Family/Community Connection

    • During National Child Abuse Prevention month, students can provide a child abuse awareness presentation at the monthly PTSA meeting.
    • Guest speakers may include a child daycare owner to speak on guidelines for reporting abuse, a local family or school counselor to speak about abuse and counseling services available for abuse victims, and/or a local law enforcement officer to speak about abuse from a law enforcement perspective.
  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career, Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)

    http://www.texasfccla.org

    FCCLA Family First Project – http://www.fcclainc.org/content/families-first/

    The FCCLA Families First project is a national peer education program through which youth gain a better understanding of how families work and learn skills to become strong family members. Its goals are to help youth become strong family members and leaders for today and tomorrow and strengthen the family as the basic unit of society. To help members focus their projects, Families First offers five units. Members may complete projects in one or several units. There is no particular order to them; although, “Families Today” might be a good place to start. It covers topics that provide a general overview of families and related issues:
    Families Today: Understand and celebrate families
    You-Me-Us: Strengthen family relationships
    Meet the Challenge: Overcome obstacles together
    Balancing Family and Career: Manage multiple responsibilities
    Parent Practice: Learn to nurture children

  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to the lesson.
    http://www.nylc.org

    The classroom project can be expanded to create community awareness of child abuse and neglect. Create teams and assign duties to complete the selected project. Example: Students develop, print and distribute flyers to local child daycare centers to raise child abuse awareness. Steps may include researching daycares in the area; contacting managers/owners of the facilities and making arrangements to distribute the flyers.

    Students will reflect on how the experience, knowledge, and skills they acquired related to their project, their own lives and their community.