The Education of Students with Special Needs

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Education and Training

    Course : Human Growth and Development

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (3) The student understands the development of children ages newborn through two years. The student is expected to:
      • (D) summarize strategies for optimizing the development of infants and toddlers, including those with special needs
    • (4) The student understands the development of children ages three through five years. The student is expected to:
      • (D) summarize strategies for optimizing the development of preschoolers, including those with special needs
    • (5) The student understands the development of children ages six through ten years. The student is expected to:
      • (D) summarize strategies for optimizing the development of children in the early to middle childhood stage of development, including those with special needs
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • identify characteristics indicative of special needs or disabilities in children
    • determine appropriate techniques for guiding children, including those with special needs
    • develop appropriate strategies and adaptations of curriculum for special needs children
  • Rationale

    In education, the reference to students with “special needs” is used to describe individuals with a disadvantaged background or a mental, emotional or physical disability, or a high risk of developing one. Students with conditions such as developmental disabilities, physical disabilities, emotional problems (behavior problems) and even giftedness are children with special needs. What are the roles and responsibilities of educators working with these individuals? As an educator, it is important to understand the spectrum of special needs and how best to assist all students in your classroom.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Four 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Accommodations: Practices and procedures that allow students with disabilities to learn, have access to and be tested on the same curriculum as students without disabilities

    Autism (AU): As defined by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, autism is a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, which adversely affects a child’s educational performance

    Communication disorder: A disorder which renders a child unable to speak or understand spoken language

    Disability: Any condition that prevents, delays or interferes with a child’s normal achievement and development

    Gifted/talented: Gifted/talented children show a potential for high achievement; their talents may be in intellectual, creative, academic or leadership areas

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): The federal law that grants children with disabilities the right to receive “a free appropriate public education”

    Inclusion: The action or state of including or of being included within a group or structure

    Intellectual disability: The term now used in federal law to describe what was previously referred to as mental retardation

    Learning disability: A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical calculations

    Modifications: A change in what the student is expected to learn that is different from the general education curriculum

    Special education: Specially designed instruction, at no cost to parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability, including instruction conducted in the classroom, in the home, in hospitals and institutions and in other settings, as well as instruction in physical education

    Special needs: The individual requirements (as for education) of a person with a disadvantaged background or a mental, emotional or physical disability or a high risk of developing one

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with projector for PowerPoint™ presentation
    • computers with Internet access (be sure to follow district guidelines)

    Note: If individual equipment is not available, teacher can utilize a projected copy as long as students can see the screen.

    Materials:

    • technological aids for individuals with disabilities (see Special Education department)

    Supplies:

    • basket or container
    • cardstock
    • glue
    • magazines to cut pictures from
    • poster boards
    • scissors

    Other appropriate lessons

    A Caregiver’s Responsibilities
    Child Guidance
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-caregivers-responsibilities

    Four Areas of Development: Infancy to Toddler
    Child Development
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/fours-areas-of-development-infancy-to-toddler

    Four Areas of Development: Preschool to School-Age
    Child Development
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/fours-areas-of-development-preschool-to-school-age

    Researching Learning Disabilities
    Human Growth and Development
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/researching-learning-disabilities

    • copies of handouts (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
  • Anticipatory Set

    Prior to class:

    Become familiar with PowerPoint™, handouts and activities.

    Display technological aids for individuals with disabilities (see Special Education department) as you have available on a table in front of the room.

    Before class begins:

    Script: About one of every eight Texas public school students need special education services. A wide array of services and support are available for these students and families.

    Distribute the Think-Ink-Share Activity (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout. The Think-Ink-Pair-Share activity is an excellent prior knowledge activity that helps students to focus their thoughts on a specific topic. Students are given a question or topic and are asked to first think about what they know, then record their ideas and pair up with someone to share what they wrote. The final stage is a large group discussion. The topic for the handout is “What are the roles and responsibilities of educators working with children, including those with special needs?”

    Allow the students adequate time to complete the handout and share their comments with each other and the class.

    Possible questions for discussion:

    • How can educators design a diverse classroom?
    • What are the roles and responsibilities of educators working with all children?

    Distribute the Anticipation Guide – The Education of Students with Special Needs (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout prior to viewing the PowerPoint™. Prior to the start of this lesson, the students will read each statement and place a check mark by each statement they THINK is true. After they have answered each statement, students are to put the handout away for later use during Lesson Closure.

    Note to teacher:

    Special needs may be a sensitive topic for some students in your class. Students may be personally experiencing the special needs related to this subject area. They may have a friend or family member who has a special need. It is important to demonstrate sensitivity to students while teaching this lesson.

  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce lesson, objectives, terms and definitions.

    Distribute the graphic organizer Note-taking: The Education of Students with Special Needs (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will be expected to take notes and participate in discussions while viewing the slide presentation.

    Introduce the PowerPoint™ The Education of Students with Special Needs (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Allow time for questions and class discussion.

    Use appropriate notes from Presentation Notes for The Education of Students with Special Needs (see All Lesson Attachments tab) for discussion.

    Discuss the importance of using positive language versus negative language when talking with special needs children. Allow for discussion and questions.

    Using the Note-taking: The Education of Students with Special Needs (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout, students will have an opportunity to reflect upon, review and respond to the information pertaining to the PowerPoint™. They will write a summary of topics or statements which reflect the information from the lesson:

    • Discuss the topic
    • Write down your thoughts
    • Make a real-world connection to the lesson
    • How is this going to help you in the future?

    Allow for questions and answers to check for understanding.

    Videos included in the PowerPoint™ presentation:

    • A day in the life of a Special Education teacher
      This is a profile of the SCB, or school community based special education program at James Hubert Blake high school in Montgomery County, Maryland. A team of teachers, administrators and specialists come together each day to support and teach these students.
      http://youtu.be/qh1meBo_m1w

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • providing students with a copy of the notes or a fill-in-the-blank note sheet to follow along with instruction
    • pairing up students with partners who can assist them with verbal and written responses to the lesson

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Scenario: You have recently been hired as an assistant at the Center for Infants and Youth. It is important to create appropriate instruction for children that addresses their developmental needs so they can fulfill their highest potential. You will be working with an array of individuals at different ages, some with special needs.

    Distribute the Developing Appropriate Instruction for Individuals (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout. Instruct students to select an age, developmental need, type of disability for a child and complete the chart with the appropriate information. Be prepared to share your findings with the class.

    Check for understanding.

    Completion of activity can be assessed as a daily grade.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • working with a peer tutor
    • participating in a small group/classroom

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Prior to activity:

    Print the assignment cards from the Teacher Resource Assignment Cards: Information, Support and Strategies for Educators handout (see All Lesson Attachments tab) on cardstock and cut them apart so that the students can draw one for the activity during Independent Practice. Some cards have been left blank to give you the option of selecting additional topics. Place cards in a basket or container.

    Place students in groups of three.

    Scenario: Your team has been assigned by the Director of Special Education for Rayburn ISD to create literature to be shared district wide. Your product will provide up-to-date information which focuses on appropriate support and strategies for working with all children, including those with special needs.

    One person from each group will draw the group’s assignment topic from the basket or container.

    Distribute the Information, Support and Strategies for Educators (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout. Inform students they will research the topic and select appropriate information to include in the project.

    Distribute and review the Rubric for Information, Support and Strategies for Educators (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout so that students may understand what is expected.

    As a group, they will create a brochure, pamphlet, poster or newsletter for their district. Use the information from the Texas Project First website at http://www.texasprojectfirst.org/Links.html

    Information will include:

    • Name and description of topic
    • Guidelines for educators working with children, including those with special needs
    • Listing of support groups for parents including a description and website
    • Instructional strategies for teaching children with in your topic area
    • Supplemental educational services
    • Tips for helping parents with a special needs child

    If available, refer to Microsoft ™ templates for brochures at Office.com.

    Check for understanding.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • providing specific websites or articles from which students can obtain their research information
    • providing students with a checklist or rubric to help them organize and complete all steps of the process

  • Lesson Closure

    Review lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Students will retrieve the Anticipation Guide – The Education of Students with Special Needs handout they completed at the beginning of Anticipatory Set. Students are to reread each statement and place a check mark by each statement they KNOW is true. They are to provide information that PROVES other statements are not true. They may use the back of the sheet if additional space is needed. As a class, compare the two sets of answers.

    Teacher note: Anticipation Guide Key – The Education of Students with Special Needs (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout has been provided for you to check the students’ handout.

    Ask students to share the most important thing they learned from the lesson.

    Allow for questions and class discussion. Check for understanding.

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Information, Support and Strategies for Educators project will be assessed with the appropriate rubric.

    Optional

    Students will write a one-page reflection of what they have learned from this lesson and how they will apply it to their lives, now and in the future. Content of the reflection may include how working with special needs individuals and children requires continual evaluation and readjustment.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • assisting students with research for assignments
    • modifying assignments if IEP calls for modification
    • giving students copies of slide presentations for study

  • References/Resources

    Images:

    • Photos obtained through a license with Shutterstock.com™.

    Textbooks:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child development early stages through age 12. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Decker, C. (2004). Children: the early years. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.

    Websites:

    • Building the Legacy: IDEA 2004
      The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a law ensuring services to children with disabilities throughout the nation. IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services to more than 6.5 million eligible infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities.
      http://idea.ed.gov
    • The Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center
      The outcomes team of the ECTA Center provides national leadership in assisting states with the implementation of high-quality child and family outcomes measurement for early intervention and early childhood education.
      http://ectacenter.org/eco/

    YouTube™:

    • A day in the life of a Special Education teacher
      This is a profile of the SCB, or school community based special education program at James Hubert Blake high school in Montgomery County, Maryland. A team of teachers, administrators and specialists come together each day to support and teach these students.
      http://youtu.be/qh1meBo_m1w
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

    • ask students to repeat your instructions back to you to be sure they know what is expected of them before each new phase of the lesson
    • discuss vocabulary in detail and make sure everyone has a firm grasp on it before moving forward with the lesson
    • use graphic organizers and visuals to explain the lesson in detail
    • print fill-in-the-blank handouts of the PowerPoint notes for students to follow along with the lesson
    • provide note-taking assistance using Article STOP and JOT
  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism, and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    Encourage the students to take free online courses for working with special populations at Texas A & M Agrilife Extension. For more information, visit:
    https://extensiononline.tamu.edu/courses/specialpopulations.php

    View the YouTube™ video, “Tips for Story Times for Children with Special Needs” at http://youtu.be/oG0B_KWFC8A
    A step-by-step guide for librarians, daycares, parents, guardians and other professionals to help them prepare and deliver story times for children with special needs. To download the how-to guide and find more information visit: http://www.torontopubliclibrary.ca/content/storytime-tips/toolkit.pdf

    Have students develop a booklet for parents on specific ways to discipline special needs children based on age.

    Scenario: You are the owner of a child care center. Make or gather the materials for one or more examples of planned activities for preschool children.

    Education and Training Human Growth and Development Writing Prompts

    • (4) The student understands the development of children ages three through five years. The student is expected to:
      • (D) summarize strategies for optimizing the development of preschoolers, including those with special needs

    Think about the strategies for optimizing the development of preschoolers, including those with special needs. Write an essay explaining the strategies for optimizing the development of preschoolers, including those with special needs. (9th and 10th grade expository writing)

    TEDx Talk:

    TED is a nonprofit organization devoted to spreading ideas, usually in the form of short, powerful talks (18 minutes or fewer).

    TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks videos and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event.

    TED-Ed’s commitment to creating lessons worth sharing is an extension of TED’s mission of spreading great ideas. This allows users to take any useful educational video, not just TED’s, and easily create a customized lesson around the video.

    The video below is related to the lesson. Allow students to view the video, and lead a discussion concerning the TED Talk.

    Amos Winter: The cheap all-terrain wheelchair
    How do you build a wheelchair ready to blaze through mud and sand, all for under $200.00? MIT engineer Amos Winter guides us through the mechanics of an all-terrain wheelchair that’s cheap and easy to build — for true accessibility — and gives us some lessons he learned along the road.
    https://www.ted.com/talks/amos_winter_the_cheap_all_terrain_wheelchair

  • Family/Community Connection

    • Plan a field trip to a day care center to have the students observe toddlers. Students should describe ways toddlers differ from infants in terms of intellectual, social, emotional and physical development.
    • Observe a class of three-year-old children in a child development or child-care center. Compare and contrast the physical, mental, emotional and social development of three of the children. Applying what you have learned from this unit, formulate an explanation for the differing developmental levels of the children. A portion of your explanation may be speculative. Also, construct a one-day schedule of activities for this age group that would address and promote their physical, mental and social development.
    • Invite a pediatrician or child psychologist to explain the temperament, skills and development of preschoolers.
    • Write a story from a preschooler’s point of view which will help parents understand how a preschooler feels, develops and speaks.
    • Invite the school district’s Director of Special Education to explain strategies caregivers can use with special needs children.
  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)

    http://www.texasfccla.org

    STAR Events:

    • Early Childhood Education Event – An individual event that recognizes participants who demonstrate their ability to use knowledge and skills gained from their enrollment in an occupational Early Childhood Education program.
    • Focus on Children – An individual or team event that recognizes participants who use Family and Consumer Sciences skills to plan and conduct a child development project that has a positive impact on children and the community. Childhood development encompasses birth through adolescence.
    • Interpersonal Communications – An individual or team event that recognizes participants who use family and consumer sciences and/or related occupational skills and apply communication techniques to develop a project designed to strengthen communication in a chosen category: community, employment relationships, family, peer groups or school groups.

    Texas Association of Future Educators (TAFE)

    tafeonline.org

    Competitive Events:

    • Researching Learning Challenges Competition – Understanding how to support students with special needs is central to success as an educator. This competition offers Future Educators Association (FEA) students the opportunity to explore deeply and to develop recommendations regarding effective educational supports for students with special needs.
  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to the lesson. For additional information on service learning see
    http://www.ysa.org.

    Conduct a book drive and donate books to an after school program specifically designed to meet the needs of children ages five to fifteen with learning disabilities. Schedule time and dates to read to the children.

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