The Art of Planning a Lesson

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Education and Training

    Course : Instructional Practices in Education and Training

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    Instructional Practices in Education and Training

    • (2) The student understands the learner and the learning process. The student is expected to:
      • (A) relate principles and theories of human development to teaching and training situations
      • (B) relate principles and theories about the learning process to teaching and training situations
      • (C) demonstrate behaviors and skills that facilitate the learning process
      • (D) explain the relationship between effective instructional practices and learning differences, learner exceptionality, and special-needs conditions
    • (3) The student communicates effectively. The student is expected to:
      • (A) demonstrate effective verbal, non-verbal, written, and electronic communication skills
      • (B) communicate effectively in situations with educators and parents or guardians
      • (C) evaluate the role of classroom communications in promoting student literacy and learning
      • (D) demonstrate effective communication skills in teaching and training
    • (4) The student plans and develops effective instruction. The student is expected to:
      • (A) explain the role of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) in planning and evaluating instruction
      • (B) explain the rationale for having a fundamental knowledge of the subject matter in order to plan and prepare effective instruction
      • (C) explain the rationale and process of instructional planning
      • (D) describe principles and theories that impact instructional planning
      • (E) create clear short- and long-term learning objectives that are developmentally appropriate for students
      • (F) demonstrate teacher planning to meet instructional goals
    • (5) The student creates an effective learning environment. The student is expected to:
      • (A) describe characteristics of safe and effective learning environments
      • (B) demonstrate teacher and trainer characteristics that promote an effective learning environment
      • (C) identify classroom-management techniques that promote an effective learning environment
      • (D) describe conflict-management and mediation techniques supportive of an effective learning environment
    • (6) The student assesses teaching and learning. The student is expected to:
      • (A) describe the role of assessment as part of the learning process
      • (B) analyze the assessment process
      • (C) identify appropriate assessment strategies for use in an instructional setting

    Practicum in Education and Training

    • (2) The student understands the learner and learning process. The student is expected to:
      • (A) apply principles and theories of human development appropriate to specific teaching or training situations
      • (B) apply principles and theories about the learning process to specific teaching or training situations
      • (C) analyze personal behaviors and skills that facilitate the learning process
      • (D) suggest effective instructional practices to accommodate learning differences, learner exceptionality, and special-needs conditions
    • (4) The student plans and uses effective instruction. The student is expected to:
      • (A) apply principles and theories that impact instructional planning
      • (B) develop instructional materials that align with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)
      • (C) assess personal planning to meet instructional goals
      • (D) analyze concepts for developing effective instructional strategies
      • (E) analyze instructional strategies for effectiveness
      • (F) explain how learner feedback has been used to guide selection and adjustment of instructional strategies
    • (5) The student creates and maintains an effective learning environment. The student is expected to:
      • (A) create and maintain safe and effective learning environments
      • (B) integrate teacher or trainer characteristics that promote an effective learning environment
      • (C) apply classroom management techniques that promote an effective learning environment
      • (D) demonstrate specific conflict management and mediation techniques supportive of an effective learning environment
    • (6) The student assesses instruction and learning. The student is expected to:
      • (A) develop and apply assessments to foster student learning; and
      • (B) use assessment strategies to promote personal growth and teaching or training improvement
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • create lesson plans that are content specific
    • deliver lesson plans to a classroom of students
    • review the course TEKS and student expectations
    • demonstrate effective verbal, nonverbal, written and electronic communication skills
    • have an opportunity to hold/participate in a local lesson plan competition
  • Rationale

    Script:

    Have you ever thought about what work goes into planning the perfect lesson? What preparation do teachers do to ensure the lesson is delivered in an effective manner? Your teachers probably spend more time than you have ever thought about planning and getting ready for the lesson. During this lesson, you will plan, create and deliver your own lesson.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Four 45 minute classes periods

  • Word Wall

    Anticipatory Set: Activates the students’ prior knowledge

    Bloom’s taxonomy: A classification of learning objectives within education

    Direct Instruction: How you will present the most important lesson information to your students

    Evaluation: To judge the value or condition of (someone or something) in a careful and thoughtful way

    Guided Practice: Outline of how your students will demonstrate that they have grasped skills and concepts

    Independent Practice: Allows students to reinforce skills and synthesize new knowledge by completing a task on their own

    Lesson Assessment: This is WHY teachers have lesson closure and why they review. The format can vary

    Lesson Closure: This activity is how teachers find out if students have learned the objectives of the lesson

    Lesson Plan: A detailed guide for teaching a lesson

    Objective: Something that one’s efforts or actions are intended to attain or accomplish

    Student outcome (student goal): The knowledge, skills and abilities that students have attained as a result of their involvement in a particular set of educational experiences

    Technology: The application of tools and information that is used to support learning

    TEKS: The Texas state standards for what students should know and be able to do

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with projector for multimedia presentation
    • presenter/remote
    • computer lab with Internet access (be sure to follow district guidelines for Internet access)

    Materials:

    • index cards

    Supplies:

    • curriculum binders
    • educational textbooks pertaining to lesson planning
    • samples of lesson plans at the elementary, middle school and high school levels

    • copies of handouts (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
  • Anticipatory Set

    Prior to the lesson:

    For additional resources and activities refer to:

    Assessing What is Being Taught
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/assessing-what-is-being-taught/

    Before class begins make sure to have index cards ready to hand out to students and slide explaining instructions on the screen.

    Arrange the classroom, hand each an index card. Ask them to write down one thing they already know about lesson planning on one side and their name on the other side.

    When class begins, remind students that “leaders volunteer.” Ask for students to raise their hand and “volunteer” to read their response on their index card. Select all “leaders” will to share their answers. If needed, add additional information to individual answers to insure the answer is correct.

    Allow the students 15 minutes to complete the assignment. Go over the answers with the students. Then ask the following:

    • Why is it necessary for teachers to plan ahead?
    • What are some consequences of teachers who do not plan ahead?
    • What are some things that can go wrong with a lesson?
    • How can teachers avoid some of those things that can go wrong?

    Distribute graphic organizer, KWL Chart – Lesson Planning (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Have students fill out the first two columns of the chart. Ask students to write down what they already know about lesson planning and what they want to learn about lesson planning in the second column. The last column will be completed during Lesson Closure.

  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce lesson objectives, terms and their definitions.

    If the outcome of this lesson will be used to enter the TAFE competitive event LESSON PLANNING AND DELIVERYCTE, LESSON PLANNING AND DELIVERYHUMANITIES or LESSON PLANNING AND DELIVERYSTEM. review competition guidelines at this time. See TAFE Advisor Handbook for details.

    Provide students with Lesson Planning Note-taking (see All Lesson Attachments tab) or have them take notes in their journals.

    Introduce PowerPoint™, The Art of Planning a Lesson (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will be expected to take notes while viewing the slide presentation. Allow time for classroom discussion.

    Throughout the lesson refer to the Word Wall so that students may become familiar with terminology. You may use a site such as wordle.net or tagxedo.com to create a digital word wall.

    Using Slide Presentation Notes (see All Lesson Attachments tab), students will have an opportunity to reflect, review and respond to the information pertaining to the PowerPoint™. They will write a summary of questions, topics or statements which reflect the information from the lesson:

    • Discuss the topic
    • Write down your thoughts
    • Make a real-world connection to the lesson
    • How is this going to help you in the future?

    Allow for questions and answers to check for understanding.

    YouTube™ video included in the PowerPoint™ presentation:

    • Lesson Planning 101
      Dr. Linda Karges-Bone gives a workshop for new teachers, critical needs teachers, schools with low test scores and schools serving at-risk populations.
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yk1mi1egpgk

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • providing assistance with note-taking, navigating to the web and completing the assessment
    • providing extra time for oral response
    • providing frequent feedback

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Provide students with a basic lesson plan template of your choice. The handout, Lesson Plan Template or IRD Lesson Template (see All Lesson Attachments tab) has been provided for your students. You may want to provide them with both paper and electronic versions of the lesson plan template.

    Distribute Bloom’s Taxonomy Action Verbs (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout to assist the students in writing their objectives.

    Inform students that they will be creating a lesson plan TOGETHER, as a class. Everyone will be expected to provide suggestions throughout the activity, and everyone will be expected to fill in their template with the same information. This document will become THEIR personal lesson plan example, one that can be referred back to, for writing ANY basic lesson plan.

    Make sure all of your students can clearly see the computer, smartboard or projector you are using.

    Option:

    Begin by asking students what course they want to write the lesson for. Remind them that it can be for an elementary, middle school or high school course. It might be easier to have them select a high school course since they are familiar with these courses.

    If your students have already been introduced to and taught about the TEKS, review this information and locate the TEKS for the course they want to write the lesson for. Once the TEKS are located, as a class select the TEK and student expectation to be addressed. Help them select something simple.

    If your students are familiar with converting a TEKS student expectation into learning objectives, as a class, guide them through this process.

    —-

    Once lesson TEKS, student goals and learning objectives are provided/determined, as a class, brainstorm appropriate anticipatory set activities that could be used to introduce the topic/lesson to students and make that “real world” connection. As a class, decide on the “best” suggestion. Write/type it in the template section for the Introduction. This is also known as an Anticipatory Set. Remind students to copy this information on their lesson template.

    Move on to the Lesson Procedure Component. What are three or four terms and definitions that students will need to know to learn the objectives? What are three bits of information you MUST teach to your students in order for them to meet the learning objectives? Allow for discussion and have them select the best Direct Teach Strategies. On a smart board or computer screen projection, write in their ideas and again remind them to write it on their template.

    Next, discuss the Guided Practice portion of a lesson plan. This portion will be part of the Lesson Procedure of the Lesson Plan Template (See All Lesson Attachments tab).

    Script:

    You have determined how you are going to “hook” your students with your anticipatory set. You have already taught important information to your students during direct teach. What activities can you think of that will allow students to practice what you just taught them? Remember, this is when your students are going to show you how much of what you taught them they understand. It can be a practice worksheet, hand on activity or even homework. It can be done individually or in groups. There can be more than one activity. Discuss and allow students to decide on one or two activities for guided practice of their lesson. Write it on the master template for everyone to see and copy onto their template.

    Okay, so now, we have the “hook,” we have taught them the relevant information they need to learn, and we have activities in place that will guide them and allow them to practice using the information/skills we taught them.

    Now we need to determine the Independent Practice— What are we going to have them do “independently” that will allow them to shine and “prove” they understand what we taught them? Remember it can be a quiz or test but lets think of “real world” situations that will allow students to use their new skills/concepts/information.

    At the very end of the lesson, after students have worked independently, you must give the students some type of recap of the day(s)’ lesson. Review key terms and objectives with your students.

    Lastly, as a teacher, you have to evaluate your students’ knowledge. You can do this in several ways. Review ways to evaluate students’ knowledge with the lesson “Assessing What is Being Taught” at:
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/assessing-what-is-being-taught/

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • providing extra time for oral response
    • providing frequent feedback
    • providing extra time for oral response
    • providing peer tutoring
    • reducing length of assignment

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce Lesson Plan Project and Lesson Plan Project Rubric (See All Lesson Attachments tab). Projects will be graded using the Lesson Plan Project Rubric (See All Lesson Attachments tab).

    Inform students that their project will consist of two parts. They will be preparing a 20 minute basic lesson plan on the topic of their choice AND “teaching” it to the class. The six components of a basic lesson that were learned in this lesson must be addressed in their lesson plan and evident in their actual teaching experience. In other words, the class must be able to recognize the anticipatory set, the direct teach, the guided practice, independent practice, lesson closure and assessment.

    Have students retrieve Bloom’s Taxonomy Action Verbs (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout to assist them in writing their objectives.

    Thoroughly explain project guidelines and each rubric component.

    Teacher note: You have the option of assigning this as an assessment grade and/or entering it in the TAFE competitive event LESSON PLANNING AND DELIVERYCTE, LESSON PLANNING AND DELIVERYHUMANITIES or LESSON PLANNING AND DELIVERYSTEM. See Enrichment Activity.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • providing extra time for oral response
    • providing frequent feedback
    • providing peer tutoring
    • reducing length of assignment
    • assisting students in gathering information
    • providing praise and encouragement

  • Lesson Closure

    Review objectives, terms and definitions.

    Complete graphic organizer, KWL Chart – Lesson Planning (see All Lesson Attachments tab) to analyze what they have learned about lesson planning.

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Student products will be shared with the class and assessed with rubric.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • grading according to work done
    • providing praise and encouragement

  • References/Resources

    Images:

    Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft.

    Books:

    • Early Childhood Education Today, Twelfth Edition by George S. Morrison
      This book is a great resource on early childhood education. It covers the foundation of education, programs and resources for children and families, educational needs of infants through the primary grades and the special needs of children and families.
    • Introduction To Teaching: Becoming A Professional. (Fifth ed.). by Don Kauchak & Paul Eggen
      For any student going into the teaching profession, this is an excellent choice. It is an easy read for students on all levels. It covers the changing teaching profession, the foundations of education and how to become an effective teacher.

    Websites:

    • Strategies for Effective Lesson Planning
      Effective lesson planning can be tricky, but with this website from the University of Michigan, lesson planning can be a stress-free encounter.
      http://www.crlt.umich.edu/gsis/p2_5

    YouTube™:

    • Lesson Planning 101
      Dr. Linda Karges-Bone gives a workshop for new teachers, critical needs teachers, schools with low test scores and schools serving at-risk populations.
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yk1mi1egpgk
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism, and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Recommended Strategies

    Reading Strategies

    Assign students to read about lesson planning. Information can be found in newspaper articles, magazines, journals and online print.
    Suggestions:

    • Encourage students to connect reading to their life experiences or prior knowledge.
    • Promote the use of the pre-reading strategy prediction.
    • Word Attack Strategies. Prior to reading, allow students to skim the passage or text, circling words that are unfamiliar to them. Once these words are decoded (glossary, dictionary, dictionary.com, classroom discussion) the student will have a better understanding of the pronunciation and meaning of the unfamiliar word(s) facilitating comprehension.
  • Quotes

    A good teacher, like a good entertainer first must hold his audience’s attention, then he can teach his lesson.
    -John Henrik Clarke

    If you fail to plan, you plan to fail.
    -Benjamin Franklin

    To be prepared is half the victory.
    -Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra

    The greater the structure of a lesson and the more precise the directions on what is to be accomplished, the higher the achievement rate.
    -Harry Wong, The First Days of Teaching

    Life is what happens to you while you’re busy making other plans.
    -Allen Saunders

    A goal without a plan is just a wish.
    -Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

    If you don’t know where you are going, you’ll end up someplace else.
    -Yogi Berra

    Give me six hours to chop down a tree and I will spend the first four sharpening the axe. -Abraham Lincoln

  • Multimedia/Visual Strategies

    PowerPoint ™:

    • The Art of Planning a Lesson
    • Presentation Notes for The Art of Planning a Lesson

    Technology:

    YouTube™:

    • Lesson Planning 101
      Dr. Linda Karges-Bone gives a workshop for new teachers, critical needs teachers, schools with low test scores and schools serving at-risk populations.
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yk1mi1egpgk

    Files for downloading:

  • Graphic Organizers/Handout

    Graphic Organizer:

    • KWL Chart – Lesson Planning
    • Lesson Planning Note-taking

    Handouts:

    • Bloom’s Taxonomy Action Verbs
    • Effective Lesson Planning
    • IRD Lesson Plan Template
    • Lesson Plan Template
    • Lesson Plan Project
    • Lesson Plan Project Rubric
    • Scavenger Hunt – TAFE Lesson Planning and Delivery Competition
    • Scavenger Hunt – TAFE Lesson Planning and Delivery Competition (Key)
    • TAFE Lesson Planning and Delivery – CTE Competition
    • TAFE Lesson Planning and Delivery – Humanities Competition
    • TAFE Lesson Planning and Delivery – STEM Competition

    Files for downloading:

  • Writing Strategies

    Journal entries:

    • What is an objective?
    • List some ways to get students focused when they enter the classroom.
    • List reasons lesson planning is important.
    • Explain what TEKs are and how they are used during lesson planning.
    • Compare and contrast methods of evaluation.

    Writing strategies:

    • RAFT
      • Role: Veteran teacher
      • Audience: New teacher
      • Format: How-to
      • Topic: Lesson planning
  • Communication 90 Second Speech Topics

    • What does it mean to plan ahead?
    • What are the effects of poor lesson planning?
    • The importance of self-reflection in lesson planning.
    • Planning should always be a priority when preparing lessons because __________________.
    • The purpose of Direct Teach is ____________________.
    • The difference between Lesson Closure and Lesson Assessment is ______________________.
  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    Work with the principals on campus to develop a New Teacher’s Academy. Gather resources for new teachers that they can use in the classroom for lesson planning such as books, periodicals, websites and videos.

    The mission of Texas Association of Future Educators (TAFE) is to foster the recruitment and development of prospective educators through the dissemination of innovative programming and relevant research. One of the ways we provide character and leadership skills is by encouraging students to participate in TAFE competitions. Students have the option to participate in the TAFE competition – Lesson Planning and Delivery. Students have the option of developing a lesson in the area of CTE, Humanities or STEM. Have students read the rules and contest regulations carefully to ensure they understand what the requirements are for each competition. To familiarize themselves with the rules and guidelines of the competition, have the students complete Scavenger Hunt – TAFE Lesson Planning and Delivery Competition (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout. Distribute TAFE Lesson Planning and Delivery – CTE Competition, TAFE Lesson Planning and Delivery – Humanities Competition or TAFE Lesson Planning and Delivery – STEM Competition (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout to assist in completing the scavenger hunt. Use Scavenger Hunt – TAFE Lesson Planning and Delivery Competition (Key) (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout as a guide to check their answers.

  • Family/Community Connection

    Have teachers come to the classroom and speak to the students on the importance of planning ahead.

    Prepare and teach a short lesson to:

    • a class of elementary students
    • a class of middle school students
    • a class of high school students

  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)

    http://texasfccla.org

    STAR Events:

    • Early Childhood – An individual event – recognizes participants who use Family and Consumer Sciences skills to plan and conduct a child development project that has a positive impact on children and the community.
    • Focus on Children – An individual or team event –recognizes participants who organize a community service project focused on a specific need related to children in the community.
    • Teach and Train – An individual event – recognizes participants for their exploration of the education and training fields through research and hands-on experience.

    SkillsUSA

    http://skillsusa.org

    SkillsUSA Contests:

    • Early Childhood Education – An individual event – recognizes participants who demonstrate knowledge of developmentally appropriate practice and ability to prepare and implement learning activities for children 3 to 5 years old. Contestants will prepare a written lesson plan and take a written test assessing their knowledge of child development and effective teaching strategies.

    Texas Association of Future Educators (TAFE)

    http://tafeonline.org

    TAFE Competition:

    • Differentiated Lesson Plan (state only) – This competition is an individual event where future educators will be given a lesson plan and class demographics. The competitor will then have thirty (30) minutes to differentiate the lesson for each of the different types of learners in the class. Then, he/she will have ten (10) minutes to present the differentiation strategies to the judges. Then the judges will have five (5) minutes to ask questions.
    • Lesson Planning and Delivery Competition – This is an individual competition with three components: a written lesson plan, a video of the lesson delivery, and an interactive reflection discussion with
      the judges.

    There are four separate lesson planning and delivery competitive events: Arts, Career and Technical Education (CTE), Humanities and STEM.

  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to the lesson. For additional information on service learning see
    www.ysa.org

    Possible idea: Partner with a school within your district and have your students work in the classrooms with the teachers as teacher aides.

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