Rewards and Challenges: Development in Late Adulthood

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Education and Training

    Course : Human Growth and Development

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (10) The student understands the development of adults ages 66 years and older. The student is expected to:
      • (A) analyze various development theories relating to those within the stage of late adulthood, including biological and cognitive development
      • (B) analyze various development theories relating to those within the stage of late adulthood, including emotional, moral, and psychosocial development
      • (C) discuss the influences of society and culture on those within the stage of late adulthood
      • (D) discuss the importance of family, human relationships, and social interaction for those within the stage of late adulthood
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • research theories related to aging
    • describe and discuss ways society and culture impact late adulthood
    • analyze the importance of family and social interactions as they relate to the well-being of the elderly
  • Rationale

    What happens to an individual’s biological and cognitive development during the stage called late adulthood? Late adulthood comes with many changes. The two most evident are physical changes and changes in cognitive ability. What rewards and challenges do older adults face? How has technology changed the lives of the elderly people that you know? What is elder abuse? As you are exploring careers working with the elderly, it important to understand their physical, emotional, social and cognitive development.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Four 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Ageism: Prejudice or discrimination against a particular age group and especially the elderly

    Ageist: A person who is prejudiced against those who are elderly

    Aging by Program: Theory that all animals seem to die when their “program” dictates

    Alzheimer’s Disease: A degenerative brain disease of unknown cause that is the most common form of dementia, which usually starts in late middle age or in old age and results in progressive memory loss, impaired thinking, disorientation and changes in personality and mood

    Androgyny: The presence of positive masculine and feminine characteristics in the same person

    Cell Replication: Theory that states that maximum lifespan is determined by a genetically programmed limit on the number of times a cell can replicate itself

    Centenarian: A person who is 100 years of age or older

    Dementia: Deterioration of intellectual faculties, such as memory, concentration and judgment, resulting from an organic disease or a disorder of the brain

    Elder Abuse: Mistreatment of elderly persons that can be physical, emotional or sexual abuse, neglect, exploitation (usually financial) and abandonment

    Elder Care: The physical and emotional caretaking of older members of the family, whether that care is day-to-day physical assistance or responsibility for arranging and overseeing such care

    Gene Theory: Theory that aging is due to certain harmful genes

    Gerontology: The scientific study of old age, the process of aging, and the particular problems of old people

    Programmed Theory: Theory that our cells die because they are programmed to do so

    Wear and Tear Theory: Theory that aging is due to the cumulative effects of hard work and lifelong stress

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with projector for PowerPoint™ presentation
    • computers with Internet access (Be sure to follow district guidelines for Internet access)

    Materials:

    Medical assistance equipment, such as

    • canes
    • cotton balls (to simulate reduced hearing)
    • reading glasses
    • soft braces
    • walkers
    • copies of handouts (see All Lesson Attachments tab)

  • Anticipatory Set

    Prior to class:

    Display as many of the lesson-related supplies (see Materials or Specialized Equipment Needed) as you have available on a table in front of the room.

    Become familiar with PowerPoints™, handouts and activities.

    This lesson is divided into three mini-lessons to make it easier to present the information on multiple days. By distributing the information into mini-lessons, it will be easier for students to understand it.

    • Part I – Physical and Cognitive Development
    • Part II – Theories of Cognitive Development
    • Part III – Societal and Cultural Changes

    Refer to lesson: A Look at Theories: Part II for additional resources and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-look-at-theories-part-ii/

    Before class begins:

    Below are five anticipatory set activities to use throughout the lesson. Prior to beginning this lesson, please review, preview and select the appropriate activity.

    • On a table, have an accumulation of medical assistance equipment, such as
      • walkers
      • reading glasses
      • canes
      • soft braces
      • cotton balls (to simulate reduced hearing)
    • Have students attempt to use the various pieces of equipment. Ask the students the following questions:
      • How many of you still have grandparents or great-grandparents alive?
      • How many have other elderly relatives or neighbors?
      • Do you have a grandparent or parent that requires the use of medical assistance equipment?
      • Are your grandparents in good health? Where are they living?
      • What are your thoughts about growing old?
    • On a poster or white board, create a graph with room for students to add their names and the names/ages of elderly people they know. Each student will add the name and age of the oldest person they know. Discuss the results.
    • Students will complete the handout entitled, Who are Your Grandparents? (see All Lesson Attachments tab).
      Teacher note: Some students may not have grandparents alive. Encourage students to reference other elderly relatives or neighbors.
    • What is elder abuse? Do you know a victim? Do you have an elderly loved one who could be a victim?

    Distribute graphic organizer KWHL Chart – Developments in Late Adulthood (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Ask students to complete the chart by answering the first three sections:

    K – What I know about late adulthood.
    W – What I want to learn about late adulthood.
    H – How can I learn more about late adulthood?

    The last section will be completed in the Lesson Closure.

    Lead students to share and discuss their responses.

  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Note to teacher: Prior to beginning this lesson, please review, preview and select the appropriate multimedia for your classes.

    Introduce lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Distribute handout Slide Presentation Notes (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will be expected to take notes while viewing the slide presentation. Teacher will determine the notes to be recorded by students.

    Introduce PowerPoint™ Rewards and Challenges: Development in Late Adulthood Part I: Physical and Cognitive Development, slides 3-22 (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

    Use appropriate notes from Presentation Notes for Rewards and Challenges: Development in Late Adulthood (see All Lesson Attachments tab) for discussion.

    See Guided Practice Activity One

    Continue with the slide presentation Rewards and Challenges: Development in Late Adulthood Part II: Theories of Cognitive Development, slides 23-29 (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Have students continue using Slide Presentation Notes for note taking.

    Use appropriate notes from Presentation Notes for Rewards and Challenges: Development in Late Adulthood (see All Lesson Attachments tab) for discussion.

    See Guided Practice Activity Two

    Continue with the slide presentation Rewards and Challenges: Development in Late Adulthood Part III: Societal and Cultural Changes, slides 30-45 (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Have students continue using Slide Presentation Notes for note taking.

    Use appropriate notes from Presentation Notes for Rewards and Challenges: Development in Late Adulthood (see All Lesson Attachments tab) for discussion.

    See Guided Practice Activity Three

    Videos included in the slide presentation:

    • Diagnosing Alzheimer’s Disease
    • Eating for Health
    • Exercise: Enjoyment is the Key
    • Senior Centers
      NIH Senior Health
      Seniors can find answers to their medical questions from the comfort of their own homes.
      http://nihseniorhealth.gov/videolist.html

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • encouraging participation
    • praising the student
    • providing the student with a copy of the slide presentations

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Guided Practice Activity One

    Our senses change as we age and, therefore, so does the way we receive information about the world around us. The National Library of Medicine, a part of the National Institutes of Health, has some short videos about these changes in senses. Distribute Sensory Changes in Late Adulthood handout (See All Lesson Attachments tab) for students to complete. They may use the following sites for information:

    __

    Guided Practice Activity Two

    Distribute Major Theorists of Biological Development handout (see All Lesson Attachments tab). The students will complete the worksheet. This is a review and reinforcement of the biological theorists.

    Guided Practice Activity Three

    Distribute Senior Living Options handout (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Have students complete the handout. Allow for questions and discussion.

    —-

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • additional time for completing the assignments
    • individualized help
    • peer support

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Divide class into six subgroups of four.

    Distribute What is Trending in Late Adulthood? (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout. Students will research a topic related to late adulthood. They will develop a five-minute oral presentation on one of the following topics:

    • Age Discrimination Act
    • Effects of Mobile Society on Older Adults
    • Elder Abuse
    • Family and Social Interactions with Older Adults
    • Technology for Older Adults
    • The Increasing Retirement Age

    The presentation should include:

    • Factors affecting older adults in the related topic
    • Personal experiences related to the topic. Do you have family members experiencing similar changes/events?
    • Supportive agencies or resources to assist with the related topic
    • Positive and negative aspects of the related topic

    Distribute Rubric for Oral Presentation – Late Adulthood (see All Lesson Attachment tab) so that students may understand what is expected.

    Students will be provided with time to create and present their oral presentations.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • extra time for assignments
    • positive feedback

  • Lesson Closure

    Students will complete the KWHL Chart – Developments in Late Adulthood (see All Lesson Attachments tab) section labeled L.

    L – What did I learn about late adulthood?

    Ask the students the following questions:

    • Share one thing you learned about physical theories in late adulthood.
    • Share one thing you learned about cognitive changes in late adulthood.
    • Share one thing you learned about the impact of changes in society on elderly persons in our society.
    • Share one thing you learned about the importance of relationships with family and friends in late adulthood.
  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Assessments during lessons:

    • Sensory Changes in Late Adulthood
    • Major Theorists of Biological Development
    • Senior Living Options
    • Rubric for Oral Presentation – Late Adulthood

    Lesson assessment:
    At the end of the lesson, students will complete Changes in Late Adulthood Assessment (see All Lesson Attachments Tab).

    Class discussion will allow students to compare and contrast the things that they have learned.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • grading according to work done
    • providing praise and encouragement

  • References/Resources

    Images:

    • Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft.

    Journals:

    • Eastman, P. (2000, January). Scientists piecing Alzheimer’s puzzle. AARP Bulletin, 41 (1), 18–19.
    • Kunlin, J. Modern Biological Theories of Aging. Aging and Disease. v.1(2); October, 2010. PMC2995895

    Textbooks:

    • Dacey, J. , Travers, J. and Fiore, L. (2009). Human development across the lifespan. (7th). Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill
    • Santrock, J. (1997). Life-span development. (6th). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    • Welch, K. (2012). Family life now. 2nd. New York, NY: Allyn & Bacon.

    Websites:

    • National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA)
      The NCEA is the place to turn to for up-to-date information regarding research, training, best practices, news and resources on elder abuse, neglect and exploitation.
      http://www.ncea.aoa.gov/

    Videos:

  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism, and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Recommended Strategies

    Reading Strategies

    Current Events:
    Assign students to read about changes and issues in late adulthood.
    Information can be found in newspaper articles, magazines, journals and online print.
    Suggestions:

  • Quotes

    Age only matters when one is aging. Now that I have arrived at a great age, I might as well be twenty.
    -Pablo Picasso

    The secret of genius is to carry the spirit of the child into
    old age, which means never losing your enthusiasm.
    - Aldous Huxley

    Work is what you do, so that sometime you won’t have to do it anymore.
    -Alfred Polgar

    Do not go gentle into that good night. Old age should burn and rage at close of days; rage, rage against the dying of the light.
    -Dylan Thomas

    To be seventy years young is sometimes far more cheerful and hopeful than to be forty years old.
    -Oliver Wendell Holmes

  • Multimedia/Visual Strategies

    Power Point ™:

    • Rewards and Challenges: Development in Late Adulthood
    • Presentation Notes for Rewards and Challenges: Development in Late Adulthood

    Technology:

    TED Talks:

    • Jane Fonda: Life’s third act
      Within this generation, an extra 30 years have been added to our life expectancy — and these years aren’t just a footnote or a pathology. In this talk, Jane Fonda asks how we can think about this new phase of our lives.
      http://www.ted.com/talks/jane_fonda_life_s_third_act

    Videos:

    • Files for downloading:
  • Graphic Organizers/Handout

    Graphic Organizer:

    • KWHL Chart – Developments in Late Adulthood
    • Slide Presentation Notes

    Handouts:

    • Changes in Late Adulthood Assessment
    • Major Theorists of Biological Development
    • Rubric for Oral Presentation – Late Adulthood
    • Senior Living Options
    • Sensory Changes in Late Adulthood
    • What is Trending in Late Adulthood?
    • Who are Your Grandparents?

    • Files for downloading:
  • Writing Strategies

    Journal Entries:

    • My grandfather had to have cataract surgery. Before the surgery, he ___________________________. After the surgery, he ______________________.
    • Exercise is very important at all stages of life. It’s particularly important for older adults because _________________________________.
    • My family plays a part in the life of ________________________ (an older adult). We help him/her by __________________________.

    Writing Strategy:

    • RAFT (Role/Audience/Format/Topic) writing strategy:
      (Older adult may substitute for grandparent, if necessary.)
      Role: grandson or granddaughter
      Audience: grandparent
      Format: informal letter
      Topic: concerns regarding his/her physical well-being in late adulthood
      You have a grandparent who is not taking good care of himself/herself. Write a letter expressing your concerns. Give some ideas and suggestions that you have learned through this unit of study. Help him/her find web resources that might be helpful, such as the exercise module on the National Institute for Aging website.
    • RAFT (Role/Audience/Format/Topic) writing strategy:
      (Older adult may substitute for grandparent, if necessary.)
      Role: grandson or granddaughter
      Audience: grandparent
      Format: informal letter
      Topic: comfort to grandparent who must make a move
      You have a grandparent who must leave his/her home, either to live in a retirement community or just in a smaller residence. Express your thoughts to him/her about the situation. Offer suggestions as to how the move can be less stressful and the part you can play in that.
  • Communication 90 Second Speech Topics

    • Exercise in late adulthood is helpful because __________________________.
    • As I age, I can exercise my brain by ______________________________. This is useful because _____________________________________________.
    • People are living longer, so there are more elderly persons than there used to be in our society. This changes our society by___________________.
    • Senility is not the norm in old age. Explain.
    • Our society does (or does not) value older adults. Explain.
    • Describe the role your grandparents (or other elderly persons) play in your life.
    • The full retirement age should be raised to age 70. (Pros or cons)
  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    • Watch the video entitled “Living in a Continuing Care Community” at the National Institute for Aging. Summarize it in one to two paragraphs. In the next two paragraphs, explain what new thing you learned and then give your opinions of the video.
      http://nihseniorhealth.gov/videolist.html
    • Research and write a two-page paper on the problem of elder abuse. Have students look up additional information on elder abuse on the National Center on Elder Abuse website and related links found on the page at:
      http://www.ncea.aoa.gov/
    • Interview an older family member or friend. Ask him or her which aspect has been the most rewarding about being an older adult. What aspect has been the most challenging?
    • Have students consider five families that they know and note where the older family members live (i.e. in the same house, within 30 miles or over 100 miles) How does this impact family relationships?

    TED Talks:

    TED is a nonprofit devoted to spreading ideas, usually in the form of short, powerful talks (18 minutes or less). The video below is related to this lesson. Allow students to view the video and lead a discussion concerning the TED Talk.

    • Jane Fonda: Life’s third act
      Within this generation, an extra 30 years have been added to our life expectancy — and these years aren’t just a footnote or a pathology. In this talk, Jane Fonda asks how we can think about this new phase of our lives.
      http://www.ted.com/talks/jane_fonda_life_s_third_act

  • Family/Community Connection

    • Locate the contact information for the local Area Agency on Aging. Report on the services available to support elderly people in your area.
    • Visit a family member or friend who is elderly. Find out where or how you would report elder abuse in your location if you ever suspected abuse or someone else shared a concern with you.
    • Working in pairs, have students discuss various memory “tricks” that they use to help them remember things. How does crystalized intelligence affect our ability to remember?
  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)

    www.fcclainc.org

    FCCLA Family First Project
    http://www.fcclainc.org/content/families-first/

    The FCCLA Families First national peer education is a program through which youth gain a better understanding of how families work and learn skills to become strong family members. Its goals are to: help youth become strong family members and leaders for today and tomorrow and strengthen the family as the basic unit of society. To help members focus their projects, Families First offers five units. Members may complete projects in one or several units. There is no particular order to them; however, “Families Today” might be a good place to start. It covers topics that provide a general overview of families and related issues:
    Families Today: Understand and celebrate families
    You-Me-Us: Strengthen family relationships
    Meet the Challenge: Overcome obstacles together
    Balancing Family and Career: Manage multiple responsibilities

    Texas Association of Future Educators (TAFE)

    http://www.tafeonline.org/

    • Educational Leadership Fundamentals – This competition is an individual event that recognizes participates who take a 30-minute timed exam about knowledge of the teaching profession.
  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to lesson.
    http://gsn.nylc.org/

    Possible idea: Have the class select a long-term project to support senior citizens in the area. For example, setting up a schedule for students to take turns visiting a nursing home or memory care center; have students plan a special event for a senior care center or a senior center in their community.

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