Researching Learning Disabilities

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Education and Training

    Course : Human Growth and Development

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    Principles of Education and Training

    • (4) The student explores careers in professional support services. The student is expected to:
      • (A) summarize the various roles and responsibilities of professionals in the field of professional support services

    • (5) The student explores careers in teaching and training. The student is expected to:
      • (A) summarize the various roles and responsibilities of professionals in the fields of teaching and training

    Human Growth and Development

    • (1) The student understands historical, theoretical, and research perspectives of human growth and development. The student is expected to:
      • (A) explain the role of theories in understanding human development
      • (B) describe theoretical perspectives that influence human development throughout the lifespan
      • (C) summarize historical influences on modern theories of human development

    • (5) The student understands the development of children ages six through ten years. The student is expected to:
      • (A) analyze the physical, emotional, social, and cognitive development of children in the early to middle childhood stage of development
      • (B) analyze various developmental theories relating to children in the early to middle childhood stage of development
      • (D) summarize strategies for optimizing the development of children in the early to middle childhood stage of development, including those with special needs;
      • (F) determine developmentally appropriate guidance techniques for children in the early to middle childhood stage of development
    • (6) The student understands the development of adolescents ages 11 through 19 years. The student is expected to:
      • (A) analyze the biological and cognitive development of adolescents
      • (C) discuss various theoretical perspectives relevant to adolescent growth and development
      • (E) determine appropriate guidance techniques for adolescents

    Instructional Practices in Education and Training

    • (1) The student explores the teaching and training profession. The student is expected to:
      • (B) determine knowledge and skills needed by teaching and training professionals

    • (2) The student understands the learner and the learning process. The student is expected to:
      • (A) relate principles and theories of human development to teaching and training situations
      • (B) relate principles and theories about the learning process to teaching and training situations;
      • (C) demonstrate behaviors and skills that facilitate the learning process
      • (D) explain the relationship between effective instructional practices and learning differences, learner exceptionality, and special-needs conditions
    • (3) The student communicates effectively. The student is expected to:
      • (A) demonstrate effective verbal, non-verbal, written, and electronic communication skills
    • (4) The student plans and develops effective instruction. The student is expected to:
      • (D) describe principles and theories that impact instructional planning;
      • (F) demonstrate teacher planning to meet instructional goals.
    • (5) The student creates an effective learning environment. The student is expected to:
      • (C) identify classroom-management techniques that promote an effective learning environment

    Practicum in Education and Training

    • (2) The student understands the learner and learning process. The student is expected to:
      • (A) apply principles and theories of human development appropriate to specific teaching or training situations
      • (B) apply principles and theories about the learning process to specific teaching or training situations
      • (D) suggest effective instructional practices to accommodate learning differences, learner exceptionality, and special-needs conditions

    • (4) The student plans and uses effective instruction. The student is expected to:
      • (A) apply principles and theories that impact instructional planning
      • (C) assess personal planning to meet instructional goals
      • (D) analyze concepts for developing effective instructional strategies
      • (E) analyze instructional strategies for effectiveness
      • (F) explain how learner feedback has been used to guide selection
        and adjustment of instructional strategies
    • (6) The student assesses instruction and learning. The student is expected to:
      • (A) develop and apply assessments to foster student learning
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • work collaboratively to learn more about specific learning disabilities
    • produce an individual or group research paper and slide presentation that can be used to educate others
  • Rationale

    Script:

    Any individual employed in any type of Education and Training related job or career will benefit from knowledge related to student learning disabilities. Students with learning disabilities are serviced by both regular education teachers and special education teachers

    This lesson will provide students with the opportunity to research five specific learning disabilities: dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysgraphia, dyspraxia and dysphasia (also known as aphasia or global aphasia).

  • Duration of Lesson

    Three to four 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Dyslexia: Learning disability that creates problems with reading, writing, spelling and speaking

    Dyscalculia: Learning disability, problems doing math problems, understanding time, using money

    Dysgraphia: Learning disability, problems with handwriting, spelling, organizing ideas

    Dyspraxia: Learning disability, problems with fine motor skills such as hand–eye coordination, balance, manual dexterity

    Dysphasia (also known as aphasia or global aphasia): Learning disability, problems understanding spoken language, poor reading comprehension

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): A law ensuring services to children with disabilities throughout the nation

    Learning Disability: Refers to a wide variety of learning problems

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with projector for PowerPoint™ presentation
    • computers with internet access (Be sure to follow district guidelines for internet access)
    • presenter/remote

    Materials:

    • index cards

    • copies of handouts (See All Lesson Attachments tab)
  • Anticipatory Set

    Introduce lesson objectives, terms and their definitions.

    Arrange the classroom, by placing the following career titles on index cards and place on a table in the center of the classroom or on an accessible wall:

    • Child psychiatrist
    • Clinical psychologist
    • Developmental psychologist
    • Educational psychologist
    • Neuropsychologist
    • Psychometrist
    • School psychologist
    • Speech and language therapist

    Instruct students, as they enter the classroom, to take note of the career titles on the center table or wall.

    Allow the students to complete the above assignment for about 15 minutes. Then ask the following:

    • What do you think all of the career titles have in common? Answer: All of these individuals are qualified to diagnose learning disabilities in children.
    • It is not always easy to recognize learning disabilities in children. Why do you think that is?
    • What comes to mind when you hear the term “learning disability”?
    • How does knowing about a specific learning disability help teachers better educate their students?
  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Complete graphic organizer, Checking Your Knowledge Quiz (see All Lesson Attachments tab) to analyze what they already know about learning disabilities. This quiz will be given again after the conclusion of the lesson to determine what students have learned.

    Distribute Learning Disability Note-taking (see All Lesson Attachments tab) so that students may take notes during the slide presentation.

    Introduce PowerPoint™ Learning Disabilities (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and lead a discussion. Students will be expected to take notes while viewing the slide presentation. Allow time for classroom discussion.

    Throughout the lesson, refer to the Word Wall so that students may become familiar with terminology. You may use a site such as wordle.net or tagxedo.com to create a digital word wall.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • allowing students extra time to complete the assignment
    • providing fill-in-the-blank note handouts for students to follow and fill in during the lesson
    • pairing students with elbow partners who can assist them with verbal and written responses to the lesson

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Divide class into small groups and assign each group a learning disability topic (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

    Provide each group a copy of Students with Disabilities (see All Lesson Attachment tab) to be answered and shared with the class in group presentation of information.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • allowing students extra time to complete the assignment
    • providing fill-in-the-blank note handouts for students to follow and fill in during the lesson
    • pairing students with elbow partners who can assist them with verbal and written responses to the lesson

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce Learning Disabilities Research Project and Learning Disabilities Research Project Rubric (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Thoroughly explain project guidelines and each rubric component.

    Inform students that their research project will consist of writing a two-page report that defines their assigned disability, describes the effects of the disability, explains how it is identified (diagnosed), and includes strategies teachers could use to help educate a student with the disability.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • allowing students extra time to complete the assignment
    • providing fill-in-the-blank note handouts for students to follow and fill in during the lesson
    • pairing students with elbow partners who can assist them with verbal and written responses to the lesson

  • Lesson Closure

    Review lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Complete graphic organizer, Checking Your Knowledge Quiz (see All Lesson Attachments tab) to analyze what they have learned about learning disabilities.

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Student products will be shared with the class and assessed with rubric.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • grading according to work done
    • providing praise and encouragement

  • References/Resources

    Book:

    • Early Childhood Education Today, Twelfth Edition by George S. Morrison
      This book is a great resource on early childhood education. It covers the foundation of education, programs and resources for children and families, educational needs of infants through the primary grades and the special needs of children and families.
    • Introduction To Teaching: Becoming A Professional. (Fifth Edition) by Don Kauchak & Paul Eggen
      For any student going into the teaching profession, this is an excellent choice. It is an easy read for students on all levels. It covers the changing teaching profession, the foundations of education and how to become an effective teacher.

    Images:

    Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft.

    Websites:

    HelpGuide
    Expert, ad-free resource that focuses on dealing with health challenges
    http://www.helpguide.org/mental/learning_disabilities.htm

    IDEA
    Tons of resources such as informative handouts, podcasts, video clips and webcasts on learning disabilities.
    http://idea.ed.gov/

    National Aphasia Association
    Aphasia resources
    http://www.aphasia.org/

    National Center for Learning Disabilities
    Learning Disabilities Resources
    http://www.ncld.org/

    TAFE Advisor Handbook
    Website for Texas Association of Future Educators, includes Advisor Handbook
    http://www.tafeonline.org/

    YouTube™:

    National Center for Learning Disabilities
    http://www.ncld.org/

  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism, and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Recommended Strategies

    Reading Strategies

    Current Events:
    Assign students to read information to keep up with the latest news on learning disabilities. Information can be found in newspaper articles, magazines, journals, and online print.
    Suggestions:

    • Encourage students to connect reading to their life experiences or prior knowledge.
    • Word Attack Strategies. Prior to reading, allow students to skim the passage or text, circling words that are unfamiliar to them. Once these words are decoded (glossary, dictionary, dictionary.com, classroom discussion) the student will have a better understanding of the pronunciation and meaning of the unfamiliar word(s) facilitating comprehension.
  • Quotes

    I get stubborn and dig in when people tell me I can’t do something and I think I can. It goes back to my childhood when I had problems in school because I have a learning disability.
    -Ann Bancroft

    It is a waste of time to be angry about my disability. One has to get on with life and I haven’t done badly. People won’t have time for you if you are always angry or complaining.
    -Stephen Hawking

    Disability is a matter of perception. If you can do just one thing well, you’re needed by someone.
    -Martina Navratilova

    No pessimist ever discovered the secret of the stars, or sailed to an uncharted land, or opened a new doorway for the human spirit.
    -Helen Keller

  • Multimedia/Visual Strategies

    PowerPoint™:

    • Researching Learning Disabilities
    • Presentation Notes for Researching Learning Disabilities

    Technology:

    Aphasia Quiz
    http://www.aphasia.org/content/aphasia-quiz-0

    • Infographic:
      • Ten Important Facts About Learning Disabilities in Children Infographic
        Learning disability in a person is seen when s/he has problems specific to learning. The person generally has difficulty in reading, reasoning, writing, speaking, listening, solving math problems etc. The 10 Important Facts About Learning Disabilities Infographic states some facts about Learning Disabilities to help you understand them better.
        http://elearninginfographics.com/10-important-facts-about-learning-disabilities-in-children-infographic/
    • TED Talk:
      • John Legend: True Colors
        In a heart-melting moment, TED Talks Education host John Legend sits at the piano to sing “True Colors,” giving the lyrics a special meaning for kids and teachers. “So don’t be afraid / to let them show / your true colors / are beautiful, like a rainbow.”
        http://www.ted.com/talks/john_legend_true_colors

    YouTube:

    Files for downloading:

  • Graphic Organizers/Handout

    Graphic Organizer:

    • Checking Your Knowledge Quiz

    Handouts:

    • Researching Learning Disabilities Note-taking
    • Researching Learning Disabilities Project
    • Researching Learning Disabilities Project Rubric
    • Students With Disabilities
    • Students With Disabilities (Key)

    Files for downloading:

  • Writing Strategies

    Journal Entries:

    • I now know that learning disabilities are…
    • The Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) provides…
    • This project has helped me…

    Writing Strategy:

    RAFT

    • Role: Teacher
    • Audience: Parents of a specific special needs student (assign disability)
    • Format: Personal outline for an upcoming parent conference
    • Topic: Student is acting out in class even though his/her IEP is being followed
  • Communication 90 Second Speech Topics

    • I now know that learning disabilities are…
    • The Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) provides…
    • This project has helped me…
  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    Create an informational brochure using the data collected that can be provided to the school counseling center for distribution to parents.

    TED Talk:

    TED is a nonprofit organization devoted to spreading ideas, usually in the form of short, powerful talks (18 minutes or less).

    The video below is related to this lesson. Allow students to view the video and lead a discussion concerning the TED Talk.

    • John Legend: True Colors
      In a heart-melting moment, TED Talks Education host John Legend sits at the piano to sing “True Colors,” giving the lyrics a special meaning for kids and teachers. “So don’t be afraid / to let them show / your true colors / are beautiful, like a rainbow.”
      http://www.ted.com/talks/john_legend_true_colors
  • Family/Community Connection

    Interview various school faculty and staff regarding their role in working with students with learning disabilities.

  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)
    http://texasfccla.org

    STAR Events:

    • Early Childhood – An individual event – recognizes participants who use Family and Consumer Sciences skills to plan and conduct a child development project that has a positive impact on children and the community.
    • Focus on Children – An individual or team event –recognizes participants who organize a community service project focused on a specific need related to children in the community.
    • Teach and Train – An individual event – recognizes participants for their exploration of the education and training fields through research and hands-on experience.

    SkillsUSA
    http://skillsusa.org

    SkillsUSA Contests:

    • Early Childhood Education – An individual event – recognizes participants who demonstrate knowledge of developmentally appropriate practice and ability to prepare and implement learning activities for children 3 to 5 years old. Contestants will prepare a written lesson plan and take a written test assessing their knowledge of child development and effective teaching strategies.
  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to lesson. For additional information on service learning see http://www.servicelearning.org

    Possible idea: Once research paper and slide presentation on learning disabilities are complete, students can provide presentation sessions at PTSA/PTSO meeting as well as to their faculty and staff.

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