Preparing for Parenthood: Pregnancy and Labor

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Human Services

    Course : Child Development

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (2)The student investigates components of optimal prenatal care and development. The student is expected to:
      • (A) identify signs and stages of pregnancy
      • (B) analyze environmental and hereditary factors affecting fetal development such as Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance, genetics, and substances and how they affect the developing child and prenatal brain development
      • (C) describe nutritional needs prior to and during pregnancy such as impact of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates on fetal brain development
      • (D) analyze reasons for medical care and good health practices prior to and during pregnancy
      • (F) analyze the process of labor and delivery
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • analyze the various aspects of the birth process
    • summarize the different stages of prenatal development to monthly prenatal development
    • assess reasons for good health practices prior to pregnancy
    • discuss the importance of prenatal care by a physician
    • identify common normal physical discomforts of pregnancy and complications associated with pregnancy
    • determine the nutritional needs of a woman during pregnancy
  • Rationale

    Prenatal development is the growth of an infant that takes place before birth. What happens during the period of prenatal development? How does it affect the mother? What changes does her body undergo? Pregnancy can be a very emotional time for both expectant parents. Today, parents have many options to consider about how and where their children will be born. Once labor begins, what happens in each stage?

  • Duration of Lesson

    Five 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP): AFP is protein made by the fetus’ liver, in the fetal gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the yolk sac. During pregnancy, AFP crosses into the mother’s blood. The level of AFP in the mother’s blood can be measured to screen for disorders such as neural tube defects and Down syndrome. The mother’s AFP levels tend to be high with neural tube defects such as anencephaly and spina bifida, and low with Down syndrome

    Amniocentesis: If necessary, this test is performed between 15 and 20 weeks of pregnancy and can indicate chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, or genetic disorders such as Tay Sachs disease, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, and others. It also can detect the baby’s sex and risk of spina bifida (a condition in which the brain or spine do not develop properly)

    Amniotic Fluid: Clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds the unborn baby (fetus) during pregnancy. It is contained in the amniotic sac

    Amniotic Sac: During pregnancy, the amniotic sac is formed within the uterus and encloses the fetus. This sac bursts normally during the birthing process, releasing the amniotic fluid. A popular term for the amniotic sac with the amniotic fluid is the bag of waters

    Birth Center: A special place for women to give birth. They have all the required equipment for birthing, but are specially designed for a woman, her partner, and family. Birth centers may be free standing (separate from a hospital) or located within a hospital

    Cervix: The lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb). The cervix forms a canal that opens into the vagina, which leads to the outside of the body

    Cesarean Section or C-Section: Procedure where the baby is delivered through an abdominal incision. This is also called a cesarean delivery or cesarean birth

    Colostrum: Thick, yellowish fluid secreted from breast during pregnancy, and the first few days after childbirth before the onset of mature breast milk. Also called first milk, it provides nutrients and protection against infectious diseases

    Ectopic Pregnancy: A pregnancy that is not in the uterus. It happens when a fertilized egg settles and grows in a place other than the inner lining of the uterus. Most happen in the fallopian tube, but can happen in the ovary, cervix, or abdominal cavity

    Embryo: A period during pregnancy where the baby has rapid growth, and the main external features begin to take form

    Episiotomy: This is a procedure where an incision is made in the perineum (area between the vagina and the anus) to make the vaginal opening larger in order to prevent the area from tearing during delivery

    Lamaze: A philosophy of giving birth developed by Dr. Ferdinand Lamaze. The goal of Lamaze classes is to increase women’s confidence in their ability to give birth. Lamaze classes teach women simple coping strategies for labor, including focused breathing. But Lamaze also teaches that breathing techniques are just one of the many things that help women in labor. Movement, positioning, labor support, massage, relaxation, hydrotherapy and the use of heat and cold are some others

    Placenta: During pregnancy, a temporary organ joining the mother and fetus. The placenta transfers oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus, and permits the release of carbon dioxide and waste products from the fetus. The placenta is expelled during the birth process with the fetal membranes

    Preeclampsia: Also known as toxemia, it is a syndrome occurring in a pregnant woman after her 20th week of pregnancy that causes high blood pressure and problems with the kidneys and other organs. Symptoms include sudden increase in blood pressure, too much protein in the urine, swelling in a woman’s face and hands, and headache

    Trimester: A typical pregnancy is nine months long. Pregnancy is divided into three time periods, or trimesters, that are each about three months in duration — the first, second, and third trimesters

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer lab with Internet access (be sure to follow district guidelines)
    • computers/laptops with printer capability
    • presenter/remote
    • reserve computer lab, if needed

    Materials:

    • baby supplies
      • baby bottle
      • baby clothes
      • booties
      • bulb syringe
      • car seat
      • diaper
      • formula
      • infant comb
      • infant nail clips
      • infant thermometer
      • rattle
      • receiving blankets
      • toys
      • wipes

    Supplies:

    • crayons
    • glue sticks
    • large drawing or construction paper
    • magazines for cutting out pictures
    • markers
    • scissors

    • copies of all handouts (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
  • Anticipatory Set

    Before class begins:

    Display as many of the lesson related supplies (see Materials or Specialized Equipment Needed) that you have available, on a table in front of the room:

    Begin the class with the following questions and have students share their responses:

    These items are all necessary things to make sure the baby is healthy and thriving.

    • What does a mother need to do to prepare before the baby is born?
    • What is prenatal care and what does that consist of?
    • What can a mother do to have the healthiest pregnancy possible?
    • What are the three stages of prenatal development?
    • What are the signs and symptoms of pregnancy?
    • What is an embryo?
    • What is a zygote?
    • What is a fetus?
    • What are the nutritional requirements of the expectant mother during pregnancy?
    • What are the three stages of labor?

  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce lessons objectives, terms and definitions.

    Distribute graphic organizer Pregnancy and Labor Note-taking (see All Lesson Attachments tab) so that students may take notes during the slide presentation. Teacher to determine what information needs to be included in the note-taking document.

    Introduce PowerPoint™ Preparing for Parenthood: Pregnancy and Labor (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Allow time for questions and class discussion.

    YouTube™ videos included in the PowerPoint™:

    Teacher note: The following is a graphic video. Please use teacher’s discretion in viewing this video. Preview prior to showing to the students and abide by district’s guidelines for viewing videos.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • shortened, simplified instructions
    • repeated instructions
    • opportunity to repeat instructions
    • opportunity to write instructions

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Distribute handout Exploring Birth Options (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will complete handout as the teacher shares:

    • Exploring Birth Options
      Witness the wonderful emotions and deeply felt connection to womanhood in this short preview to our series exploring natural childbirth, midwifery, and your birth options.
      http://www.mothersnaturally.org/videoSeries/

    The students will also research three additional birth options.

    Allow time for questions and discussion.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • simplified homework assignments
    • reduced assignments
    • taped assignments

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Note to teacher: Print the assignment cards Assignment Cards: Pregnancy and Labor (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and cut apart so that the students can draw one for the activity. Place cards in a basket.

    Divide the class into ten small groups. One person from each group will draw a card from the basket. Assign each group one card to research. Give each group a large piece of drawing or construction paper and the supplies needed to complete project (see Materials and Specialized Equipment Needed tab). Distribute Pregnancy and Labor Project.

    Students will work on their project and will present during Summative/End of Lesson Assessment.

    Distribute Rubric for Pregnancy and Labor Project (see All Lesson Attachments tab) so students may fully understand what is expected.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • extra time for assignments
    • opportunity to respond orally
    • emphasis on major points

  • Lesson Closure

    Review lesson objectives, terms, and definitions.

    Distribute handout Lesson Closure (see All Lesson Attachments tab). The lesson closure activity is an instructional strategy which allows students to summarize main ideas, evaluate class processes, answer questions posed at the beginning of the lesson, and link to both the past and the future. It also allows the teacher to evaluate the progress of the students and the lesson.

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Students will present their Pregnancy and Labor projects.

    Students will be assessed with appropriate rubric.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • grading according to work done
    • providing praise and encouragement

  • References/Resources

    Images:

    • Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft.

    Textbook:

    • Brisbane, H. (2004). The developing child. (9th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill Glencoe.

    Websites:

    • Exploring Birth Options
      Witness the wonderful emotions and deeply felt connection to womanhood in this short preview to our series exploring natural childbirth, midwifery, and your birth options.
      http://www.mothersnaturally.org/videoSeries/
    • Pregnancy
      Becoming a mother is one of the most exciting times in a woman’s life. This section of womenshealth.gov will help you learn what you can do before, during, and after pregnancy to give your baby a healthy start to life.
      http://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

    • Think-Pair-Share activity
      After discussing Preparing for Parenthood: Pregnancy and Labor, you will begin with a Think-Pair-Share. The students will begin by writing down as many ideas related to Preparing for Parenthood: Pregnancy and Labor as they can. They then pair with a partner and share their best 5 ideas. After the pairs have shared, they pick the best 3 ideas from the two of them and share with another pair. (At this point you have groups of 4.) The group will pick their top 3 ideas and will share them with the class while a recorder writes the ideas on the board. As a class you will decide on the top three ideas.
    • Make sure students understand the vocabulary (word wall) before moving forward with this lesson. They are to make flash cards using an index card with the word on one side of the card and the definition on the other side. It is important for all students; especially ELL’s to have a firm foundation before moving forward. This is key to them following the entire lesson.
  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Recommended Strategies

    Reading Strategies

    Current Events:
    Assign students to read about pregnancy, immunization, nutrition or medicine concerns.
    Information can be found in newspaper articles, magazines, journals, and online print.
    Suggestions:

    • Immunization and Pregnancy (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
    • Becoming a Parent: Preconception Checklist
      This checklist will prepare you and your partner for a healthy pregnancy and labor.
      http://www.perinatalweb.org/images/stories/PDFs/Materials%20and%20Publication/becoming%20a%20parent_preconception_checklist.pdf
    • Medicine and Pregnancy (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
    • Have students practice using the words from this unit with Learning New Words and Meanings (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
    • Have students form their own questions about the text prior to reading or have them write down any questions that come to mind as they are reading.
    • Encourage students to connect reading to their life experiences or prior knowledge.
    • Word Attack Strategies. Prior to reading, allow students to skim the passage or text, circling words that are unfamiliar to them. Once these words are decoded (glossary, dictionary, dictionary.com, classroom discussion) the students will have a better understanding of the pronunciation and meaning of the unfamiliar word(s) facilitating comprehension.
  • Quotes

    A grand adventure is about to begin.
    -Winnie the Pooh

    We have a secret in our culture, it’s not that birth is painful, it’s that women are strong.
    -Laura Stavoe Harm

    If I had my life to live over, instead of wishing away nine months of pregnancy, I’d have cherished every moment and realized that the wonderment growing inside me was the only chance in life to assist God in a miracle.
    -Erma Bombeck

    There is no way out of the experience except through it, because it is not really your experience at all but the baby’s. Your body is the child’s instrument of birth.
    -Penelope Leach

    A mother’s joy begins when new life is stirring inside… when a tiny heartbeat is heard for the very first time, and a playful kick reminds her that she is never alone.
    -Author Unknown

  • Multimedia/Visual Strategies

    PowerPoint™:

    • Preparing for Parenthood: Pregnancy and Labor
    • Presentation Notes for Preparing for Parenthood: Pregnancy and Labor

    Technology:

    YouTube™:

    Teacher note: The following is a graphic video. Please use teacher’s discretion in viewing this video. Preview prior to showing to the students and abide by district’s guidelines for viewing videos.

    Files for downloading:

  • Graphic Organizers/Handout

    Graphic Organizers:

    • Pregnancy and Labor Note-taking

    Handouts:

    • Assignment Cards: Pregnancy and Labor
    • Exploring Birth Options
    • Immunization and Pregnancy
    • Learning New Words and Meanings
    • Lesson Closure
    • Medicine and Pregnancy 2012
    • Pregnancy and Labor Project
    • Rubric: Pregnancy and Labor Project

    Files for downloading:

  • Writing Strategies

    Journal Entries:

    • Pregnancy is ……….
    • Pregnancy is considered a miracle of life because……..
    • Natural childbirth is a good choice because………
    • Prenatal development is ………..

    Writing Strategies:

    • (2) The student investigates components of optimal prenatal care and development.
      The student is expected to:
      • (B) analyze environmental and hereditary factors affecting fetal development such as
        Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance, genetics, and substances and how they affect the
        developing child and prenatal brain development;

    Think about the environmental and heredity factors affecting fetal development. Write
    an essay explaining how factors such as Mendel’s Law of Inheritance, genetics, and
    substances affect the developing child and fetal brain. (9th and 10th grade expository writing)

  • Communication 90 Second Speech Topics

    • What is prenatal development?
    • Describe the monthly development of an unborn infant during the first trimester.
    • What changes does a woman’s body undergo during pregnancy?
  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    Free iPads Apps:

    • Pampers Hello Baby Pregnancy Calendar
      Details growth in the womb
      TEKS 2C
    • Research the type of childbirth method you would be the most interested in trying if you were becoming a parent. After gathering your information, determine if this method would be suitable for you. If not, what other method might better suit your needs?
  • Family/Community Connection

    Create a questionnaire to ask family and friends about their pregnancy and labor experience. Present findings to class for extra credit.

    Interview a couple who has recently had a baby. Ask them how the pregnancy affected their lives and what changes had to be made to prepare for the infant. Include information on family involvement, relationships with others, and physical adjustments.

  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) http://www.fcclainc.org

    STAR Events:

    • Chapter Service Project (Display and Manual): A team event – recognizes chapters that develop and implement an in-depth service project that makes a worthwhile contribution to families, schools, and communities. Students must use Family and Consumer Sciences content and skills to address and take action on a community need.
    • Families First- Students display research posters, mobiles, tri-fold boards on the development of an infant at a school open house or community
  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to lesson.
    http://www.nylc.org/

    • Students will research local agencies which provide family services during pregnancy.
    • Students will identify the needs of the families by contacting the family service agency. The students will determine what the needs of the families are and conduct an assistance drive (sock, shoes, and blankets) to donate to the families. The students will conduct a research of the family service agency. Where is it, how far it is from the school? How will they get there (transportation needs)? What are the costs, method of collecting the items they need, timeline for project, and delivery of needed items?

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