Nutritional Needs: Infancy to Toddler

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Human Services

    Course : Child Development

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (3) The student investigates strategies for optimizing the development of infants of diverse backgrounds, including those with special needs. The student is expected to:
      • (E) select and use appropriate standard international units to identify nutritional needs for infants such as caloric requirements, protein, lipids, carbohydrates and portion control
    • (4) The student investigates strategies for optimizing the development of toddlers of diverse backgrounds, including those with special needs. The student is expected to:
      • (E) work independently or collaboratively to prepare snacks or meals that meet nutritional guidelines for toddlers such as caloric, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and portion control
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • recognize the nutritional guidelines for infants and toddlers
    • create nutritious snack or meals appropriate for toddlers
    • analyze the correlation between proper nutrition and the growth and development of children
  • Rationale

    The need for food is basic to infants and toddlers. Children grow so quickly at this age. The body grows three times faster in the first years than in the second and third years. A healthy diet will provide the child the nutrients to help the child grow, explore, and develop. Safety issues are very important when feeding children. As a future employee in the field of Child Development, it is important to understand the nutritional needs of all children.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Four 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Finger foods: Served in a form and style than can conveniently be eaten

    Lipids: One of the three large classes of substances in foods and living cells, lipids contain more than twice as much energy (calories) per unit of weight as the other two (proteins and carbohydrates)

    Nutrients: The substances that provide nourishment essential for growth and maintenance of life

    Nutrition: Processes of taking in and utilizing food substances. Food generates energy and supplies materials used in body tissues and processes

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with Internet for multimedia presentations
    • computers/laptops with printer capability
    • presenter/remote
    • reserve computer lab, if needed

    Note: If individual equipment is not available, teacher can utilize a projected copy as long as students can see the screen.

    Supplies:

    • baby bottle
    • baby cereal
    • baby cup
    • baby formula
    • empty containers of nutritious children’s food and snacks
      • bottled water
      • box of macaroni and cheese
      • cheese sticks
      • healthy dry cereal boxes
      • juice boxes
      • small carton of milk
      • toddler crackers
    • kitchen equipment (to be determined by the students selection of various children’s recipes)
    • paper plates
    • plastic cup, plate (small 7-inch) plate and silverware (child size)
    • play food (may be purchased for a minimal cost)
    • purchased food for foods lab (actual food to be determined by the students selection of various children’s recipes)

    Other appropriate lessons

    Food Safety and Sanitation Guidelines – Lifetime Nutrition and Wellness
    Lifetime Nutrition and Wellness
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/food-safety-and-sanitation-guidelines-lifetime-nutrition-and-wellness/

    Nutrition for the Life Cycle: Pregnancy to Adulthood
    Lifetime Nutrition and Wellness
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/nutrition-for-the-life-cycle-pregnancy-to-adulthood/

    Successful Lab Management
    Lifetime Nutrition and Wellness
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/successful-lab-management-guidelines/

    • copies of all handouts (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
  • Anticipatory Set

    Prior to class:

    Become familiar with PowerPoint™, handouts and activities.

    Display as many of the lesson related supplies (see Materials or Specialized Equipment Needed) that you have available, on a table in front of the room:

    Before class begins:

    Begin the class with the following questions and have students share their responses:

    • Why are nutrients so significant to children’s growth and development?
    • Why is it important to teach young children about good eating habits?
    • Why do children need to eat a variety of foods?
    • What are the effects on children of not being properly fed?
  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce lesson, objectives, terms, and definitions.

    Distribute the graphic organizer Note-taking Nutritional Needs: Infancy to Toddler (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Inform students that they will be expected to take notes and participate in discussions while viewing the slide presentation. (Key) Note-taking Nutritional Needs: Infancy to Toddler (see All Lesson Attachments tab) has been provided for you to check the students’ notes.

    Introduce the slide presentation Nutritional Needs: Infancy to Toddlers (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

    Use appropriate notes from Presentation Notes for Nutritional Needs: Infancy to Toddlers (see All Lesson Attachments tab) for discussion.

    Distribute the MyPlate Graphic Organizer (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Using the information from the slide presentation, students will complete the handout. Allow time for sharing their information.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • copying of slide presentation provided
    • allowing students to make illustrations instead of writing out information

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Distribute the handout Nutritional Needs (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Individually, the students will read each scenario and determine whether each scenario represents a desirable or undesirable way to feed an infant or toddler.

    Allow time for review of completed handout, questions and discussion.

    How does a healthly diet contribute to the growth and development in children?

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • providing an opportunity to respond orally
    • emphasizing on major points
  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Scenario: You work at a day care center and have been asked to create a nutritious snack or meal.

    Distribute the Nutritional Foods for Infant/Toddler Project (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout and inform students of the project.

    Distribute Rubric for Nutritional Foods for Infant/Toddler Project (see All Lesson Attachments tab) so that students are aware of assessment procedures.

    Distribute the Sanitation and Food Safety Rules (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout. Review sanitation and food safety rules with the students.

    Students will:

    After the lab:

    Students will write a report that includes:

    • grocery shopping list
    • nutritional value of each item used in preparing the snack or main entrée as proof that caloric requirements met the needs of the specified age of child
    • provide four tips for healthy snacks or foods for infants/toddlers
    • recipe used in project and rationale for the selection
    • verification that the portion size was in accordance to the guidelines for the specified age of child

    Examples of acceptable recipes can include:

    • Delicious Oven French Fries
    • Easy Rice Pudding
    • English Muffin Veggie Pizza
    • Flour Tortillas
    • Fresh Fruit with Cinnamon Yogurt Dip
    • Fruit Milk Shakes

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • providing frequent feedback
    • extending “wait time”
    • providing more time for practice of certain tasks
  • Lesson Closure

    Review lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Each group will present their snack or main entrée. They will discuss the nutritional value of the food item, food source, caloric value, portion size and provide four tips for healthy snacks or foods for an infant/toddler.

    All food items will be set up on a table and everyone will have an opportunity to sample each other’s food creations.

    Students will complete the Lesson Closure handout (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Students will be assessed by Rubric for Nutritional Foods for Infant/Toddler Project (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • encouraging participation
    • assigning alternative assignments to tap the student’s learning style
  • References/Resources

    Images:

    • ChooseMyPlate.gov.
    • Photos obtained through a license with Shutterstock.com™.

    Textbook:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child development early stages through age 12. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.

    Websites:

    • ChooseMyPlate.gov
      MyPlate illustrates the five food groups that are the building blocks for a healthy diet using a familiar image – a place setting for a meal. Before you eat, think about what goes on your plate or in your cup or bowl.
      http://www.choosemyplate.gov/food-groups/
    • Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010
      Based on the most recent scientific evidence review, this document provides information and advice for choosing a healthy eating pattern—namely, one that focuses on nutrient-dense foods and beverages, and that contributes to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight.
      http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2010.asp
    • Nutrition Education of Texas
      Teaching Nutrition: Background information about nutrition, nutrients, and healthy eating habits. Topics include nutrients, food safety, selecting a balanced diet, nutritional needs during the lifecycle, nutrition and health. For additional information, visit:
      http://netx.squaremeals.org/teaching_nutrition.html

    YouTube™:

    • How to Feed a Toddler
      Learn how to feed a toddler so that most of the food ends up in the baby, not on them
      http://youtu.be/VV98HwqlQ7A
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

    • Make sure the students understand the vocabulary (word wall) before moving forward with this lesson. They are to make flash cards using an index card with the word on one side of the card and the definition on the other side. It is important for all students; especially ELL’s to have a firm foundation before moving forward. This is the key to them following the entire lesson.
    • Ask students to repeat your instructions to you to be sure they know what is expected of them before each phase of the lesson.
  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism, and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    Examine the medical history of your parents and/or grandparents. Identify the illnesses and disease they have encountered. Have these illnesses or diseases been related to eating habits? Have these illnesses or disease had any effect of your personal life? If yes, in what ways has your life changed? What can you do as an individual to improve your own state of health?

    TEDx Talk:

    TED is a nonprofit organization devoted to spreading ideas, usually in the form of short, powerful talks (18 minutes or fewer).

    TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks videos and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event.

    TED-Ed’s commitment to creating lessons worth sharing is an extension of TED’s mission of spreading great ideas. This allows users to take any useful educational video, not just TED’s, and easily create a customized lesson around the video.

    The video below is related to the lesson. Allow students to view the video, and lead a discussion concerning the TED Talk.

    TEDxSanAntonio Holly Hirshberg Pamela Price Fighting Hunger One Vegetable at a Time
    Speakers Holly Hirshberg and Pamela Price talk about fighting hunger one vegetable at a time.
    http://youtu.be/ojOcQquO_SU

  • Family/Community Connection

    Share the recipes prepared in class with friends and relatives which have an infant or toddler in the household. Students can also prepare the snacks and meals for friends and relatives which have an infant or toddler in the household. Ask for feedback from the parents and share with the class.

  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career, Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)
    http://www.texasfccla.org/

    STAR Event:

    FCCLA Family First Project – http://www.fcclainc.org/content/families-first/

    The FCCLA Families First national peer education program through which youth gain a better understanding of how families work and learn skills to become strong family members. Its goals are to: help youth become strong family members and leaders for today and tomorrow and strengthen the family as the basic unit of society. To help members focus their projects, Families First offers five units. Members may complete projects in one or several units. There is no particular order to them; although, “Families Today” might be a good place to start. It covers topics that provide a general overview of families and related issues:
    Families Today: Understand and celebrate families
    You-Me-Us: Strengthen family relationships
    Meet the Challenge: Overcome obstacles together
    Balancing Family and Career: Manage multiple responsibilities
    Parent Practice: Learn to nurture children.

  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to lesson. For additional information on service learning see
    http://www.nylc.org/

    Participate in a local health fair and present information on feeding infants and toddlers. Develop a brochure with the information. Demonstrate healthy snacks and meals for toddlers and provide samples to children (with the parents permission).

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