Infants and Babies and Toddlers! Oh, My!

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Education and Training

    Course : Human Growth and Development

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (3) The student understands the development of children ages newborn through two years. The student is expected to:
      • (A) analyze the physical, emotional, social, and cognitive development of infants and toddlers
      • (C) discuss the influence of the family and society on the infant and toddler
      • (D) summarize strategies for optimizing the development of infants and toddlers, including those with special needs
      • (E) determine techniques that promote the health and safety of infants and toddlers; and
      • (F) determine developmentally appropriate guidance techniques for children in the first two years of life
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    The student will:

    • understand the infant to toddler domains of development
    • articulate safety issues related to infants and toddlers
    • develop a safety checklist for household items
    • analyze temperament traits and how they affect behavior

  • Rationale

    Babies are so much fun! So cute! So cuddly! Well…yes and no. How much do you really know about infants and toddlers? If you are asked to babysit, do you feel comfortable and confident? This lesson will help you learn about those tiny creatures…how they grow and develop, and some of the most basic rules for keeping them well and safe.

    Infants and babies and toddlers! Oh, my!

  • Duration of Lesson

    Two 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Babble: To make a series of vowel sounds with consonant sounds slowly added to form syllables

    Babinski Reflex: Baby’s toes fan out and curl as the foot twists in when the sole of the foot is stroked

    Cephalocaudal Trend: Organized pattern of physical growth and motor control that proceeds from head to tail

    Cognitive development: Intellectual growth that begins at birth and continues through adulthood

    Fine Motor Skills: The use of small muscles, such as fingers, toes, and face

    Gross Motor Skills: Use of the large muscles, such as arms and legs

    Juvenile Products Manufacturers Association (JPMA):  It is a national trade organization that represents the juvenile industry defined as from prenatal to preschool. JPMA has developed a unique certification program and certification seal that have been guiding parents and caregivers for more than 35 years

    Moro Reflex: Can be seen when a loud noise is made around the newborn; baby extends arms and then quickly brings them back toward the body; also called the Startle Reflex

    Palmer grasp: Newborn grabs the adult’s finger that was pressed against the baby’s palm

    Proximodistal Trend: Organized patter of physical growth and motor control that proceeds from the center of the body outward

    Reflex: An automatic response to certain stimuli

    Rooting: When a newborn turns his/her head toward the cheek which is being stroked by an adult

    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): Death of an apparently healthy infant, usually between 2 and 4 months of age; thought to be a brain-related respiratory problem

    Stepping Reflex: Infant lifts one foot after another in a stepping motion when held under the arms

    Swimming Reflex: Newborn placed face down in a pool of water will paddle and kick

    Sucking Reflex: Newborn will suck rhythmically if you insert a finger in his/her mouth

    U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC): It is in charge of protecting the public from unreasonable risks of injury or death associated with the use of the thousands of consumer products under the agency’s jurisdiction

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with projector for PowerPoint™ presentation
    • computers/laptops with printer capability
    • presenter/remote
    • reserve computer lab, if needed

    Materials:

    Materials:

    • baby supplies
      • baby bottle
      • baby clothes
      • car seat
      • formula
      • receiving blankets
      • toys
    • toddler items such as:
      • books
      • clothes
      • electronic toys
      • toys

    • copies of all handouts (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
  • Anticipatory Set

    Before class begins:

    Display as many of the lesson related supplies (see Materials or Specialized Equipment Needed) that you have available, on a table in front of the room.

    Scenario: You are going to babysit your 1-year-old and 3-year-old cousins for the weekend. You have to child-proof your home. Develop a safety checklist to keep your family safe in your home during their visit.

    Distribute Safety Checklist for Securing Common Household Items (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Have students work in small groups of two to develop a safety checklist for the following items:

    • cleaning products
    • dishwasher
    • clothing
    • food
    • furniture
    • gardening and garage products
    • medicines
    • outdoor play
    • personal care products
    • plants
    • toys

    Complete handout and allow for questions and discussion.

    Have students complete the first two columns of the KWL Chart (see All Lesson Attachments tab). The last column will be completed during lesson closure.

  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Distribute Handout Notes for Slides and the graphic organizer Domains of Development (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will be expected to take notes and complete graphic organizer while viewing the slide presentation.

    Introduce PowerPoint™ Infants and Babies and Toddlers! Oh, My! (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and begin discussion with students.

    Distribute the graphic organizer Temperament Traits (see All Lesson Attachments tab) for students to complete. Allow for questions and answers to check for understanding.

    Videos included in the PowerPoint™:

    • Dr. Regina Sullivan Discusses Attachment Learning in Infants and Healthy Development
      Dr. Regina Sullivan is a research professor of child and adolescent psychiatry at the NYU School of Medicine and a member of the Child Mind Institute’s Scientific Research Council.
      http://youtu.be/Tu4LnZI3G1s
    • Safe and Sound for Baby
      The Juvenile Product Manufacturers Association (JPMA) offers parents, families, caregivers and friends guidance for ensuring a Safe & Sound environment and selecting the safest possible products for their little loved ones.
      http://youtu.be/M6F-S4FdA5c

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • providing assistance with note-taking

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Distribute the handout My Temperament Traits (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Have students complete the handout. Any students who would like to share may do so, but sharing is not a requirement.

    Have students complete handout Reflexes Match (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

    Have students answer the question, “What did you learn about infant development that surprised you”?

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • allowing extra time

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Distribute handout Timeline (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Have students create a timeline showing one of the following:

    • Infant physical development
    • Infant social/emotional development
    • Infant cognitive development
    • Toddler physical development
    • Toddler social/emotional development
    • Toddler cognitive development

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • allowing extra time

  • Lesson Closure

    Infants and toddlers are growing and changing at an incredible rate of speed and keeping up with them is a real challenge. Once we understand how their growth and development takes place, it makes it easier for us to understand and help them. The most important thing to remember from this lesson, is that these very young children need warm, nurturing, kind, and responsive care. They will tell us what they need, if we will learn to listen to them.

    Have students complete KWL Chart (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • allowing extra time
    • working orally with the teacher

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Assessment

    Have students do a 30-minute observation on a child in one of the following age groups: newborn-two weeks, two-weeks to three months, three months to six months, six months to one year, one year to two years, two years to three years and complete the Observation Record (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

  • References/Resources

    • Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft.

    Publication:

    • Helping Your Preschool Child
      U.S. Department of Education Office of Communications and Outreach. Helping Your Preschool Child . Washington, D.C., 2005
    • Juvenile Products Manufacturers Association
      Safe and Sound for Baby A Guide to Baby Product Safety, Selection and Use
      http://jpma.org

    Technology

    Textbooks:

    • Berk, L. (2008). Infants and children. (4th ed). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Dacey, J., Travers, J., Fiore, L. (2009). Human development across the lifespan. (7th ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies.

    YouTube™:

    • Dr. Regina Sullivan Discusses Attachment Learning in Infants and Healthy Development
      Dr. Regina Sullivan is a research professor of child and adolescent psychiatry at the NYU School of Medicine and a member of the Child Mind Institute’s Scientific Research Council.
      http://youtu.be/Tu4LnZI3G1s
    • Safe and Sound for Baby
      The Juvenile Product Manufacturers Association (JPMA) offers parents, families, caregivers and friends guidance for ensuring a Safe & Sound environment and selecting the safest possible products for their little loved ones.
      http://youtu.be/M6F-S4FdA5c
    • The Role of Attachment in Infancy on Later Mental and Physical Health Outcomes
      The role of attachment in infancy on later mental and physical health outcomes (2012).
      http://youtu.be/6bul1meciGE

    Websites:

    • Best Beginnings: School Readiness – Birth Through Five
      Best Beginnings is a readiness to learn program from birth through age 5.
      http://www.bestbeginnings.us/
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    Allow students to use the Internet to connect to the “Baby Brain Map” of the Zero-to-Three National Center for Infants and Toddlers. This is an interactive graphic that states, “To get started, select an age range from the pull-down menu and click on it. Depending on the age range, different hotspots on the brain will appear. Click on a hotspot to reveal questions to find out how a baby’s brain develops during this period of brain growth. You’ll also learn what you can do to enrich a very young child’s development. Click on the questions to display the answers.”

    http://www.zerotothree.org/baby-brain-map.html

    Texas AgriLife Extension (Texas A&M University System) offers several free online courses about Infants and Toddlers. Those students particularly interested in this topic may wish to take some of the one or two hour courses. They do require a free registration, but each completer also receives a certificate. http://infanttoddler.tamu.edu/courses/courseListByCatID.php?catid=16

    Free materials: Order, download, and print fact sheets, milestone checklist, posters, a growth chart, materials in other languages, and more at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/freematerials.html

  • Family/Community Connection

    Plan a field trip to your school daycare or a daycare facility in the neighborhood for students to observe children in action. Have students make a chart that displays the types of development observed or not observed at all.

    Attend a local child care providers’ conference.

    Attend a state or national professional conference, such as Texas Association of Family and Consumer Science, American Association of Family and Consumer Science, or the National Association for the Education of Young Children.

  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)
    http://texasfccla.org

    STAR Events:

    • Chapter Service Project (Display and Manual): A team event – recognizes chapters that develop and implement an in-depth service project that makes a worthwhile contribution to families, schools, and communities. Students must use Family and Consumer Sciences content and skills to address and take action on a community need.
    • Families First- Students display research posters, mobiles, tri-fold boards on the development of an infant at a school open house or community.

    Texas Association of Future Educators (TAFE)

    http://www.tafeonline.org/

    • Educational Leadership Fundamentals – This competition is an individual event that recognizes participates who take a 30-minute timed exam about knowledge of the teaching profession.
  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to the lesson. For additional information on service learning see:
    http://www.nylc.org/

    Have students brainstorm the procedures for a service learning project involving infants and toddlers. Students will follow procedures such as:

    • obtaining permission from campus officials
    • creating a list local child care facilities
    • placing calls, asking and obtaining permission from the facility director to provide free services, such as volunteering in the kitchen, in the classrooms, on the playground
    • scheduling the event
    • determining transportation to event
    • class discussion on the special needs/concerns of working with infants and toddlers
    • discovering what laws and policies are in place to allow them to volunteer in a child care facility; is a background check required?
    • reviewing “what if….” scenarios
    • written reflection on what they learned from the experience and how this knowledge will help them in the future

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