History of American Education

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Education and Training

    Course : Principles of Education and Training

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (2) The student understands societal impacts within the education and training career cluster. The student is expected to:
      • (A) summarize political and historical trends that have influenced the development of education across the United States
      • (B) identify cultural and societal changes that have affected educational systems across the United States
      • (C) use labor market information, knowledge of technology and societal or economic trends to forecast job profiles within the education and training career cluster
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • compare and contrast the educational system from the late 1700’s through the present
    • compare founding leaders in education
    • evaluate legislation that made an impact on the early educational system
    • predict changes to the future of the educational system
  • Rationale

    Script:

    There are historical events that illustrated how cultural, societal, economic and political aspects influenced and worked together to ultimately create monumental changes in education. These same laws are still enforced as the United States experiences the continued influx of more and more children from different cultures who are also entitled to receive equal services in public schools. The American Educational System is unique and different from that of any other country. The roots of our American Educational System began in the Jamestown colony and set the tone for what we now know and recognize as our school systems. This unit will familiarize you with the foundations of the educational system, its leaders and notable legislation and ask you to contemplate the future of our educational system.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Four 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka: Overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson, stating that all students at all levels of educational systems must have equal access to education and that race cannot be used to discriminate

    Common school: Provides mass universal public education at the elementary level

    Legislation: Laws and procedures dictated by government

    Plessy vs. Ferguson: Supreme Court decision that established rationale for separate but equal treatment of the black and white races in the United States

    Pragmatism: A reasonable and logical way of doing things or of thinking about problems that is based on dealing with specific situations instead of on ideas and theories; ideology practiced by John Dewey

    Progressivism: The idea that the child is the center of the educational process

    Segregation: Separating by ethnicity, age or gender

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with projector for multimedia presentation
    • presenter/remote
    • computer lab with Internet access (be sure to follow district guidelines for Internet access)

    Materials:

    • poster boards or butcher paper
    • markers

    • copies of handouts (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
  • Anticipatory Set

    Prior to the lesson:

    • Become familiar with PowerPoint™, handouts and activities.
    • Before class begins, arrange the classroom tables or desks into groups. Place one piece of butcher paper and a variety of markers in the center of each group.

    Before class begins:

    When class begins, ask the students, “What shaped our educational system? Why do we have the educational system that we have today?” Tell students to write down their ideas on the butcher paper.
    Allow the students about 15 minutes to complete the assignment. Have students share their ideas with the class. Then ask the following:

    • Why do we teach school the way we do today?
    • What influenced our school systems?
    • Who is the most important person or what is the most important event that shaped our school systems? Why?
    • What changes should be made to our current school system?

    Distribute graphic organizer KWL Chart – History of American Education (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Have students fill out the first two columns of the chart.

    • What do they already KNOW about the history of American education?
    • What do they want to LEARN about history of American education?

    The last column will be completed during Lesson Closure.

  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Note to teacher: Prior to beginning this lesson, please review, preview and select the appropriate multimedia for your classes.

    Introduce lesson objective, terms and definitions.

    Provide students with History of American Education Note-taking (see All Lesson Attachments tab) or have them take notes in their journals.

    Introduce PowerPoint™ History of American Education (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will be expected to take notes while viewing the slide presentation. Allow time for classroom discussion.

    Throughout the lesson refer to the Word Wall so that students may become familiar with terminology. You may use a site such as wordle.net or tagxedo.com to create a digital word wall.

    Videos included in the PowerPoint™ presentation:

    • History of Education in America
      This video will take you from the beginning of America’s free schools and how the education system evolved to socialism where we are at today. This is actually a three-part video.
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhclWco8fA8
    • Top 10 Reasons to Use Technology in Education
      This video provides information about why technology engages students in learning and will continue to be a trend for education.
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mzi2RIt8_nk

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • providing assistance with note-taking, navigating the web and completing the assessment
    • providing extra time for oral response
    • providing frequent feedback

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Provide students with the handout History of Education Timeline (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Inform students they will be creating a timeline of events and influential individuals throughout history who have made a significant contribution to American education. Distribute Instructions for History of Education Timeline (see All Lesson Attachments tab) for further instructions.

    Inform students that this project may be done individually or in a group. Grades will be assessed using the Rubric for History of Education Timeline (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

    Thoroughly explain project guidelines and each rubric component.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • providing extra time for oral response
    • providing frequent feedback
    • providing peer tutoring
    • reducing length of assignment

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce History of Education Research Paper (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout.

    Teacher note: You may assign each student a topic/individual to research, or the students can select one themselves.

    Inform students they will independently research and write a two-page essay on one of the following topics or people:

    • Benjamin Franklin
    • Booker T. Washington
    • Brown vs. Board of Education
    • Children with Disabilities Act
    • Civil Rights Act
    • Common Schools
    • Dick and Jane Readers
    • Elementary and Secondary Education Act
    • Elizabeth Palmer Peabody
    • Frederick Froebel
    • Horace Mann
    • John Dewey
    • Maria Montessori
    • McGuffey Reader
    • Morrill Act
    • No Child Left Behind
    • Normal Schools
    • Project Head Start
    • Smith-Hughes Act
    • Thomas Jefferson

    Thoroughly explain research paper guidelines. Have students pay attention to grammar, spelling and punctuation. Students must include a reference page for at least three references. Distribute Rubric for History of American Education Research Paper (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Review all components of the rubric.

    If time allows, students may present the research paper to the class.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • providing extra time for oral response
    • providing frequent feedback
    • providing peer tutoring
    • reducing length of assignment
    • assisting student in gathering information
    • providing praise and encouragement

  • Lesson Closure

    Review objectives, terms and definitions.

    Complete graphic organizer KWL Chart – History of American Education (see All Lesson Attachments tab) to analyze what students have learned about the history of American Education.

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Student research papers will be assessed with a rubric.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • grading according to work done
    • providing praise and encouragement

  • References/Resources

    Images:

    Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft.

    Books:

    • Early Childhood Education Today, Twelfth Edition by George S. Morrison
      This book is a great resource on early childhood education. It covers the foundation of education, programs and resources for children and families, educational needs of infants through the primary grades and the special needs of children and families.
    • Introduction To Teaching: Becoming a Professional. (Fifth Edition.). by Don Kauchak & Paul Eggen
      For any student going into the teaching profession, this is an excellent choice. It is an easy read for students on all levels. It covers the changing teaching profession, the foundations of education and how to become an effective teacher.
    • Touch the Future: Teach! by Carlos Diaz, Carol Pelletier and Eugene Provenzo, Jr.
      In this book, students are asked to reflect on their own culture and how it has helped them to develop their ideals of teaching. The authors ask students to reflect on their own belief systems as they prepare to become future educators.

    Websites:

    • Occupational Handbook
      This is a very comprehensive collection of the most up-to-date occupational information. There is also a link for a teacher’s guide to using it.
      http://www.bls.gov/ooh/
    • The History of Education in America
      Over the past 250 years our educational system as changed several times. This site provides an excellent timeline of events throughout the years, including pictures, of our educational system in America.
      http://www.chesapeake.edu/Library/EDU_101/eduhist.asp

    YouTube™:

    • History of Education in America
      This video will take you from the beginning of America’s free schools and how the education system evolved to socialism where we are at today. This is actually a three-part video.
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhclWco8fA8
    • Top 10 Reasons to Use Technology in Education
      This video provides information about why technology engages students in learning and will continue to be a trend for education.
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mzi2RIt8_nk
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism, and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Recommended Strategies

    Reading Strategies

    Assign students to read about the history of education in the United States. Information can be found in newspaper articles, magazines, journals and online print.
    Suggestions:

    • Promote the use of the pre-reading strategy prediction.
    • Encourage students to connect reading to their life experiences or prior knowledge.
    • Word Attack Strategies. Prior to reading, allow students to skim the passage or text, circling words that are unfamiliar to them. Once these words are decoded (glossary, dictionary, dictionary.com, classroom discussion), students will have a better understanding of the pronunciation and meaning of the unfamiliar word(s), facilitating comprehension.
  • Quotes

    Every day students come to be who are trying to keep their head above the water, who are trying to float in this world. They come to us from abusive situations, they come to us from poverty, they come to us from group homes and from homelessness. They come to us for breakfast, for lunch and for health care, for love, for support and, yes, for education.
    -Barbara Walton-Farai

    The teacher’s art consists in this: To turn the child’s attention from trivial details and to guide his thoughts continually towards relations of importance which he will one day need to know, that he may judge rightly of good and evil in society.
    -Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    Today, we begin in earnest the work of making sure that the world we leave our children is just a little bit better than the one we inhabit today.
    -President Barack Obama

    Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.
    -Nelson Mandela

  • Multimedia/Visual Strategies

    PowerPoint ™:

    • History of American Education
    • Presentation Notes for History of American Education

    Technology:

    • Free iPad App:

    Classroom Organizer
    https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/classroom-organizer/id476668797?mt=8

    • TED Talk:

    Rita Pierson: Every kid needs a champion
    Rita Pierson, a teacher for 40 years, once heard a colleague say, “They don’t pay me to like the kids.” Her response: “Kids don’t learn from people they don’t like.’” A rousing call to educators to believe in their students and actually connect with them on a real, human, personal level.
    http://youtu.be/SFnMTHhKdkw

    YouTube™:

    • History of Education in America
      This video will take you from the beginning of America’s free schools and how the education system evolved to socialism where we are at today. This is actually a three-part video.
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhclWco8fA8
    • Top 10 Reasons to Use Technology in Education
      This video provides information about why technology engages students in learning and will continue to be a trend for education.
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mzi2RIt8_nk

    Files for downloading:

  • Graphic Organizers/Handout

    Graphic Organizer:

    • KWL Chart – History of American Education
    • History of American Education Note-taking

    Handouts:

    • History of American Education Timeline
    • History of American Education Research Paper
    • Instructions History of American Education Timeline
    • Rubric for History of American Education Research Paper
    • Rubric for History of American Education Timeline
    • Schools Past and Present

    Files for downloading:

  • Writing Strategies

    Journal entries:

    • Why is the history of American education important?
    • Which people have had the greatest influence on education throughout history?
    • Explain how the diversity of the original colonies shaped our educational system.
    • How have historical trends affected education today?
    • How are the foundations of education useful to you as a future teacher?
    • If I could make one major change to education, it would be …

    Writing strategies:

    • RAFT
      • Role: Current educator
      • Audience: Future educators
      • Format: Persuasive
      • Topic: Shaping the future of education
  • Communication 90 Second Speech Topics

    • The evolution of American education
    • How is American education different from that other nations?
    • Explain how the common school movement influenced education today.
    • How has religion influenced education throughout the years?
    • How do past experiences shape today’s schools?
    • What could you do to shape tomorrow’s educational system?
  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    • Invite a panel of older teachers, administrators and other staff members to describe how school has changed throughout the years during their personal education and their time as educators.
    • Divide students into groups to discuss and choose the most important historical events that have influenced education in American history. They can draw or print photos of these events to create a pictorial timeline.
    • Students can use occupational information and technology, if available, to create graphs to compare job profiles within the education and training cluster to jobs in other clusters.
    • Small groups of students can write skits or plays to illustrate significant events in history and how they changed education. These can be made into videos.
    • Have students select current legislation and research the issues. They can organize projects to support the causes they advocate. This is a natural tie-in to the “Advocacy” STAR Event in FCCLA.
    • Students can work in teams with writers, actors and videographers to create commercials for the hot jobs in education and training. This activity could take on a creative edge if students developed ads for education and training jobs expected in the year 3000.

    TED Talks:
    TED is a nonprofit devoted to spreading ideas, usually in the form of short, powerful talks (18 minutes or fewer). The video below is related to this lesson. Allow students to view the video, and lead a discussion concerning the TED Talk.

    Rita Pierson: Every kid needs a champion
    Rita Pierson, a teacher for 40 years, once heard a colleague say, “They don’t pay me to like the kids.” Her response: “Kids don’t learn from people they don’t like.’” A rousing call to educators to believe in their students and actually connect with them on a real, human, personal level.
    http://youtu.be/SFnMTHhKdkw

  • Family/Community Connection

    Distribute handout Schools: Past and Present (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Encourage students to interview their grandparents, or even their parents, about their school experiences.

  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)
    http://texasfccla.org

    STAR Events:

    • Early Childhood – An individual event – recognizes participants who use Family and Consumer Sciences skills to plan and conduct a child development project that has a positive impact on children and the community.
    • Focus on Children – An individual or team event – recognizes participants who organize a community service project focused on a specific need related to children in the community.
    • Teach and Train – An individual event – recognizes participants for their exploration of the education and training fields through research and hands-on experience.

    SkillsUSA
    http://skillsusa.org

    SkillsUSA Contests:

    • Early Childhood Education – An individual event – recognizes participants who demonstrate knowledge of developmentally appropriate practice and ability to prepare and implement learning activities for children three to five years old. Contestants will prepare a written lesson plan and take a written test assessing their knowledge of child development and effective teaching strategies.

    Texas Association of Future Educators
    http://tafeonline.org

    TAFE Competitions:

    • Bulletin Board – An individual or team event that recognizes participants who demonstrate their knowledge, skills, and ability to create a bulletin board display for teaching and/or for student interaction.
    • Educational Leadership Fundamentals – This competition is an individual event that recognizes participates who take a 30-minute timed exam about knowledge of the teaching profession.
  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to lesson. For additional information on service learning see
    www.ysa.org

    Possible idea: Have students “adopt” a classroom in need. The teacher can create a list of items that are needed for the classroom to enhance student learning. The items can range from small, such as spirals and markers, to iPods or even an iPad. Students can raise funds to purchase the items for the classroom.

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