Four Areas of Development: Preschool to School-Age

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Human Services

    Course : Child Development

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (5) The student analyzes the growth and development of preschool children of diverse backgrounds, including those with special needs. The student is expected to:
      • (A) analyze the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual needs of the preschool child
    • (6) The student analyzes the growth and development of school-age children of diverse backgrounds, including those with special needs. The student is expected to:
      • (A) analyze the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual needs of the school-age child
      • (B) analyze the role of the school environment on the growth and development of the school-age child
      • (C) analyze how individual and group identities are established and change over time to identify typical growth and development of the school-age child such as brain development and social, emotional, and physical development
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • demonstrate effective verbal, nonverbal, written, and electronic communication skills
    • analyze the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual needs of a preschool child
    • analyze the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual needs of a school-age child
    • create a project providing planned activities and information that establishes a clear understanding of how preschoolers and school-age children develop physically, emotionally, socially, and intellectually
    • in collaboration with a partner, create a story book depicted from the point of view of either a preschooler or school-age child
  • Rationale

    The study of how children become adults is called child development. While every child is unique in some ways, each tends to follow predictable patterns. These predictable patterns of growth and development are called principles. Principles do not fit any one person exactly but are only general developmental guides.
    To meet these needs, parents need to be aware and understand their child’s needs: physical, emotional, social, and intellectual.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Four 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Child development: The study of how children become adults

    Developmental stages: A sequence of stages that can be predicted in both the physical and mental development of children

    Developmental tasks: Tasks which children learn best and most easily at particular points in their development

    Emotional development: The process by which infants and children begin developing the capacity to experience, express, and interpret emotions

    Intellectual development: The growth of children which allows their brains to become capable of understanding and evaluating concepts to make sense of the world around them

    Physical development: The progress of a child’s mobility, thought processes, and sexual characteristics

    Principles: The predictable patterns of growth and development in children

    Sensitive period: The point in a child’s development during when he or she is most open and ready to learn a particular task

    Sequence: The order in which changes in development occur

    Social development: The process of learning the skills that enable a person to interact and communicate with others in a meaningful way

    Special needs: A child who’s physical, mental, or emotional abilities or needs are different from those of other children and require special attention

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with Internet for multimedia presentations

    Materials:

    • board games
    • books for preschool and school-age children
    • clothing for preschool and school-age children
    • jump rope
    • nutritious children’s food and snacks
      • bottled water
      • dried fruit
      • healthy dry cereal boxes
      • juice boxes
      • raisins
      • yogurt containers
    • toys for preschool and school-age children

    Supplies:

    • index cards (3” x 5”)
    • markers
    • pencils
    • poster boards
    • rulers or yardsticks
    • scissors
    • tape
    • copies of all handouts (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
  • Anticipatory Set

    Before class begins:

    Become familiar with StoryBird by viewing a tutorial on using StoryBird.com including ideas for the classroom
    http://youtu.be/T00YjRBIcIw
    StoryBird is a visual storytelling community and a global hub of readers, writers, and artists of all ages.
    The students will be creating a story during Guided Practice. The sign-up is free for this visual website.

    Teacher note: Refer to lesson Nutritional Needs: Preschool to School-Age at http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/nutrition-needs-as-children-grow-preschool-to-school-age/ for additional resources and activities.

    Display as many of the lesson-related supplies (see Materials or Specialized Equipment Needed) that you have available on a table in front of the room:

    Begin the class with the following questions and have students share their responses:

    • Why are preschool children more prone to injury than older children?
    • What are some fine motor skills a preschool child possesses?
    • What are some large motor skills a preschool child possesses?
    • Why do preschoolers act so grown-up?
    • What do you remember about your preschool years?
    • What are some ways to teach responsibility to a preschool child?
    • Why shouldn’t a parent or caregiver use food as a reward or punishment?
    • Do you recall losing your first baby tooth? Have students share their experience in a class discussion.
    • Why do school-age children start worrying about personal appearance at this age?
    • What are some games available today that would teach school-age children number concepts?
  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce lesson objectives, terms, and definitions.

    Distribute handout Building Blocks Graphic Organizer (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will be expected to take notes while viewing the slide presentation.

    Introduce PowerPoint™ Four Areas of Development: Preschool to School-Age (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and begin the discussion with students. Allow for questions and answers to check for understanding.

    YouTube™ videos included in the PowerPoint™:

    • Child Development in the Preschool Years
      This video describes the development of the average preschooler according to current theories.
      http://youtu.be/Sb74hoJhdqo

    • Developmental Milestones—School-Age Children
      Developmental milestones are markers for accomplishments that indicate the development of musical, social, emotional, parenting, and language skills.
      http://youtu.be/g9js2_ZsrcU

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • providing a copy of slide presentation
    • allowing students to make illustrations instead of writing out information

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Have students write a short story from the point of view of either a preschooler or school-age child. The students will use http://storybird.com/accounts/signup/ to sign up for a free account.

    Have students work collaboratively in teams of two to create a story and determine the age and gender of the child in it. The story should describe the child’s recent experiences with intellectual, social, emotional, and physical growth and development. Check stories for correct spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

    Stories will be shared during lesson closure.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • encouraging participation
    • providing positive feedback

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Students will make a cube using Making a Cube from a Poster Board (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Distribute handout and allow students time to construct the cube.

    Check out How to Make a Cube From Poster Board by Deborah Woodward on Snapguide. for step-by-step directions for creating the cube.

    Scenario: You have recently been hired as a child care provider at a local day care center. You have been assigned the task of developing the daily activities keeping in mind the physical, intellectual, emotional, and social development of the children.

    Distribute Four Areas of Development Cube Project handout (see All Lesson Attachment tab). Students work in groups of four to research the developmental stages of a child and determine strategies to optimize the physical, intellectual, emotional, and social development of children, including those with special needs.

    The project will be assessed by Rubric for Four Areas of Development Cube Project (see All Lesson Attachment tab) and an individual reflection. Distribute the rubric and discuss expectations.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • simplifying instructions
    • repeating instructions

  • Lesson Closure

    Review lesson objectives, terms, and definitions.

    Students will read and share the stories they created during Guided Practice.

    Distribute handout What Did You Learn Today? (see All Lesson Attachments tab). The lesson closures activity is an instructional strategy which allows students to summarize main ideas, evaluate class processes, answer questions posed at the beginning of the lesson, and link to both the past and future. It also allows the teacher to evaluate the progress of the students and lesson.

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Students will be assessed by Rubric for Four Areas of Development Cube Project.

    Reflection: Using the information gathered in Four Areas of Development Cube Project, each team member is required to write a reflection on their role in this group project and a brief analysis of how this project will assist them with the roles and responsibilities of being a parent or caregiver. The reflection and rubric will be submitted for assessment.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • minimizing auditory distractions
    • encouraging participation
    • extending “wait time”

  • References/Resources

    Images:

    • Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft.

    Textbook:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child development: Early stages through age 12. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company.

    Websites:

    • StoryBird
      StoryBird is a visual storytelling community and a global hub of readers, writers, and artists of all ages.
      http://storybird.com/teachers/
    • What Should You Know?
      It’s time to change how we view a child’s growth.
      Do you know all the ways you should measure your child’s growth? We naturally think of height and weight, but from birth to 5 years, your child should reach milestones in how he plays, learns, speaks and acts. Track your child’s development and act early if you have a concern. Learn more about milestones. For additional information, visit:
      http://www.cdc.gov/actearly

    YouTube™:

    • Child Development in the Preschool Years
      This video describes the development of the average preschooler according to current theories.
      http://youtu.be/Sb74hoJhdqo
    • Developmental Milestones—School-Age Children
      Developmental milestones are markers for accomplishments that indicate the development of musical, social, emotional, parenting and language skills.
      http://youtu.be/g9js2_ZsrcU
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

    • Make sure students understand the vocabulary (word wall) before moving forward with this lesson. Instruct them to make flash cards using an index card with the word on one side of the card and the definition on the other. It is important for all students, especially ELL’s, to have a firm foundation before moving forward. This is the key to them following the entire lesson.
    • Ask students to repeat your instructions back to you to be sure they know what is expected of them before each phase of the lesson.
    • Discuss vocabulary in detail and make sure everyone has a firm grasp of it before moving forward with the lesson.
    • Use graphic organizers and visuals to explain the lesson in detail.
    • Print fill-in-the-blank handouts of the PowerPoint™ notes for students to follow along with during the lesson
  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism, and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Recommended Strategies

    Reading Strategies

    Current Events:
    Assign student to read about children and nutrition or food concerns.
    Information can be found in newspaper articles, magazines, journals and online print.
    Suggestions:
    http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Food_Safety_AFter_School/index.asp

    • Helping Your Preschool Child (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
  • Quotes

    [Kids] don’t remember what you try to teach them. They remember what you are.
    -Jim Henson, It’s Not Easy Being Green: And Other Things to Consider

    When we are children we seldom think of the future. This innocence leaves us free to enjoy ourselves as few adults can. The day we fret about the future is the day we leave our childhood behind.
    -Patrick Rothfuss, The Name of the Wind

    It’s never too late to have a happy childhood.
    -Tom Robbins, Still Life with Woodpecker

    Anybody who has survived his childhood has enough information about life to last him the rest of his days.
    -Flannery O’Connor

  • Multimedia/Visual Strategies

    PowerPoint™:

    • Four Areas of Development: Preschool to School-Age
    • Presentation Notes for Four Areas of Development: Preschool to School-Age

    Technology:

    YouTube™:

    • Child Development in the Preschool Years
      This video describes the development of the average preschooler according to current theories.
      http://youtu.be/Sb74hoJhdqo
    • Developmental Milestones—School-Age Children
      Developmental milestones are markers for accomplishments that indicate the development of musical, social, emotional, parenting and language skills.
      http://youtu.be/g9js2_ZsrcU

    Files for downloading:

  • Graphic Organizers/Handout

    Graphic Organizers:

    • Building Blocks Graphic Organizer

    Handouts:

    • Four Areas of Development Cube Project
    • Making a Cube from a Poster Board
    • Helping Your Preschool Child
    • Rubric for Four Areas of Development Cube Project
    • What Did You Learn Today?

    Files for downloading:

  • Writing Strategies

    Journal Entries:

    • Growth is influenced by proper nutrition by___________.
    • Parents can help preschoolers control negative behaviors by______________.
    • Factors which lead to a positive self-image in school-age children are ____________.
    • The four areas of development include _____________________.

    Writing Strategy:

    • RAFT Writing Strategy
      RAFT (Role/Audience/Format/Topic) writing strategy:
      Role: parent of a school-age child
      Audience: school-age child
      Format: diary entry- about your first day of school
      Topic: How you are ready physically, emotionally, intellectually, and socially for school. What new things are you going to discover, what activities are you interested in, etcetera?
    • Think about the nutritional guidelines for preschool children. Imagine you are part of a team preparing snacks or meals for preschool children. Write an essay in which you explain and defend how your choice of snack or meal meets the nutritional needs for them. (10th and 11th grade persuasive writing).
  • Communication 90 Second Speech Topics

    • The differences between gross motor skills and fine motor skills are___________.
    • It is important to be concerned about the sequence rather than the rate of a child’s physical development because__________.
    • The major steps in motor development which occur in the preschool years are__________,
    • The major steps in motor development which occur in the school-age years are_________.
  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    • Have students create and present a lesson plan to teach preschoolers or school-age children new skills in the areas of vigorous physical exercise, reading development, communication, listening skills, and self-reliance. Have students save their lessons in a digital portfolio.
    • Using a magazine which features children, such as a child development magazine, have students cut out pictures of preschoolers engaged in various activities. For each picture, identify whether the child pictured is using fine or gross motor skills.
    • Design a system for parents on helping preschoolers or school-age children become responsible. Develop it into a poster with pictures, large graphics, and easy-to-follow instructions.

    TEDx Talk:
    TED is a nonprofit organization devoted to spreading ideas, usually in the form of short, powerful talks (18 minutes or less). The video below is related to this lesson. Allow students to view the video and lead a discussion concerning the TED Talk.

    • Sparks: How Youth Thrive
      As the author of more than a dozen books on child and adolescent development and social change, including Sparks: How Parents Can Help Ignite the Hidden Strengths of Teenagers, Dr. Peter Benson is considered a thought leader and authority on positive human development.
      http://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/TEDxTC-Peter-Benson-Sparks-How
  • Family/Community Connection

    • Interview a preschool teacher and ask her/him to describe a day with a preschooler. What kind of eye-hand coordination, developmental skills, and mannerisms do preschool children possess?
    • Invite a pediatrician or child psychologist to explain the temperament, skills, and development of preschool and school-age children.
    • Interview a preschooler about something exciting that happened to him or her. Have the child draw a picture. Write a brief summary about the interview, including quotes from the child. Display the child’s drawing and your brief summary in the classroom.
  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career, and Community Leaders of America

    www.fcclainc.org

    STAR Events:

    • Applied Technology – An individual or team event: Recognizes participants who develop a project using technology that addresses a concern related to Family and Consumer Sciences and/or related occupations. The project integrates and applies content from academic subjects.
    • Chapter Service Project (Display and Manual): A team event which recognizes chapters that develop and implement an in-depth service project that makes a worthwhile contribution to families, schools, and communities. Students must use Family and Consumer Sciences content and skills to address and take action on a community need.
    • Families First- Students display research posters, mobiles, and tri-fold boards on the development of an infant at a school open house or community event.
  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to lesson.
    http://www.nylc.org/

    • Have students practice their parenting skills by volunteering at a day care or children’s home. Have students contact local day cares and children’s homes to identify the needs of the children there and determine which center to work with. Then have them research and brainstorm where it is, how far it is from the school, how they will get there, transportation costs, methods for collecting canned food, a timeline for the project and delivery of needs, etcetera.
    • Have students call the day care or children’s home and contact the director to discuss the service learning project.
    • Instruct students to list the materials, costs, and resources for the project. Students will determine roles and responsibilities of the project.
    • Schedule the trip and make the necessary arrangements at school.
    • Deliver all the items that were collected.
    • Encourage students to volunteer their time and energy to the day care or children’s home.
    • As a reflection, have students evaluate how their parenting skills knowledge of child development aided them in communicating with the children. Do they feel they made an impact at the day care or children’s home? Compare the impact the project made on class members before they started the project and after it was completed. Did the project achieve its purpose? What might you do differently next time?