Four Areas of Development: Infancy to Toddler

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Human Services

    Course : Child Development

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (1) The student analyzes roles and responsibilities of parenting. The student is expected to:
      • (F) explain factors that contribute to literacy
    • (3) The student investigates strategies for optimizing the development of infants of diverse backgrounds, including those with special needs. The student is expected to:
      • (D) identify typical growth and development of infants such as brain development and mental health
      • (E) select and use appropriate standard international units to identify nutritional needs for infants such as caloric requirements, protein, lipids, carbohydrates and portion control
    • (4) The student investigates strategies for optimizing the development of toddlers of diverse backgrounds, including those with special needs. The student is expected to:
      • (A) analyze the physical, emotional, social and intellectual needs of the toddler
      • (C) identify patterns of typical growth and development of toddlers
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • demonstrate effective verbal, nonverbal, written and electronic communication skills
    • analyze the physical, emotional, social and intellectual needs of the infant
    • analyze the physical, emotional, social and intellectual needs of the toddler
    • create a game using illustrations and information that establishes a clear understanding of how infants and toddlers develop physically, emotionally, socially and intellectually their first years of life
  • Rationale

    The first five years of a child’s life are a time of tremendous physical, emotional, social and cognitive growth. Children enter the world with many needs in order to grow: love, nutrition, health, social and emotional security and stimulation are the important skills that prepare them for school success. Children also enter the world with a great capacity to learn.
    To meet these needs, parents need to be aware and understand their child’s needs; physical, emotional, social and intellectual.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Four 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Babble: To make a series of vowel sounds with consonant sounds slowly added to form syllables

    Cognitive development: Intellectual growth that begins at birth and continues through adulthood

    Coo: Light, happy sound babies begin to use to communicate between six and eight weeks after birth

    Cruising: Is the time for your baby to start taking steps while holding on to the couch, coffee table, or other pieces of furniture for balance

    Intervention: To involve oneself in a situation so as to alter or hinder an action or development

    Lipids: Are a broad group of naturally occurring molecules which includes fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, phospholipids, and others. The main biological functions of lipids include energy storage, as structural components of cell membranes, and as important signaling molecules

    Milestones: A significant point in development

    Senses: A specialized function or mechanism (as sight, hearing, smell, taste, or touch) by which a person receives and responds to external or internal stimuli

    Stimulation: To excite to activity or growth or to greater activity

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with Internet for multimedia presentations

    Materials:

    • baby supplies
      • baby bottle
      • baby clothes
      • car seat
      • formula
      • receiving blankets
      • toys
    • dice
    • toddler items such as:
      • books
      • clothes
      • electronic toys
      • toys

    Supplies:

    • brads for spinners
    • construction paper
    • crayons
    • glue or glue sticks
    • magazines for cutting out pictures of infants and toddlers
    • markers
    • poster board
    • scissors
    • white cardstock or poster boards

    • copies of all handouts (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
  • Anticipatory Set

    Before class begins:

    Display as many of the lesson related supplies (see Materials or Specialized Equipment Needed) that you have available, on a table in front of the room.

    Download a “Baby Crying” media from the Microsoft Clip Art images if possible (there are several to choose from). Let it play in the background so that students hear the baby crying as they enter the classroom.

    As class begins, ask the students why they think babies cry. There are several possible answers such as hungry, wet, sick, tired, uncomfortable, and so forth.

    Explain to them that they will be exploring the different types of development in infants.

    • What are the possible effects of restricting a baby’s movement?
    • How can reading to your child be beneficial?
    • Why is play important for a child?
    • What is cognitive development?
    • Why is it important for children to use their senses in order to promote cognitive development?
    • What role do materials, supplies, books and toys play in the cognitive environment?
    • Why is it important for babies to exercise?
    • Why is it important to organize the environment and plan activities for young children?

  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce lesson objectives, terms, and definitions.

    Distribute handout Four Areas of Development: Infancy to Toddlers Notes (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will be expected to take notes while viewing the slide presentation.

    Introduce PowerPoint™ Four Areas of Development: Infancy to Toddlers (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and begin discussion with students. Allow for questions and answers to check for understanding.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • check for understanding
    • copy of slide presentation provided
    • allow students to make illustrations instead of writing out information

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Distribute Activities to Promote Development in Infants and The Importance of Toys and Play (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students are to complete both handouts. Allow for questions and answers to check for understanding.

    Throughout the discussion ask questions such as:

    • How can cognitive development in children be measured?
    • Explain how children use their five senses to learn about the world around them.
    • What does social development involve, and how do children learn what behavior is acceptable?
    • Why is it important to understand the importance of early brain development?
    • How does caregiving affect brain development?

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • highlight materials for emphasis
    • provide students with vocabulary list with definitions prior to lesson
    • work with a peer tutor
    • use study guides

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Discuss how play is a form of learning, especially for young children. Distribute the instructions for the Four Areas of Development Game handout. Review the rubric on the handout. In groups of four, students are to develop their own game.

    They can use any format for the games, but they need to teach something about what they’ve learned in the class. Discuss the requirements on the handout with the class and answer any questions they may have.

    Provide the students with white cardstock, poster board, scissors, markers, rulers and any supplies for them to use to create their games.

    Provide Template for Spinner #2 for students to use with their games.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • work with a peer tutor
    • extended time for assignment
    • provide printed instructions for assignment

  • Lesson Closure

    Review lesson objectives, terms, and definitions.

    Allow the students to play the Four Area of Development Games. Then, trade each group’s games and allow the other classmates to play and grade their game.

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Students will be assessed with the rubric on the Rubric for Four Areas of Development Game.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • grading according to work done
    • providing praise and encouragement

  • References/Resources

    Images:

    • Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft.

    Publication:

    • Helping Your Preschool Child
      U.S. Department of Education Office of Communications and Outreach. Helping Your Preschool Child . Washington, D.C., 2005

    Textbooks:

    • Decker, C., & Ryder, V. (2010). Parents and their children. (7th ed., pp. 298-335). Tinley Park: The Goodheart-Willcox Publishing Company.

    Websites:

    YouTube™:

    • Baby and Toddler Milestones
      In this public service video for parents, Lisa Shulman, M.D., uses video of babies and toddlers to show the communication milestones expected in typically developing children.
      http://youtu.be/pZSjm0drIGM
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

    • word wall
    • draw visual representations of terms on word wall
    • The Four Corner Vocabulary Activity is a great instructional strategy for English Language Learners. A variation of this activity is to have students document the information, using an index card per word, and create their own Personal Dictionary. The left hand corner of each index card can be hole punched and deck can be held together with an over-sized notebook ring.
      http://cte.sfasu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Four-Corner-Vocabulary2.pdf
  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism, and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Recommended Strategies

    Reading Strategies

    Current Events:
    Assign students to read about children and nutrition or food concerns.
    Information can be found in newspaper articles, magazines, journals, and online print.
    Suggestions:
    Developmental Screening Fact Sheet (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
    Helping Your Preschool Child (see All Lesson Attachments tab)

    Encourage students to “visualize” as they read. Many students are visual learners and will benefit from making sketches or diagrams as they read. Providing students with graphic organizers to help them organize their thoughts is also helpful.

  • Quotes

    The truth is, no matter how trying they become, babies two and under don’t have the ability to make moral choices, so they can’t be ‘bad.’ That category only exists in the adult mind.
    -Anne Cassidy

    For infants and toddlers learning and living is the same thing. If they feel secure, treasured, loved, their own energy and curiosity will bring them new understanding and new skills.
    -Amy Laura Dombro

    A child’s spirit is like a child, you can never catch it by running after it; you must stand still, and, for love, it will soon itself come back.
    -Arthur Miller

    A mother understands what a child does not say.
    -Unknown

  • Multimedia/Visual Strategies

    PowerPoint™:

    • Four Areas of Development: Infancy to Toddler
    • Presentation Notes for Four Areas of Development: Infancy to Toddler

    Technology:

    YouTube™:

    • Baby and Toddler Milestones
      In this public service video for parents, Lisa Shulman, M.D., uses video of babies and toddlers to show the communication milestones expected in typically developing children.
      http://youtu.be/pZSjm0drIGM

    Files for downloading:

  • Graphic Organizers/Handout

    Graphic Organizers:

    • Four Areas of Development: Infancy to Toddlers Notes

    Handouts:

    • Activities to Promote Development in Infants
    • Developmental Screening Fact Sheet
    • Four Areas of Development Game
    • Helping Your Preschool Child
    • Rubric for Four Areas of Development Game
    • Template for Spinner #2
    • The Importance of Toys and Play

    Files for downloading:

  • Writing Strategies

    Journal Entries:

    • What are the possible effects of restricting a baby’s movement?
    • How can reading to your child be beneficial?
    • Why is play important for a child?
    • Why is it important for children to use their senses in order to promote cognitive development?

    Writing Strategies:

    • RAFT Writing Stategy
      RAFT (Role/Audience/Format/Topic) writing strategy:
      Role: parent of baby
      Audience: baby
      Format: diary entry-one per month for the first year
      Topic: how I am developing physically, month by month
      Write a diary entry explaining to your child how they have changed in a month’s time. What new things are they discovering? What activities are they interested in?
  • Communication 90 Second Speech Topics

    • What role do materials, supplies, books and toys play in the cognitive environment?
    • Why is it important for babies to exercise?
    • Why is it important to organize the environment and plan activities for young children?
  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    Consider the senses: vision, hearing, taste, smell and touch. For each one, design a stimulating sensory activity you could do with an infant to help them learn about their environment.

    Free materials: Order, download, and print fact sheets, milestone checklist, posters, a growth chart, materials in other languages, and more at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/freematerials.html

    TEDx Talk:

    TED is a nonprofit organization devoted to spreading ideas, usually in the form of short, powerful talks (18 minutes or less). The video below is related to this lesson. Allow students to view the video and lead a discussion concerning the TED Talk.

    Alison Gopnik: What Do Babies Think?
    Her research explores the sophisticated intelligence-gathering and decision-making that babies are really doing when they play.
    http://www.ted.com/talks/alison_gopnik_what_do_babies_think

  • Family/Community Connection

    Plan a field trip to your school daycare or a daycare facility in the neighborhood for students to observe children in action. Have students make a chart that displays the types of development observed or not observed at all.

  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career, and Community Leaders of America

    www.fcclainc.org

    STAR Events:

    • Applied Technology – An individual or team event: Recognizes participants who develop a project using technology that addresses a concern related to Family and Consumer Sciences and/or related occupations. The project integrates and applies content from academic subjects.
    • Chapter Service Project (Display and Manual): A team event – recognizes chapters that develop and implement an in-depth service project that makes a worthwhile contribution to families, schools, and communities. Students must use Family and Consumer Sciences content and skills to address and take action on a community need.
    • Families First- Students display research posters, mobiles, tri-fold boards on the development of an infant at a school open house or community
  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to lesson.
    http://www.nylc.org/

    Possible idea:
    Blankets, Babies, and HIV/AIDS Awareness
    After reading an article about babies born with AIDS, students can take an active role in publicizing that the disease affects everyone, even the youngest of children. They can make baby blankets, which would not only serve as a visual aid in their presentations on AIDS to other students, but would also be welcome gifts for local babies living with the disease.

    The completed blankets can tour the school, and the students can create a lesson about AIDS to teach other students. Afterwards, the students can donate the blankets to a local organization for babies with AIDS.