Focusing on the Needs of Children

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Human Services

    Course : Principles of Human Services

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (3) The student demonstrates the skills necessary to enhance personal and career effectiveness in counseling and mental health services. The student is expected to:
      • (F) investigate causes, prevention and treatment of domestic and relationship violence
    • (4) The student demonstrates the skills necessary to enhance personal and career effectiveness in early childhood development and services. The student is expected to:
      • (A) identify the basic needs of children
      • (B) analyze the responsibilities of caregivers for promoting the safety and development of children
      • (C) evaluate developmentally appropriate guidance techniques for children
      • (D) investigate causes, preventions and treatment of child abuse
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • identify the basic developmental needs of children
    • understand guidelines which help parents maintain a healthy and safe environment for children
    • identify proper guidance methods and give examples for positive methods which could be utilized
    • recognize the causes, prevention and treatment of child abuse
    • investigate causes, prevention and treatment of domestic and relationship violence
    • identify resources and agencies to help deter child abuse or domestic violence situations
  • Rationale

    Script:

    An important part of being a parent, caregiver or educator is to understand the needs of children. You will learn the responsibilities of caring for children and the importance of safety, as well as methods for enhancing a child’s development. Prevention programs focus on reducing particular risk factors, or conditions that have been found through research to be associated with child abuse and domestic violence in families. These factors help parents who might otherwise be at risk of abusing or neglecting their children find resources, supports or coping strategies that allow them to parent effectively, even under stress. Did you know that 13,700 children in Texas are abused and neglected every day? This knowledge is invaluable for individuals in all Human Services careers.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Five 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Child Protective Services (CPS): A government agency that investigates reports of abuse and neglect of children

    Communicable: Describes diseases that are passed from one person to another

    Developmental stages: The physical, mental and emotional stages a child goes through as they grow and mature

    Developmental task: Challenges or skills that develop at a particular stage of life

    Domestic violence: The willful intimidation, physical assault, battery, sexual assault and/or other abusive behavior perpetrated by an intimate partner against another

    Emotional abuse: A form of abuse that happens when one person purposely hurts another through constant yelling, teasing or insulting

    Emotional neglect: The failure to provide loving care and attention to family members

    Guidance: Using established methods to teach children acceptable forms of behavior as well as methods to control their own behavior

    Immunize: To protect a person from a particular disease, usually by administering a vaccine

    Maltreatment: To treat in a rough or cruel way; abuse

    Modeling: Imitating the actions of another person such as a parent

    Neglect: The failure of a parent, guardian or other caregiver to provide for a child’s basic needs

    Nurturing: Providing affection, care, love, attention, encouragement and enrichment to children

    Physical abuse: The physical injury of one person by another through such behavior as hitting, kicking, biting, or throwing objects

    Physical neglect: Failure to provide proper food, clothing, shelter, medical care and parental supervision to meet family needs

    Positive reinforcement: Giving praise and encouragement for desirable behavior

    Prompting: Guiding a child to display the type of behavior desired by asking questions

    Redirecting behavior: Having a child focus his or her attention on something other than an undesirable behavior

    Sexual abuse: A form of abuse in which one person forces another to engage in sexual activities

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment

    • computer with projector for PowerPoint™ presentation
    • computers with Internet access (be sure to follow district guidelines)
    • video camera

    Materials:

    • children’s clothes
    • children’s toys
    • dolls
    • stuffed animals
    • pamphlets from social service organizations

    Supplies:

    • copies of handouts (see All Lesson Attachment tab)
  • Anticipatory Set

    Prior to class:

    Teacher note: Refer to the following lessons for additional resources and activities

    Strategies to Deter Child Abuse (Child Guidance)
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/strategies-to-deter-child-abuse

    Child Abuse: The Hidden Epidemic (Child Development)
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-hidden-epidemic

    Children and Safety: Preschool to School-Age (Child Development)
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/children-and-safety-preschool-to-school-age

    Promoting Health and Wellness of Children (Child Guidance)
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/promoting-health-and-wellness-of-children

    Become familiar with how to construct the picture door organizer. This organizer is a multi-purpose tool. The students can incorporate information, key terms, sequential events, graphics and concept ideas. It has a hidden element that will make a presentation pop!
    http://youtu.be/weY4PtrfM3o

    Number index cards 4-7, 9-20 and 22-29. The index cards will correspond to the PowerPoint™ presentation slides and will be used during Direct Instruction and Lesson Closure.

    Obtain a copy of the quotes at http://www.dreamcatchersforabusedchildren.com/media/child-abuse-quotes. You may opt to make copies for each student.

    Before class begins:

    Display as many of the lesson-related supplies (see Materials or Specialized Equipment Needed) as you have available on a table in front of the room.

    Allow the students to observe the supplies and have the quotes at http://www.dreamcatchersforabusedchildren.com/media/child-abuse-quotes on the projector or have copies available for each student. After the students have read the quotes, tell the students to reflect on the reading and write down words or phrases to the quotes that affect our present-day society.

    Allow students to discuss the quotes with other students who sit in front of, beside or behind them.

    After the students reflect on the quotes, ask them the following questions:

    • What are the needs of children?
    • What precautions can parents take to make sure their homes are safe?
    • What precautions can a caregiver take to make sure the child care center is safe?
    • If you have a special needs child, what steps do you need to take to teach him or her about safety?
    • What is child abuse?
    • What is maltreatment?
    • How are children protected against child abuse?
    • Are child care centers regulated? What does that mean? Why are these regulations important?
    • What services and agencies are available for the care and protection of children?
    • What is domestic violence?
  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Prior to starting PowerPoint™, distribute pre-numbered index cards to students – one card per student. During the PowerPoint™ presentation, each student will be required to formulate a question pertaining to the corresponding numbered slide that can be used as a review question. After students have viewed the PowerPoint and formulated their questions, collect the index cards. The cards will be used during the lesson closure activity “Basketball Review Game.” You may need to create additional questions. You will need at least 25 “basic” review questions and 25 “difficult” review questions for the game.

    Distribute handout Slide Presentation Notes (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will be expected to take notes while viewing the slide presentation. Teacher to determine the notes which will be recorded by students.

    Introduce PowerPoint™ Focusing on the Needs of Children (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and begin the discussion with students. Allow for questions and answers to check for understanding.

    Using Slide Presentation Notes (see All Lesson Attachments tab), students will have an opportunity to reflect, review and respond to the information pertaining to the PowerPoint™. They will write a summary of questions, topics or statements which reflect the information from the lesson:

    Discuss the topic

    • Write down your thoughts
    • Make a real-world connection to the lesson
    • How is this going to help you in the future?
    • Allow for questions and answers to check for understanding.

    Distribute handout Domestic Violence Facts (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Topic information will be discussed as a class.

    Distribute graphic organizer Venn Diagram – Abuse: It’s Never Okay (see All Lesson Attachments tab). The students will compare similarities and differences between child abuse and domestic violence.

    YouTube™ videos included in the PowerPoint™:

    • Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline 1-800-4-A-CHILD
      This hotline is staffed 24/7 by degreed counselors.
      http://youtu.be/tQ5uzupV-q8
    • The Kelsey Briggs Story. (True Story Original)
      Kelsey Briggs lost her life before the age of three due to Child Abuse.
      http://youtu.be/EzDP2IFztek
    • Picture Door Organizer
      This organizer is a multi-purpose tool. The students can incorporate information, key terms, sequential events, graphics and concept ideas. It has a hidden element that will make a presentation pop!
      http://youtu.be/weY4PtrfM3o

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for student understanding
    • allowing extra time to complete tasks
    • providing frequent interaction
  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Distribute handout Take 15 (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Discuss that taking 15 minutes to focus on a child in a positive way is a good strategy to deter child abuse and help meet the needs of the child. Individually, students are to list and describe nine ways a parent can interact with his or her child for 15 minutes and the benefits of the interaction. They will then write a summary sentence at the bottom of the page.

    Discuss with students the responsibilities of parents in regards to child safety and the development of children.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • repeating directions
    • allowing extra time to complete tasks

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    How can professional in the field of Human Services prepare themselves to focus on the needs of children?

    You are preparing to work in the field of Human Services and are going to gather information on meeting the needs of families.

    Students will work in a group to construct a picture door organizer as viewed on the PowerPoint™.

    Each group will need:

    • two pieces of construction paper (different colors)
    • scissors
    • glue stick
    • picture from a magazine which relates to the subject area

    Distribute Tools and Strategies to Meet the Needs of Families Project handout (see All Lesson Attachment tab). Students will work in groups of three or four to research the following topics:

    • Guiding Children’s Behavior
    • Promoting the Development of Children
    • Causes, Prevention and Treatment of Domestic Abuse
    • Causes, Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse
    • Maintaining a Healthy and Safe Environment for Children
    • Resources and Agencies to Help Deter Child Abuse or Domestic Violence Situations

    Teacher note: You may assign each group a topic or allow groups to select their topics.

    Students will also:

    • exhibit employability skills such as communication, problem solving, leadership, teamwork, ethics and technical skills
    • demonstrate effective verbal, nonverbal, written and electronic communication skills
    • place all information researched on picture door organizer in a neat and creative manner
    • include a photo related to the project in the organizer

    Teacher will assist students. You may refer to the video if students need a review of the instructions.

    Picture Door Organizer
    http://youtu.be/weY4PtrfM3o

    The project will be assessed by Rubric for Tools and Strategies to Meet the Needs of Families Project (see All Lesson Attachment tab) and an individual reflection. Distribute the rubric and discuss expectations.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed.
    Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • providing positive feedback and encouragement
    • repeating directions
  • Lesson Closure

    Review lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Basketball Review Game

    • Use the questions which were formulated by the teacher and students during Direct Instruction.
    • Buy a small (3-4 inches diameter) ball or make one with a paper wad in the middle surrounded by a few layers of masking tape. Set up the room with a garbage can in the front. This will be the “basket.”
    • Place a piece of masking tape on the floor approximately three feet from the basket, and place a piece of tape on the floor approximately eight feet from the basket.
    • Divide the students into two teams. Explain that each student must answer the questions given to them. Easy and hard questions will be evenly interspersed.
    • Keep score for the questions. Easy questions are worth one point each and hard questions are worth two. If a student gets an easy question correct, he or she has a chance to shoot for an “extra point.”
    • They will shoot from the tape mark that is furthest from the basket. If a student gets a hard question correct, he or she has a chance to shoot for an “extra point.”
    • He or she will shoot from the tape mark that is closest to the basket. The team with the most points at the end of the game wins.
    • You may determine an award for the winners.

    To check for understanding, have students discuss what the effects of abuse can be on a person and a community.
    Do you think abuse is prevalent in our community? Why or why not?
    What do you think the difference is between child abuse and discipline?

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed.
    Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • repeating information and examples
    • allowing extended time to complete tasks
  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Students will be assessed by Rubric for Tools and Strategies to Meet the Needs of Families Project.

    Reflection: Using the information gathered in Tools and Strategies to Meet the Needs of Families Project, each team member is required to write a reflection on their role in this group project and a brief analysis of how this project will assist them with the roles and responsibilities of being a parent or caregiver. The reflection and rubric will be submitted for assessment.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed.
    Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • allowing extended time to complete tasks
    • allowing oral responses
    • repeating directions
  • References/Resources

    Images:

    • Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft.

    Textbook:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child development: Early stages through age 12. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company.

    Websites:

    • Child Abuse and Neglect
      This site, from a bureau of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, provides links to basic information about child abuse and neglect and many other sites and publications that provide more detailed information and help. (Child Welfare Information Gateway)
      http://www.childwelfare.gov/can/
    • Childstats.gov
      This website provides information on key indicators in seven domains: family and social environment, economic circumstances, health care, physical environment and safety, behavior, education and health.
      http://www.childstats.gov/americaschildren/glance.asp
    • National Abuse Hotline
      The National Domestic Violence Hotline receives more than 23,500 calls per month from victims, survivors, friends and family members, law enforcement personnel, domestic violence advocates and the general public. Hotline advocates provide support and assistance to anyone involved in a domestic violence situation, including those in same-sex relationships, male survivors, those with disabilities and immigrant victims of domestic violence. All calls to the National Domestic Violence Hotline are anonymous and confidential.
      http://www.thehotline.org/
    • National Coalition Against Domestic Violence
      The National Coalition Against Domestic Violence is a grassroots non-profit membership organization working since 1978 to end violence in the lives of women.
      http://ncadv.org
    • Prevent Child Abuse Texas (PCATX)
      PCATX is a statewide non-profit organization working to prevent child abuse and neglect in all its forms throughout Texas. The work of the organization depends solely on private grants and contributions. The organization is led by a statewide Board of Directors who represent their regions through community agencies and organizations dealing with social issues affecting children.
      http://www.preventchildabusetexas.org/vitialsdaily.html
    • 2012 Resource Guide—Preventing Child Maltreatment and Promoting Well Being: A Network for Action.
      Resource Guide includes tip sheets for parents and caregivers, ways to get involved and six protective factors.
      http://www.childwelfare.gov/

    YouTube:

    • Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline 1-800-4-A-CHILD
      This hotline is staffed 24/7 by degreed counselors.
      http://youtu.be/tQ5uzupV-q8
    • The Kelsey Briggs Story. (True Story Original)
      Kelsey Briggs lost her life before the age of three due to child abuse.
      http://youtu.be/EzDP2IFztek
    • Picture Door Organizer
      This organizer is a multi-purpose tool. The students can incorporate information, key terms, sequential events, graphics and concept ideas. It has a hidden element that will make a presentation pop!
      http://youtu.be/weY4PtrfM3o
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

    • use drawings, dramatic gestures, actions, emotions, voice, mime, chalkboard sketches, photographs and visual materials to provide clues to meanings
    • if necessary, repeat your actions using the same simple structures and actions
    • simplify your message as much as possible, breaking it into smaller, manageable parts
    • make sure a new student’s attention is focused to give him or her a chance at comprehending
    • don’t insist that students make eye contact with you when you are speaking to them as this is considered rude in many cultures
    • word wall
    • pictured word wall—draw or provide visual representations of terms on word wall
    • http://www.learnerdictionary.com for pronunciation and meaning of domestic violence and child abuse terms
  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Recommended Strategies

    Reading Strategies

    Current Events:
    Assign students to read articles on parental skills and responsibilities. Information can be found in newspaper articles, magazines, journals and online print. Suggestions:

    • Department of Family and Protective Services Strategic Plan for Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Services (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
    • Have students examine the handout Domestic Violence Facts (see All Lesson Attachments tab) from the NCADV (National Coalition Against Domestic Violence). Before the students read the context, have them make predictions about the statistics based on gender, age, injuries and the economic impact. After the students have read the content have them compare their estimated figures with the actual statistics given in the handout. Tell the students that the percentages given in the article are the domestic violence cases that are reported to the police. What percentages of domestic violent cases are not reported to the police?
    • Look for the main points in the written text and write them in an outline.
    • Have students form their own questions about the text prior to reading or have them write down any questions that come to mind as they are reading.
  • Quotes

    An aware parent loves all children he or she interacts with – for you are a caretaker for those moments in time.
    -Doc Childre

    Children are our most valuable resource.
    -Herbert Hoover

    Children are great imitators. So give them something to imitate.
    -author unknown

    When I am asked why a man/woman doesn’t leave the abuser I say: They stay because the fear of leaving is greater than the fear of staying. They will leave when the fear of staying is greater than the fear of leaving.
    - Rebecca J. Burns

    Child abuse casts a shadow the length of a lifetime.
    -Herbert Ward

  • Multimedia/Visual Strategies

    PowerPoint™:

    • Focusing on the Needs of Children
    • Presentation Notes for Focusing on the Needs of Children

    Technology:

    YouTube™:

    • Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline 1-800-4-A-CHILD
      This hotline is staffed 24/7 by degreed counselors.
      http://youtu.be/tQ5uzupV-q8
    • The Kelsey Briggs Story. (True Story Original)
      Kelsey Briggs lost her life before the age of three due to child abuse.
      http://youtu.be/EzDP2IFztek
    • Picture Door Organizer
      This organizer is a multi-purpose tool. The students can incorporate information, key terms, sequential events, graphics and concept ideas. It has a hidden element that will make a presentation pop!
      http://youtu.be/weY4PtrfM3o

    Files for downloading:

  • Graphic Organizers/Handout

    Graphic Organizers:

    • Slide Presentation Notes
    • Venn Diagram – Abuse: It’s Never Okay

    Handouts:

    • Child Maltreatment Data Sheet
    • Department of Family and Protective Services Strategic Plan for Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Services
    • Domestic Violence Facts
    • Hotlines and Online Resources
    • Rubric for Tools and Strategies to Meet the Needs of Families Project
    • Take 15
    • Tools and Strategies to Meet the Needs of Families Project

    Files for downloading:

  • Writing Strategies

    Journal Entries:

    • When I hear about a child abuse case, I feel_________________.
    • The laws to prosecute child abusers are ____________________.
    • Child abuse can be prevented by ___________________________.

    Writing Strategy:

    • RAFT (Role/Audience/Format/Topic writing strategy)
      Role: a five-year-old child
      Audience: parent
      Format: diary
      Topic: please, stop abusing me . . . it makes me feel. . .
    • As an abused victim, you have had enough abuse and need to tell the abuser to stop. How will the abuser respond even if you tell him or her how you feel? Write a letter to express your thoughts about abuse and outline strategies to help the abuser relate to how you feel.
  • Communication 90 Second Speech Topics

    • Share the picture door organizer you designed and explain its content in a 90-second speech.
    • I think abuse is __________________________.
    • Abuse today is ___________________________.
  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    • Investigate agencies within your community that assist victims of child abuse. Formulate a chart with the names of the agency, the people to contact, their contact information and the type of assistance they provide.
    • Research articles on types of activities and factors that most stimulate and enhance children’s intellectual abilities. Report your findings in a well-written paper.
    • Research articles on effective methods for guiding children’s behavior. Develop a paper reporting your findings.
    • The students PSA announcements that they created about preventing child abuse will be shown on the school-wide “Channel One” TVs for one week.
    • Assign students to contact a Crisis Care Center in their community to find out what their policies are, who they serve and what services they provide. The information will be presented to the class.

    TED Talks:

    TED is a nonprofit devoted to spreading ideas, usually in the form of short, powerful talks (18 minutes or fewer). The video below is related to this lesson. Allow students to view the video and lead a discussion concerning the TED Talk.

    Georgette Mulheir: The tragedy of orphanages
    Orphanages are costly and can cause irreparable damage both mentally and physically for its charges — so why are they still so ubiquitous? Georgette Mulheir gravely describes the tragedy of orphanages and urges us to end our reliance on them, by finding alternate ways of supporting children in need.
    https://www.ted.com/talks/georgette_mulheir_the_tragedy_of_orphanages#t-10238

  • Family/Community Connection

    • Discuss with your family a safety plan of action in case of fire or other natural disaster.
    • Invite a guest speaker from the local women’s shelter to discuss how abuse affects the women and children involved. How do shelters encourage women to overcome abusive situations?
    • Interview a police officer on the topic of Domestic Violence and Abuse.
    • Guest speakers may include a child day care owner to speak on guidelines for reporting abuse, a local family or school counselor to speak about abuse and counseling services available for abuse victims, and/or a local law enforcement officer to speak about abuse from a law enforcement perspective.
  • CTSO connection

    Family Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)
    http://texasfccla.org

    Programs and Projects

    • Family First Project – Families First National Peer Education Program through which youth gain a better understanding of how families work and learn skills to become strong family members. The goals are to: help youth become strong family members and leaders for today and tomorrow and strengthen the family as the basic unit of society. To help members focus their projects, Families First offers five units. Members may complete projects in one or several units. There is no particular order to them; although, “Families Today” might be a good place to start. It covers topics that provide a general overview of families and related issues:
      Families Today: Understand and celebrate families
      You – Me – Us: Strengthen family relationships
      Meet the Challenge: Overcome obstacles together
      Balancing Family and Career: Manage multiple responsibilities
      Parent Practice: Learn to nurture children.
    • Focus on Children – An individual or team event that recognizes participants who use Family and Consumer Science skills to plan and conduct a child development project that has a positive impact on children and the community.
  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to the lesson. For additional information on service learning see:
    http://www.nylc.org/

    Example:
    Collect toys, books, clothing and food for local SAFE houses in your area.

    Student will brainstorm ways to inform parents about child abuse awareness. Students will form groups and assign duties to complete the project. Students may print and distribute flyers to local day care centers, medical clinics and police stations to raise child abuse awareness. They will research day care centers in the area and contact the managers/owners of the day care centers to make arrangements to distribute the flyers. The students will deliver the flyers to the day care centers. Afterwards, they will reflect on how the experience, knowledge and skills they acquired related to their project, their own lives and their community.

    Students can arrange to have a clothing drive for the local women’s shelter.

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