Ethical Standards and Confidentiality

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Human Services

    Course : Counseling and Mental Health

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (1) The student applies mathematics, science, English language arts and social studies in health science. The student is expected to:
      • (A) evaluate the use of verbal and nonverbal language in a variety of mental health situations
    • (4) The student models the ethical behavior standards and legal responsibilities related to mental health. The student is expected to:
      • (A) display ethical practices and the principles of confidentiality
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • understand the guidelines and influences of ethical behavior
    • analyze laws and regulations which focus on confidentiality in the workplace
  • Rationale

    Psychologists, psychiatrists, counselors and all other individuals in mental health occupations have an obligation and should take all the necessary precautions to protect confidential information obtained through or stored in any medium. They must also possess ethics in the workplace. What are ethics, and how do they relate to getting and keeping a job in the mental health profession? It is essential to know and follow the code of ethics in any mental health-related occupation.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Three 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Autonomy: Respecting the freedom of clients to make their own decisions and choices

    Beneficence: Promoting good mental health and wellness in others

    Confidentiality: Spoken, written, acted on, in strict privacy or secrecy

    Ethics: Moral principles that govern a person’s behavior; a set of beliefs about what is right and what is wrong

    Fidelity: Loyalty toward clients; honoring your commitments and obligations

    Honesty: Being truthful and loyal in your words and actions

    Integrity: The quality of being honest and having strong moral principles; moral uprightness

    Justice: Treating all people fairly, with respect

    Morality: Involves judgement or evaluation of action; associated with the words right and wrong

    Positive attitude: Behavior that shows someone is happy, has confidence in himself or herself or in others, and believes that life is good

    Nonmaleficence: Not harming others

    Professionalism: The ability to show respect to everyone around you while you perform your responsibilities as best as you can

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with projector for PowerPoint™ presentation
    • computers with Internet access (be sure to follow district guidelines for Internet access)
    • presenter remote

    Materials:

    Items which represent different occupations in Counseling and Mental Health:

    • baby items
    • counseling information
    • child care information
    • doctor’s coat
    • nurse’s uniform

    Supplies:

    • basket
    • cardstock

    Other appropriate lessons

    A Look at Workplace Ethics
    Interpersonal Studies
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-look-at-workplace-ethics/

    What Would You Do? Ethics in Restaurant Management
    Restaurant Management
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/what-would-you-do-ethics-in-restaurant-management/

    What Would You Do? Ethics in Culinary Arts
    Culinary Arts
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/what-would-you-do-ethics-in-culinary-arts/

    What Would You Do? Ethics in Travel and Tourism Management
    Travel and Tourism Management
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/what-would-you-do-ethics-in-travel-and-tourism-management/

  • Anticipatory Set

    Prior to class:

    Display as many of the lesson-related supplies (see Materials or Specialized Equipment Needed) as you have available on a table in front of the room.

    Become familiar with PowerPoint™, handouts and activities. Print the Work Ethics Scenarios in Counseling and Mental Health (see All Lesson Attachments tab) on cardstock and cut apart so that the students can draw one for the activity during Independent Practice. Place the cards in a basket at the appropriate time during the lesson.

    Before class begins:

    Write the terms “ethics” and “confidentiality” on the board or overhead. Distribute the Think-Ink-Pair-Share: Workplace Ethics and Confidentiality (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout. The Think-Ink-Pair-Share activity is an excellent prior knowledge activity that helps students focus their thoughts on a specific topic. The students are asked to first think about what they know, record their ideas on the handout and then pair up with someone to share what they wrote. The final stage is a large group discussion. Share the topic below with the students:

    Topic: You have an appointment to see a psychiatrist to help you resolve some serious issues you are having with your parents. What confidentiality and ethical standards are important for a psychiatrist to possess? Why?

    Allow students time to complete this activity.

    • What are ethics?
    • Why are ethics important?
    • How do work skills relate to the success or failure of a patient/doctor relationship?
    • What ethics and work skills do you possess?
    • Why is confidentiality an important standard for a counselor to practice?
    • Can a counselor/therapist share information learned in a session with his or her spouse?
    • Should a counselor/therapist accept an expensive gift from a client?
    • Should the counselor/therapist allow his/her personal feelings about the client’s situation enter into the situation?
    • Would it be appropriate for the counselor/therapist to see his/her client outside of the therapy environment?

    Lead students to share and discuss their responses.

  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Distribute the True or False: Ethical Standards and Confidentiality (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout prior to viewing the PowerPoint™. Students will read each statement and place a true or false answer in the before (left hand) column of the handout. After they have answered each statement, students are to put the handout away for later use during Lesson Closure.

    Distribute the handout Note Taking: Ethical Standards and Confidentiality (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will take notes while viewing the slide presentation. Teacher will determine the notes to be recorded by students.

    Introduce the PowerPoint™ Ethical Standards and Confidentiality (see All Lesson Attachments tab), and begin a discussion with students. Allow for questions and answers to check for understanding.

    YouTube™ videos included in the PowerPoint™:

    • Ethics in the Workplace!
      A presentation on how companies can easily implement business ethics in the workplace and still achieve their goals.
      http://youtu.be/0mUxMpMTT28

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • providing a copy of the slide presentation

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Distribute the Workplace Ethics (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout. Students will complete the table by listing workplace ethics, the importance of having those particular ethics in a job related to mental health, methods of obtaining the ethics and resources to obtain the ethics.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • allowing students extra time to complete the assignment
    • providing fill-in-the-blank note handouts for students to follow and fill in during the lesson
    • pairing students with elbow partners who can assist them with verbal and written responses to the lesson

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Divide the class into teams of four. Using the Work Ethics Scenarios in Counseling and Mental Health cards (see All Lesson Attachments tab), have each group draw a scenario from the basket. Instruct teams to carefully read the scenario and complete the handout Ethical Standards and Confidentiality Dilemma (see All Lesson Attachments tab). As a team, students will evaluate each scenario using the ethical decision-making model.

    Allow time for each team to read their scenario and provide an outcome for it.

    Allow for questions and discussion. Check for understanding.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • providing shortened, simplified instructions
    • providing repeated instructions
    • providing opportunities to repeat instructions
    • providing written instructions

  • Lesson Closure

    Review lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Students will retrieve the True or False: Ethical Standards and Confidentiality handout they completed at the beginning of Direct Instruction. Students are to respond to the statements again in the after (right hand) column. As a class, compare the two sets of answers.

    Allow for questions and class discussion. Check for understanding.

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Students will each write a one-page personal reflection on what they learned from this lesson and how they plan to use the information now and in the future.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • providing extra time for responses
    • prompting, if necessary

  • References/Resources

    Images:

    • Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft.

    Textbooks:

    • Barry, Patricia D., Mental health and mental illness. Seventh Edition, Lippincott, 2002. Print.
    • Kasschau, R.A. (2002). Understanding psychology. New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill School Publishing Co.

    Websites:

    • Ethics Resource Center (ERC)
      ERC is a nonprofit, nonpartisan research organization, dedicated to independent research that advances high ethical standards and practices in public and private institutions.
      http://www.ethics.org

    YouTube™:

    • Ethics in the Workplace!
      A presentation on how companies can easily implement business ethics in the workplace and still achieve their goals.
      http://youtu.be/0mUxMpMTT28
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

    • Ask students to repeat your instructions back to you to be sure they know what is expected of them before each new phase of the lesson.
    • Discuss vocabulary in detail and make sure everyone has a firm grasp on it before moving forward with the lesson.
    • Use graphic organizers and visuals to explain the lesson in detail.
    • Utilize Four Corners Vocabulary / Word Wall Activity
      http://cte.sfasu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Four-Corner-Vocabulary2.pdf
    • Have students say and write the vocabulary words in their primary languages.
  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Recommended Strategies

    Reading Strategies

    Current Events:
    Assign students to read about the importance of work ethics and skills in a career related to mental health. Information can be found in newspaper articles, magazines, journals and online print.
    Suggestions:

    • Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW)
      Professional ethics are the core of social work. The NASW Code of Ethics offers a set of values, principles and standards to guide decision-making and everyday professional conduct of social workers. It is relevant to all social workers and social work students regardless of their specific functions or settings.
      http://www.socialworkers.org/pubs/code/code.asp
    • Encourage students to connect reading to their life experiences or prior knowledge.
  • Quotes

    It’s up to you today to start making healthy choices. Not choices that are just healthy for your body, but healthy for your mind.
    -Steve Maraboli, Unapologetically You: Reflections on Life and the Human Experience

    Do all kids have to worry about their parents’ mental health? The way society is set up, parents are supposed to be the grown-up ones and look after the kids, but a lot of times it’s the other way around.
    -Ruth Ozeki, A Tale for the Time Being

    Many so-called disorders of the mind are simply disorders of thought.
    -Vironika Tugaleva, The Love Mindset

  • Multimedia/Visual Strategies

    PowerPoint™:

    • Ethical Standards and Confidentiality
    • Presentation Notes for Ethical Standards and Confidentiality

    Technology:

    Free iPad Apps

    Infographic:

    Do the Right Thing: The State of Business Ethics in the United States.
    More Americans are finding work, which is good news. The bad news? We may not be behaving ourselves while we’re there. Reports of workplace ethics lapses are dropping, but backlash against those who speak out is rising – and there are more ominous signs on the horizon.
    https://www.boltinsurance.com/news/miscellaneous/business-ethics-infographic

    TEDx Talk:

    • Building business on character ethic – Kevin Byrne at TEDxNoviSad
      What are the foundations of a successful business? Kevin Byrne shares lessons from his own experience, explaining the importance of vision and values. He would always start with the end in mind, nurturing people instead of growing business.
      http://tedxnovisad.com/2012/08/pretvara-zidove-u-vrata-kevin-byrne/

    YouTube™:

    • Ethics in the Workplace!
      A presentation on how companies can easily implement business ethics in the workplace and still achieve their goals.
      http://youtu.be/0mUxMpMTT28

    Files for downloading:

  • Graphic Organizers/Handout

    Graphic Organizers:

    • Note-Taking: A Look at Workplace Ethics and Confidentiality

    Handouts:

    • American Counseling Association 2014 Code of Ethics
    • True or False: Ethical Standards and Confidentiality
    • True or False: Ethical Standards and Confidentiality (Key)
    • Think-Ink-Pair-Share: Workplace Ethics
    • Ethical Standards and Confidentiality Dilemma
    • Workplace Ethics
    • Work Ethics Scenarios in Counseling and Mental Health

    Files for downloading:

  • Writing Strategies

    Journal Entries:

    • I will demonstrate a 100% commitment at my workplace by _______________.
    • A psychologist can encourage a good work environment in which work ethics are practiced by _______________.
    • Some examples of poor work ethics in the area of mental health are __________________.
    • You have shown great improvement and are the highest producer on your work team. You have asked for a raise but your boss ignores you. What do you do?
    • There is a group at work that often gossips about others on the job. You like these people but don’t want to be a part of the gossip scene. What do you do?
    • Your supervisor wants you to work overtime every week, but you have other commitments outside of work. What do you do?

    Writing Strategy:

    RAFT Writing Strategy
    Role – Psychiatrist
    Audience – Client
    Format – Memo
    Topic – The importance of ethics and confidentiality in the mental health area

  • Communication 90 Second Speech Topics

    • If I were a high school counselor, I would want my students to understand my work ethics by ____________.
    • Ethical behavior standards and legal responsibilities related to mental health are important because ______________.
    • Psychologists may disclose confidential information when ________________.
  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    • Allow students to create their own code of ethics for your classroom. This will encourage them to follow their own rules in the classroom. Display the code of ethics in a prominent area to be reviewed during the school year.
    • Have students complete a ticket out with at least one employability workplace skill they are going to need in the 21st century. A ticket out is a half sheet of paper that students are required to fill out in order to leave class. It gives the teacher an idea of how well the students grasped the concept learned in class that day.
    • Have students create a “What-Why-How on Employability Skill” paragraph by answering each of these questions: What do you think about the topic? (your opinion) Why do you think it? (reasons) How do you know? (evidence or examples)
    • Ethics Resource Center
      This resource includes tips and guidelines for writing codes of ethics, an ethics glossary, values definitions and other short articles on the practice of organizational ethics. Students can develop their own ethical standards for the teaching and training profession.
      http://www.ethics.org/page/ethics-toolkit
    • Workplace Fairness
      The nonprofit organization Workplace Fairness provides workers with information about many issues, including employee rights. Have students pick an issue that they find interesting and write a summary explaining how it affects workers, why they think it is important and how workers can deal with it at:
      http://www.workplacefairness.org/the-issues

    TED Talks:

    TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks videos and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event.

    The video below is related to this lesson. Allow students to view the video and lead a discussion concerning the TED Talk.

    • Building business on character ethic – Kevin Byrne at TEDxNoviSad
      What are the foundations of a successful business? Kevin Byrne shares lessons from his own experience, explaining the importance of vision and values. He would always start with the end in mind, nurturing people instead of growing business.
      http://tedxnovisad.com/2012/08/pretvara-zidove-u-vrata-kevin-byrne/

    Human Services Counseling and Mental Health Writing Prompts

    Think about ethical practices and the principles of confidentiality related to mental health. Write an essay explaining these practices and principles. (9th and 10th grade expository writing)

  • Family/Community Connection

    • Discuss ethics with your family, and decide on the most important values for your family.
    • Invite a panel of professionals from various social service agencies and organizations to discuss panel members’ services and careers.
    • Interview the school counselor to determine how ethical standards and confidentiality are vital to this career.
  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)

    http://www.fcclainc.org

    • Interpersonal Communications – An individual or team event – recognizes participants who use Family and Consumer Sciences and/or related occupations skills and apply communication techniques to develop a project designed to strengthen communication.
  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to the lesson.
    http://www.ysa.org/

    Students can promote ethical workplace behavior by presenting information at a job fair or other community venues detailing qualities for responsible employees.

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