CPR and First Aid Guidelines

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Human Services

    Course : Child Development

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (1) The student analyzes roles and responsibilities of parenting. The student is expected to:
      • (D) demonstrate first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • demonstrate first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills with a skilled professional
    • develop a board game to reinforce content related questions on first aid
  • Rationale

    All individuals should have a basic understanding of first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a technique involving heart and lungs that is used when breathing stops. Administering CPR can restore breathing and restart the heart if heart failure accompanies the loss of breathing. This valuable technique should be learned by all individuals in case an emergency arises where professional help is not immediately available. As a child care caregiver and a parent, it is important to know what to do in a medical emergency. This unit should cover first aid and CPR guidelines.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Four 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Accident: Refers to an unplanned or unexpected event

    Aspiration: To inhale (fluid or a foreign body) into the bronchi and lungs, often after vomiting

    Automated External Defibrillator (AED): A portable device that checks the heart rhythm. If needed, it can send an electric shock to the heart to try to restore a normal rhythm. AEDs are used to treat sudden cardiac arrest

    Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills (CPR) : An emergency procedure for manually preserving brain function until further measures can be started to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest

    Federal Cardiac Arrest Survival Act (CASA): Provides some legal protection for untrained bystanders who respond to emergencies

    First Aid: The immediate and temporary care given to a person who has been injured or who has suddenly become ill

    Shock: Results from a depression of vital body functions. It is a sign that the body is overstressed

    Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA): A condition in which the heart suddenly and unexpectedly stops beating. When this happens, blood stops flowing to the brain and other vital organs

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with projector for PowerPoint™ presentation
    • computers with internet access (Be sure to follow district guidelines for internet access)

    Materials:

    • colored pencils
    • index cards (3 x 5)
    • markers
    • poster board (one board per two students)

    Supplies:

    • cardboard toilet-paper tube (to demonstrate a choking hazard for children)
    • first aid kit with items such as:
      • absorbent cotton
      • activated charcoal (to absorb poison)
      • adhesive bandages
      • adhesive tape
      • alcohol swabs
      • antiseptic for cuts and scratches
      • bandage scissors
      • calamine lotion
      • disposable gloves
      • first aid chart or book (for quick reference)
      • gauze bandages and squares
      • splints
      • towels
      • washcloths
    • Make prior arrangements with the school nurse, physical education instructor or other certified CPR instructor to demonstrate basic first aid and CPR skills (see Guided Practice tab). Investigate the possibility of having your students CPR certified. A small fee may be required.

    • copies of handouts (See All Lesson Attachments tab)
  • Anticipatory Set

    Prior to class:

    Display as many of the lesson-related supplies (see Materials or Specialized Equipment Needed) as you have available on a table in front of the room.

    Become familiar with PowerPoint™, handouts and activities.

    Number index cards 3 through 9 and 11 through 27. The index cards will correspond to the PowerPoint™ presentation slides and will be used during Direct Instruction and Lesson Closure.

    Before class begins:

    Write the terms “CPR” and “first aid” on the board or overhead. Discuss the meaning and definition of each word as it relates to children and families.

    Ask students the following questions:

    • How many of you have younger sisters and brothers? Nieces and nephews? Have you ever had to administer first aid to them? Were you prepared?
    • What does CPR stand for?
    • How many of you are certified in CPR? First aid?
    • How many of you have a first aid kit in your home? In your car?
    • Why is knowing CPR and first aid a priority for parents and caregivers?
    • What is the cardboard toilet-paper tube test?  If an object can fit in a cardboard toilet-paper tube, it’s a choking hazard for small children. Using a cardboard toilet-paper tube, demonstrate different items from your desk or items from your home to show the students if the items are safe around small children.
  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Prior to starting PowerPoint™, distribute pre-numbered index cards to students – one card per student. During the PowerPoint™ presentation, each student will be required to formulate a question pretaining to the corresponding numbered slide that can be used as a review question. After viewing the PowerPoint and the students have formulated their questions, collect the index cards. The cards will be used during the lesson closure activity “Basketball Review Game”. Teacher may need to create additional questions. You will need at least 25 “basic” review questions and 25 “more difficult” review questions for the game.

    Distribute handout CPR and First Aid Guidelines Note-taking (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will be expected to take notes while viewing the slide presentation. Teacher will determine the notes to be recorded by students.

    Introduce PowerPoint™ CPR and First Aid Guidelines (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

    Use appropriate notes from Presentation Notes for CPR and First Aid Guidelines (see All Lesson Attachments tab) for discussion.

    Teacher note:

    The American Red Cross offers two references for individuals on first aid:

    YouTube™ videos included in the PowerPoint™:

    • American Heart Association
      Official 2012 Hands-Only CPR Instructional Video. Learn how to perform CPR in this 60-second video showing Hands-Only CPR in action.
      http://youtu.be/zSgmledxFe8

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • encouraging participation
    • praising the student
    • providing the student with a copy of the slide presentations

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Review basic CPR steps and basic first aid with students. Students will learn basic first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills from a certified CPR instructor such as the school nurse, physical education instructor or local health care provider.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • check for understanding
    • minimize auditory distractions

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Divide the class into subgroups of three to four students. Students will work with partners to research the following information on first aid. You will assign each group one topic to research. They will develop a first aid board game which must include 15-20 content-related questions The board game must include tips, resources, or information. Topics include:

    • Pediatric – Controlling bleeding/shock/burns
    • Adult – Controlling bleeding/shock/burns
    • Pediatric – Muscle, bone, and joint injuries
    • Adult – Muscle, bone, and joint injuries
    • Pediatric – Hypothermia/heat exhaustion/poisoning
    • Adult -Hypothermia/heat exhaustion/poisoning

    Distribute Criteria for First Aid Board Game (see All Lesson Attachments tab) so that the students understand the requirements of the board game. The six games will be played during Summative/End of Lesson Assessment.

    Distribute Rubric for First Aid Board Game (see All Lesson Attachments tab) so that students may understand what is expected.

    Students will be provided with time to create their board games. Provide guidance as needed.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • extra time for assignments
    • positive feedback

  • Lesson Closure

    Review lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Basketball Review Game

    • Use the questions which were formulated by the teacher and students during Direct Instruction.
    • Buy a small (3-4 inches diameter) ball or you can make one with a paper wad in the middle surrounded by a few layers of masking tape. Set up the room with a garbage can in the front. This will be the “basket”.
    • Place a piece of masking tape on the floor approximately three feet from the basket and place a piece of tape on the floor approximately 8 feet from the basket.
    • Divide the students into two teams. Explain that each student must answer the questions given to them. Easy and hard questions will be evenly interspersed.
    • Keep score for the questions. Easy questions are worth 1 point each and hard questions are worth 2. If a student gets an easy question correct, they have a chance to shoot for an “extra point”.
    • They will shoot from the tape mark that is furthest from the basket. If a student gets a hard question correct, they have a chance to shoot for an “extra point”. They will shoot from the tape mark that is closest to the basket. The team with the most points at the end of the game wins.
    • You may determine an award for the winners.
  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    • The completed board games should be placed in different areas of the room as stations.
    • Each group will begin at a separate station. They will read the rules and play the game with their group members for a period of time selected by the teacher.
    • When time is up they will rotate to the next station and repeat the process until they have had a chance to play all of the group’s games.

    Student first aid board games will be assessed with appropriate rubric provided during Independent Practice.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • assisting students with research for poster
    • modifying test if IEP calls for modification
    • giving copies of slide presentations for study

  • References/Resources

    Images:

    • Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft.

    Textbooks:

    Decker, Celia. Child development; early stages through age 12. 7th. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox, 2011.

    Websites:

    YouTube™:

  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

    • Pair up special needs students with others in the class who are advanced or have a special ability to work with and mentor others.
    • Practice newly acquired vocabulary, using it verbally and in writing during the exercises of this lesson plan.
    • Use various partners in pair-share opportunities so that ELL’s learn to speak and listen to various dialects within the classroom.
    • Use pre-reading supports such as graphic organizers, illustrations, and pre-taught topic-related vocabulary and other pre-reading activities to enhance comprehension of written text.
  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism, and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    • Locate a local certified first aid and CPR instructor and make arrangements to have them present the course to your students. The school nurse is often a certified instructor. The American Heart Association is an excellent resource for information on the subject and they have a list of certified CPR instructors in your area.
    • Plan a first aid and CPR certification class for your students.
  • Family/Community Connection

    • Invite the school nurse to speak to the class on the basics of CPR and first aid.
    • Talk to middle school students who are interested in babysitting about the importance of knowing the basics of CPR and first aid.
    • Conduct a first aid kit drive. Collect items and develop first aid kits for use in a home or group setting. Donate the kits to families or child care or education facilities in your area.
  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)

    http://www.fcclainc.org

    National Program:

    STAR Event: Illustrated Talk – An individual or team event – recognizes participants who make an oral presentation about issues concerning Family and Consumer Sciences and/or related occupations. Participants use visuals to illustrate content of the presentation.

  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to the lesson.
    http://www.ysa.org/

    Plan a peer education project where the students inform other students about the importance of CPR and first aid.

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