Children’s Needs: The Foundation of Growth and Development

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Human Services

    Course : Child Development

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (4) The student investigates strategies for optimizing the development of toddlers of diverse backgrounds, including those with special needs. The student is expected to:
      • (A) analyze the physical, emotional, social and intellectual needs of the toddler
    • (5) The student analyzes the growth and development of preschool children of diverse backgrounds, including those with special needs. The student is expected to:
      • (A) analyze the physical, emotional, social and intellectual needs of the preschool child
    • (6) The student analyzes the growth and development of school-age children of diverse backgrounds, including those with special needs. The student is expected to:
      • (A) analyze the physical, emotional, social and intellectual needs of the school-age child
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • identify needs indicative of toddlers, preschoolers and school-age children
    • determine the principles of development in children
    • develop appropriate strategies for optimizing the development of children
  • Rationale

    As a parent or caregiver, it is important to understand child growth and development. It can help develop positive relationships with children and instill effective parenting and caregiver skills. What are some strategies to optimize the physical, intellectual, emotional and social development of children, including those with special needs? What are the roles and responsibilities of parents and caregivers working with special needs individuals? As a future employee in Human Services, it is important to understand the nature of all children including those with special needs.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Three 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Cognitive development: Intellectual growth that begins at birth and continues through adulthood

    Communication disorder: A disorder which renders a child unable to speak or understand spoken language

    Disability: Any condition that prevents, delays or interferes with a child’s normal achievement and development

    Emotional development: The process by which infants and children begin developing the capacity to experience, express, and interpret emotions

    Gifted/talented: Gifted/talented children show a potential for high achievement; their talents may be in intellectual, creative, academic or leadership areas

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): The federal law that grants children with disabilities the right to receive “a free appropriate public education”

    Intellectual development: The growth of children which allows their brains to become capable of understanding and evaluating concepts to make sense of the world around them

    Learning disability: A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical calculations

    Milestones: A significant point in development

    Social development: The process of learning the skills that enable a person to interact and communicate with others in a meaningful way

    Special needs: A child who’s physical, mental, or emotional abilities or needs are different from those of other children and require special attention

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with projector for PowerPoint™ presentation
    • computers with Internet access (be sure to follow district guidelines)

    Note: If individual equipment is not available, teacher can utilize a projected copy as long as students can see the screen.

    Materials:

    • toddler items such as:
      • books
      • clothes
      • electronic toys
      • toys
    • preschooler items as:
      • blocks
      • books
      • dress-up clothes
      • finger puppets
      • manipulative toys
      • music player
      • trucks
    • school-age items as:
      • board games
      • books
      • children’s magazine
      • craft items and tools
      • puppets
      • puzzles
      • video games

    Supplies:

    • basket or container
    • buttons
    • brown paper bag
    • cardstock
    • colored pencils
    • construction paper
    • crayons
    • empty containers such as an oatmeal or cereal box
    • dowel sticks
    • glue
    • hand needles
    • magazines to cut pictures out
    • markers
    • paper plates
    • pipe cleaners
    • scissors
    • scraps of fabric and felt
    • shoe box
    • socks
    • thread
    • wiggly eyes
    • yarn

    Other appropriate lessons

    A Caregiver’s Responsibilities
    Child Guidance
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-caregivers-responsibilities

    Four Areas of Development: Infancy to Toddler
    Child Development
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/fours-areas-of-development-infancy-to-toddler

    Four Areas of Development: Preschool to School-Age
    Child Development
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/fours-areas-of-development-preschool-to-school-age

    Researching Learning Disabilities
    Human Growth and Development
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/researching-learning-disabilities

    • copies of handouts (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
  • Anticipatory Set

    Prior to class:

    Become familiar with PowerPoint™, handouts and activities.

    Display as many of the lesson-related materials (see Materials or Specialized Equipment Needed) as you have available on a table in front of the room.

    Place the items on a table in front of the room. Items can include:

    • toddler items such as:
      • books
      • clothes
      • electronic toys
      • toys
    • preschooler items as:
      • blocks
      • books
      • dress-up clothes
      • finger puppets
      • manipulative toys
      • music player
      • trucks
    • school-age items as:
      • board games
      • books
      • children’s magazine
      • craft items and tools
      • puppets
      • puzzles
      • video games

    Before class begins:

    Place the students in sub-groups of four. Have one person from each group select one item from the table and return to their team. Instruct groups to determine whether the selected item meets the emotional/social, intellectual or physical needs of a child. Have groups share their findings with the class.

    Follow-up questions may include:

    • What are some ways parents and caregivers can stimulate development in children?
    • What is an age-appropriate toy?
    • What would you predict might happen if parents or caregivers did not understand the interrelationship of developmental areas?
    • What does the interrelationship of developmental areas affect strategies parents might use to optimize their child’s development?

    Teacher note: Display the items for the duration of the lesson.

    Distribute the Anticipation Guide – Children’s Needs: The Foundation of Growth and Development (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout prior to viewing the PowerPoint™. Prior to the start of this lesson, the students will read each statement and place a check mark by each statement they THINK is true. After they have answered each statement, students are to put the handout away for later use during Lesson Closure.

  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce lesson, objectives, terms and definitions.

    Distribute the graphic organizer Note-taking – Children’s Needs: The Foundation of Growth and Development (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will be expected to take notes and participate in discussions while viewing the slide presentation..

    Introduce the PowerPoint™ Children’s Needs: The Foundation of Growth and Development (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Allow time for questions and class discussion.

    Use appropriate notes from Presentation Notes for Children’s Needs: The Foundation of Growth and Development (see All Lesson Attachments tab) for discussion.

    Using the Note-taking – Children’s Needs: The Foundation of Growth and Development (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout, students will have an opportunity to reflect upon, review and respond to the information pertaining to the PowerPoint™. They will write a summary of statements which reflect the information from the lesson:

    • Discuss the topic
    • Write down your thoughts
    • Make a real-world connection to the lesson
    • How is this going to help you in the future?

    Allow for questions and answers and check for understanding.

    Videos included in the PowerPoint™ presentation:

    • Four-Year-Old Child Development Stages and Milestones | Help Me Grow MN
      Do you know the typical development stages and milestones for a four-year-old child? By age four, your child should be beyond several cognitive, communication and social stages. Help your child develop and grow on schedule. Recognize the signs of a child who is not developing like they should.
      http://youtu.be/o0TGczdbiV4
    • Two-Year-Old Child Development Stages and Milestones/Help Me Grow MN
      Do you know the typical development stages and milestones of a two-year-old? By two years of age, your child has new language and cognitive skills. Ensure they are developing properly by recognizing the signs and how to help if they are behind children their age.
      http://youtu.be/y9Mm85UAWvM
    • Supporting Children’s Individual Needs
      Early childhood professionals face the continual challenge of planning for the entire classroom while meeting each child’s individual needs. In e-clip #6, Dr. Ann Gruenberg stresses the importance of observing children and assessing their strengths and needs to determine how best to support them, and teacher Niloufar Rezai reflects on strategies she used to identify and support a child’s learning needs, including working closely with the child’s family and giving them ideas for activities to do at home.
      http://youtu.be/e62L1DeKVJA
    • Ten Things Your Child Needs Every Day
      Children are experts at telling their parents what they want. They demand new toys, new video games and new cell phones. Sadly, children can rarely tell their parents what they need…really need, in order to feel safe, valued and deeply connected.
      http://youtu.be/PzcmfXsYUXc

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • providing students with a copy of the notes or a fill-in-the-blank note sheet to follow along with instruction
    • pairing up students with partners who can assist them with verbal and written responses to the lesson

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Ask, “What makes a toy age-appropriate and educational for toddlers? Preschoolers? School-age children?” Have students brainstorm examples of age-appropriate and educational games, toys and activities. Distribute the Age-Appropriate Educational Games, Toys and Activities (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout. Students will research age-appropriate educational games/toys/activities for each age level. Students will complete the handout with the appropriate information.

    Allow time for review of completed handouts, questions and discussion.

    Teacher note: Determine whether the following activity will be completed individually or groups of two to three.

    Designate a location for the supplies such as:

    • basket or container
    • buttons
    • brown paper bag
    • cardstock
    • colored pencils
    • construction paper
    • crayons
    • empty containers such as an oatmeal or cereal box
    • dowel sticks
    • glue
    • hand needles
    • magazines to cut pictures out
    • markers
    • paper plates
    • pipe cleaners
    • scissors
    • scraps of fabric and felt
    • shoe box
    • socks
    • thread
    • wiggly eyes
    • yarn

    Scenario: Your Aunt Mary had an emergency and needs you to babysit your cousin Ralph. He is ______________ months/years old. You do not have any age-appropriate/educational toys/activities in your home. You will need to create a toy/activity to keep him engaged. Provide a description of the toy/activity and suggestions for use. Be prepared to explain which developmental needs are being addressed.

    Instruct students to use the supplies on the table to construct their toy/activity. Allow the individuals/teams time to construct the educational toy/activity.

    Distribute the The Importance of Play (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Instruct students that completion of handout and sharing of toy/activity will be assessed as a daily grade.

    Check for understanding.

    Teacher note: Display the toys for the duration of the lesson.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • working with a peer tutor
    • participating in a small group/classroom

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Prior to activity:

    • Become familiar with Blendspace.com™. Students will be using it to complete a project during Independent Practice. You must first register and set up an account. Then you can invite your students to Blendspace™ with three simple steps:
      1) Log on to Blendspace™ and click on the owl on the right.
      2) Create a class for your students.
      3) Invite your students by typing their e-mail addresses or copy/pasting from a list.
      Your students will receive an e-mail invitation to sign up for Blendspace™. It’s that simple! View the tutorial at:
      http://youtu.be/mcxnwcy8bUo
    • Print the Teacher Resource Assignment Cards: Strategies for Optimizing the Development of Children (see All Lesson Attachments tab) on cardstock and cut apart so that the students can draw one for the Independent Practice activity. Place cards in a basket or container at the appropriate time of the lesson.

    —-

    Scenario: You have recently been hired as an assistant at the children’s shelter. As a parent or a caregiver of children, it is important to understand the developmental needs of children. Parents and caregivers must also know how to create positive environments for children, including those with special needs. Your first task is to compile a multimedia presentation, using Blendspace™, that focuses on optimizing the developmental needs of children.

    Using the Teacher Resource Assignment Cards: Strategies for Optimizing the Development of Children (see All Lesson Attachments tab), have each student draw a card from the basket or container. The selected card will determine the age group the student will focus on during the project.

    Distribute the Strategies for Optimizing the Development of Children Project (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout. Inform the students that their presentation must include the following information:

    • Emotional development – Providing a loving and caring environment
    • Intellectual development – Providing encouragement, support and stimulation
    • Physical development – Providing proper nutrition; health care; a safe physical environment; exercise, activity and rest
    • Social development – Providing positive guidance; teaching children to cooperate in the family
    • Strategies for optimizing the development of a special needs child

    Explain that information will be expected to be retrieved only from reliable sources.

    Distribute and review the Rubric for Multimedia Blendspace™ Presentation-Strategies for Optimizing the Development of Children Project handout (see All Lesson Attachments tab) so that students are aware of the project assessment procedures.

    Stress that their Blendspace™ presentation must include a minimum of six media tools and resources such as:

    • PowerPoint™
    • relevant website links with pertinent information
    • resources relevant to the development of children
    • services provided to inform parents or caregivers
    • text information uploaded from files
    • two careers pertaining to the agency/topic
    • YouTube™ videos not previously viewed in this lesson

    Distribute the Blendspace™ (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout so that the students understand how to setup and start a Blendspace™ account. Allow students to gather and compile information for their presentation.

    Keep students focused and on task.

    Check for understanding.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • providing specific websites or articles from which students can obtain their research information
    • providing students with a checklist or rubric to help them organize and complete all steps of the process

  • Lesson Closure

    Review lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Students will retrieve the Anticipation Guide – Children’s Needs: The Foundation of Growth and Development handout they begin during Anticipatory Set of this lesson. Students are to reread each statement and place a check mark by each statement they KNOW is true. They are to provide information that PROVES other statements are not true. Students may use the back of the sheet if additional space is needed. As a class, compare the two sets of answers.

    Teacher note: Anticipation Guide Key – Children’s Needs: The Foundation of Growth and Development (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout has been provided for you to check the students’ handout.

    Ask students to share the most important thing they learned from the lesson.

    Allow for questions and class discussion. Check for understanding.

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Blendspace™ presentation will be assessed with the Rubric for Multimedia Blendspace™ Presentation-Strategies for Optimizing the Development of Children Project.

    Optional

    Reflection: Using the information gathered in Strategies for Optimizing the Development of Children Project, students will write a one-page reflection of what they have learned from this lesson and how they will apply it to their lives, now and in the future. Content of the reflection may include how working with special needs individuals and children requires continual evaluation and readjustment.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • assisting students with research for assignments
    • modifying assignments if IEP calls for modification
    • giving students copies of slide presentations for study

  • References/Resources

    Images:

    • Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft™.
    • Photos obtained through a license with Shutterstock.com™.

    Textbooks:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child development early stages through age 12. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Decker, C. (2004). Children: the early years. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.

    Websites:

    • Building the Legacy: IDEA 2004
      The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a law ensuring services to children with disabilities throughout the nation. IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services to more than 6.5 million eligible infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities.
      http://idea.ed.gov

    YouTube™:

    • Four-Year-Old Child Development Stages and Milestones | Help Me Grow MN
      Do you know the typical development stages and milestones for a four-year-old child? By age four, your child should be beyond several cognitive, communication and social stages. Help your child develop and grow on schedule. Recognize the signs of a child who is not developing like they should.
      http://youtu.be/o0TGczdbiV4
    • Two-Year-Old Child Development Stages and Milestones/Help Me Grow MN
      Do you know the typical development stages and milestones of a two-year-old? By two years of age, your child has new language and cognitive skills. Ensure they are developing properly by recognizing the signs and how to help if they are behind children their age.
      http://youtu.be/y9Mm85UAWvM
    • Supporting Children’s Individual Needs
      Early childhood professionals face the continual challenge of planning for the entire classroom while meeting each child’s individual needs. In e-clip #6, Dr. Ann Gruenberg stresses the importance of observing children and assessing their strengths and needs to determine how best to support them, and teacher Niloufar Rezai reflects on strategies she used to identify and support a child’s learning needs, including working closely with the child’s family and giving them ideas for activities to do at home.
      http://youtu.be/e62L1DeKVJA
    • Ten Things Your Child Needs Every Day
      Children are experts at telling their parents what they want. They demand new toys, new video games and new cell phones. Sadly, children can rarely tell their parents what they need…really need, in order to feel safe, valued and deeply connected.
      http://youtu.be/PzcmfXsYUXc
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

    • ask students to repeat your instructions back to you to be sure they know what is expected of them before each new phase of the lesson
    • discuss vocabulary in detail and make sure everyone has a firm grasp on it before moving forward with the lesson
    • use graphic organizers and visuals to explain the lesson in detail
    • print fill-in-the-blank handouts of the PowerPoint notes for students to follow along with the lesson
    • provide note-taking assistance using Article Stop and Jot
  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism, and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    Encourage the students to take free online courses for working with special populations at Texas A & M Agrilife Extension. For more information, visit:
    https://extensiononline.tamu.edu/courses/specialpopulations.php

    View the YouTube™ video, “Tips for Story Times for Children with Special Needs” at http://youtu.be/oG0B_KWFC8A
    A step-by-step guide for librarians, daycares, parents, guardians and other professionals to help them prepare and deliver story times for children with special needs. To download the how-to guide and find more information visit: http://www.torontopubliclibrary.ca/content/storytime-tips/toolkit.pdf

    Have students develop a booklet for parents on specific ways to discipline special needs children based on age.

    Scenario: You are the owner of a child care center. Make or gather the materials for one or more examples of planned activities for preschool children.

    Human Services Child Development Writing Prompts

    • (4) The student investigates strategies for optimizing the development of toddlers of diverse backgrounds, including those with special needs. The student is expected to:
      • (A) analyze the physical, emotional, social and intellectual needs of the toddler

    Think about the needs of the toddler. Write an essay in which you explain the physical, emotional, social and intellectual needs of the toddler. (9th and 10th grade expository writing)

    TEDx Talk:

    TED is a nonprofit organization devoted to spreading ideas, usually in the form of short, powerful talks (18 minutes or fewer).

    TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks videos and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event.

    TED-Ed’s commitment to creating lessons worth sharing is an extension of TED’s mission of spreading great ideas. This allows users to take any useful educational video, not just TED’s, and easily create a customized lesson around the video.

    The video below is related to the lesson. Allow students to view the video, and lead a discussion concerning the TED Talk.

    Derek Paravicini and Adam Ockelford: In the key of genius
    Born three and a half months prematurely, Derek Paravicini is blind and has severe autism. But with perfect pitch, innate talent and a lot of practice, he became an acclaimed concert pianist by the age of 10. Here, his longtime piano teacher, Adam Ockelford, explains his student’s unique relationship to music.
    https://www.ted.com/talks/derek_paravicini_and_adam_ockelford_in_the_key_of_genius#t-1109180

  • Family/Community Connection

    • Plan a field trip to a day care center to have the students observe toddlers. Students should describe ways toddlers differ from infants in terms of intellectual, social, emotional and physical development.
    • Observe a class of three-year-old children in a child development or child-care center. Compare and contrast the physical, mental, emotional and social development of three of the children. Applying what you have learned from this unit, formulate an explanation for the differing developmental levels of the children. A portion of your explanation may be speculative. Also, construct a one-day schedule of activities for this age group that would address and promote their physical, mental and social development.
    • Invite a pediatrician or child psychologist to explain the temperament, skills and development of preschoolers.
    • Write a story from a preschooler’s point of view which will help parents understand how a preschooler feels, develops and speaks.
    • Invite the school district’s Director of Special Education to explain strategies caregivers can use with special needs children.
  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)

    http://www.texasfccla.org

    STAR Events:

    • Early Childhood Education Event – An individual event that recognizes participants who demonstrate their ability to use knowledge and skills gained from their enrollment in an occupational Early Childhood Education program.
    • Focus on Children – An individual or team event that recognizes participants who use Family and Consumer Sciences skills to plan and conduct a child development project that has a positive impact on children and the community. Childhood development encompasses birth through adolescence.
    • Interpersonal Communications – An individual or team event that recognizes participants who use family and consumer sciences and/or related occupational skills and apply communication techniques to develop a project designed to strengthen communication in a chosen category: community, employment relationships, family, peer groups or school groups.

    Texas Association of Future Educators (TAFE)

    tafeonline.org

    Competitive Events:

    • Researching Learning Challenges Competition – Understanding how to support students with special needs is central to success as an educator. This competition offers Future Educators Association (FEA) students the opportunity to explore deeply and to develop recommendations regarding effective educational supports for students with special needs.
  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to the lesson. For additional information on service learning see
    http://www.ysa.org.

    Volunteer at a homeless shelter with children. Design an educational program to meet the emotional/social, intellectual and physical needs of the children. Donate books, games and arts and crafts materials to the shelter.

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