Children and Safety: Preschool to School-Age

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Human Services

    Course : Child Development

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (5) The student analyzes the growth and development of preschool children of diverse backgrounds, including those with special needs. The student is expected to:
      • (D) use complex inferences from text to support conclusions about care and protection of preschool children such as child care, family violence and abuse, guidance, services and agencies and appropriate health care
      • (F) identify appropriate licensing regulations for preschools
    • (6) The student analyzes the growth and development of school-age children of diverse backgrounds, including those with special needs. The student is expected to:
      • (D) investigate care and protection of school-age children such as child care, abuse, guidance, services and agencies, immunizations and appropriate health care
      • (H) discuss legislation and public policies affecting children
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • summarize resources designed for care and protection of preschool children
    • create a 12-month calendar depicting care and protection of preschool and school-age children
    • understand the importance of legislation and public policies affecting children
  • Rationale

    As a caregiver in a child care setting and in contact with children, you should be observant and safety conscious. Accidents are the major cause of injury and death among young children. Therefore, planning and maintaining safe surroundings is crucial. As a caregiver or parent of a child with special needs, you must take extra precautions to keep the child safe. This is accomplished by following safety regulations, legislation and public policies, continually monitoring the environment, and teaching children safety information appropriate to their ages. Safety is everyone’s responsibility.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Four 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Abandonment: It is now defined in many states as a form of neglect. In general, a child is considered to be abandoned when the parent’s identity or whereabouts are unknown, the child has been left alone in circumstances where the child suffers serious harm, or the parent has failed to maintain contact with the child or provide reasonable support for a specified period of time

    Accident: Refers to an unplanned or unexpected event

    Child Protective Services (CPS): A government agency that investigates reports of abuse and neglect of children

    Cognitive impairments: Cognitive impairment occurs when problems with thought processes occur. It can include loss of higher reasoning, forgetfulness, learning disabilities, concentration difficulties, decreased intelligence, and other reductions in mental functions. Cognitive impairment may be present at birth or can occur at any point in a person’s lifespan

    Concussion: A concussion is a brain injury. Concussions are caused by a bump or blow to the head

    Emotional abuse: It is a pattern of behavior that impairs a child’s emotional development or sense of self-worth. It is also called psychological abuse

    Immunizations: Special medicines given to protect a person from serious illnesses; can be given as an injection, tablet, or liquid

    Milestones: A significant point in development

    Neglect: It is the failure of a parent, guardian, or other caregiver to provide for a child’s basic needs

    Physical abuse: It is non-accidental physical injury (ranging from minor bruises to severe fractures or death) as a result of punching, beating, kicking, biting, shaking, throwing, stabbing, choking, hitting (with a hand, stick, strap, or other object), burning, or otherwise harming a child, that is inflicted by a parent, caregiver, or other person who has responsibility for the child

    Sexual abuse: It includes activities by a parent or caregiver such as fondling a child’s genitals, penetration, incest, rape, sodomy, indecent exposure, and exploitation through prostitution or the production of pornographic materials

    Special needs: A child, who’s physical, mental, or emotional abilities or needs are different from those of other children and require special attention

    Substance abuse: It is an element of the definition of child abuse or neglect in many states. Circumstances that are considered abuse or neglect in some states include prenatal exposure of a child to harm due to the mother’s use of an illegal drug or other substance. It can also include the manufacture of methamphetamine in the presence of a child

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with projector for PowerPoint™ presentation
    • computers with Internet access (be sure to follow district guidelines for Internet access)
    • presenter remote

    Materials:

    • colored pencils
    • index cards (3 x 5)
    • markers
    • poster board (one board per two students)

    Supplies:

    • child care handbook from Child Care Center
    • cleaning supplies
    • fire extinguisher
    • first-aid kit
    • food items such as
      • popcorn
      • grapes
      • peanuts
    • masking tape
    • newspaper
    • safety locks
    • smoke alarm
    • toys with long cords or strings
    • toys with small beadlike objects inside
    • trash can

    • copies of all handouts (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
  • Anticipatory Set

    Before class begins:

    Teacher note: Refer to lesson: Strategies to Deter Child Abuse for additional resources and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/strategies-to-deter-child-abuse/

    Refer to lesson: The Hidden Epidemic for additional resources and activities at http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-hidden-epidemic/

    Number index cards 2 through 28. The index cards will correspond to the PowerPoint™ presentation slides and will be used during Direct Instruction and Lesson Closure.

    Display as many of the lesson-related supplies (see Materials or Specialized Equipment Needed) that you have available on a table in front of the room.

    Allow the students to observe the supplies and ask them the following questions:

    • Why is safety a priority for parents and caregivers of preschool to school-age children?
    • What precautions can parents take to make sure their home is safe?
    • What precautions can a caregiver take to make sure the child care center is safe?
    • If you have a special needs child, what steps would you need to take to teach him or her about safety?
    • What is child abuse?
    • How are children protected against child abuse?
    • Are child care centers regulated? What does that mean? Why are these regulations important?
    • What services and agencies are available for the care and protection of children?
  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce lesson objectives, terms, and definitions.

    Prior to starting PowerPoint™, distribute pre-numbered index cards to students – one card per student. During the PowerPoint™ presentation, each student will be required to formulate a question pretaining to the corresponding numbered slide that can be used as a review question. After viewing the PowerPoint and the students have formulated their questions, collect the index cards. The cards will be used during the lesson closure activity “Basketball Review Game”. Teacher may need to create additional questions. You will need at least 25 “basic” review questions and 25 “more diffiicult” review questions for the game.

    Distribute handout Children and Safety: Preschool to School-Age Notes (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will be expected to take notes while viewing the slide presentation. Teacher to determine the notes which will be recorded by students.

    Introduce PowerPoint™ Children and Safety: Preschool to School-Age (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and begin the discussion with students. Allow for questions and answers to check for understanding.

    Distribute handout The Past – The Timeline in History (see All Lesson Attachments tab).
    Pause PowerPoint™ at slides 7-8 and discuss the timeline of the Child Labor Reform and the U.S. Labor Movement. Allow students to take notes. Allow for questions and answers to check for understanding.

    YouTube™ videos included in the PowerPoint™:

    • FBI Child ID App For Cell Phones
      The FBI app is a step in the right direction to protect kids in the horrific event a child does go missing.
      http://youtu.be/NGKcgxz87AE
    • Fire Safety for Families of Children with Special Needs
      Safe Kids Worldwide’s video series shows three families as they approach fire safety practices specific to their children’s special needs. Each piece is tailored towards a specific special need and provides an invaluable resource to you as a parent or caregiver.
      http://youtu.be/tWB4DMztPFo

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • providing a copy of slide presentation

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Distribute 12-Month Calendar Project handout. Independently or with a partner, students will create a 12-month calendar to promote safety issues for preschool to school-age children. The calendar must include tips, resources, or information on:

    • child care/preschool licensing regulations
    • safety issues
    • child abuse
    • guidance
    • resources designed to care for and protect children
    • immunizations
    • appropriate health care
    • safety for families with special needs children
    • pictures related to preschool and school-age children must be on each month along with the information

    Distribute Rubric for 12-Month Calendar (see All Lesson Attachments tab) so that students may understand what is expected.

    Students will work independently or with a partner to use the following tool to create the calendar:

    Students will be provided with time to complete their calendar. Provide guidance as needed. Allow students to proofread and edit each other’s work.

    Completed calendars may be donated to local child care centers as a Service Learning Project.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • allow note-taker use
    • use cue cards for steps of task
    • use study guides
    • provide study skills instruction

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Students will work independently or with a partner researching and collecting data for their assignment. At the end of each class period, have each student or group give a brief status report on their assignment. Students will complete their assignments and begin presentations.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • allow extended time for writing assignments
    • provide more time for practice of certain tasks
    • provide computers for writing tasks
    • use readers

  • Lesson Closure

    Review lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Basketball Review Game

    • Use the questions which were formulated by the teacher and students during Direct Instruction.
    • Buy a small (3-4 inches diameter) ball or you can make one with a paper wad in the middle surrounded by a few layers of masking tape. Set up the room with a garbage can in the front. This will be the “basket”.
    • Place a piece of masking tape on the floor approximately 3 feet from the basket and place a piece of tape on the floor approximately 8 feet from the basket.
    • Divide the students into two teams. Explain that each student must answer the questions given to them. Easy and hard questions will be evenly interspersed.
    • Keep score for the questions. Easy questions are worth 1 point each and hard questions are worth 2. If a student gets an easy question correct, they have a chance to shoot for an “extra point”.
    • They will shoot from the tape mark that is furthest from the basket. If a student gets a hard question correct, they have a chance to shoot for an “extra point”. They will shoot from the tape mark that is closest to the basket. The team with the most points at the end of the game wins.

    You may determine an award for the winners.

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Student oral presentations of their calendars will be assessed with appropriate rubric provided during Guided Practice.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • tape record lectures
    • break difficult tasks into smaller parts; teach each part separately if needed
    • provide student with optional quiet spot (possibly isolated) to do academic work or to avoid punishment
    • provide frequent teacher/student contacts to help student start and remain on task

  • References/Resources

    Images:

    • Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft.

    Textbook:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child development: Early stages through age 12. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company.

    Websites:

    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
      Tips for a Safe and Healthy Life
      http://www.cdc.gov/family/tips
    • Child Abuse Awareness
      Founded in 1959 by Sara O’Meara and Yvonne Fedderson, Childhelp® is a leading national non-profit organization dedicated to helping victims of child abuse and neglect. Childhelp’s approach focuses on prevention, intervention, and treatment.
      http://www.childhelp.org
    • 2012 Resource Guide—Preventing Child Maltreatment and Promoting Well Being: A Network for Action.
      Resource Guide includes tip sheets for parents and caregivers, ways to get involved, and six protective factors.
      http://www.childwelfare.gov/

    YouTube™:

    • FBI Child ID App For Cell Phones
      The FBI app is a step in the right direction to protect kids in the horrific event a child does go missing.
      http://youtu.be/NGKcgxz87AE
    • Fire Safety for Families of Children with Special Needs
      Safe Kids Worldwide’s video series shows three families as they approach fire safety practices specific to their children’s special needs. Each piece is tailored towards a specific special need and provides an invaluable resource to you as a parent or caregiver.
      http://youtu.be/tWB4DMztPFo
    • Safe Kids.org
      Safe Kids Worldwide is a global organization dedicated to preventing injuries in children, the number one killer of kids in the United States.
      http://www.safekids.org/
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism, and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Recommended Strategies

    Reading Strategies

    Current Events:
    Assign students to read about the importance of children and safety issues for preschool to school-age. Information can be found in newspaper articles, magazines, journals and online print.
    Suggestions:

    • Check the web site of the National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education for safety tips for child care centers.
      http://nrckids.org/
    • Review the web site for the National Program for Playground Safety to learn more about planning a safe play yard.
      http://uni.edu/playground
    • Encourage students to connect reading to their life experiences or prior knowledge.
  • Quotes

    The true penalty for not wearing a helmet is sustaining a traumatic brain injury, not receiving a traffic ticket. We want the public to focus on the real purpose of the law. Helmets protect children from injuries that may result in extensive rehabilitation, permanent disability, or even death, all for entirely preventable reasons.
    -John McPhee, Childhood Injury Prevention Coordinator

    Safety and security don’t just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear.
    -Nelson Mandela, former president of South Africa

    There can be no keener revelation of a society’s soul than the way in which it treats its children.
    - Nelson Mandela, former president of South Africa

    Hugs can do great amounts of good, especially for children.
    -Princess Diana, Princess of Wales

    A person’s a person, no matter how small.
    -Dr. Seuss, author

  • Multimedia/Visual Strategies

    PowerPoint™:

    • Children and Safety: Preschool to School-Age
    • Presentation Notes for Children and Safety: Preschool to School-Age

    Technology:

    YouTube™:

    • FBI Child ID App For Cell Phones
      The FBI app is a step in the right direction to protect kids in the horrific event a child does go missing.
      http://youtu.be/NGKcgxz87AE
    • Firefighter teaches at Preschool, so kids are not afraid
      Firefighter teaching kids about fire safety, and how to NOT be afraid of firefighters even though they may look scary in all the gear.
      http://youtu.be/ra9td-38mmI
    • Fire Safety for Families of Children with Special Needs
      Safe Kids Worldwide’s video series shows three families as they approach fire safety practices specific to their children’s special needs. Each piece is tailored towards a specific special need and provides an invaluable resource to you as a parent or caregiver.
      http://youtu.be/tWB4DMztPFo

    Files for downloading:

  • Graphic Organizers/Handout

    Graphic Organizers:

    • Children and Safety: Preschool to School-Age Notes
    • The Past – The Timeline in History

    Handouts:

    • A Fact Sheet for Parents about Concussions
    • Playground Safety
    • Rubric for 12-Month Calendar
    • Sports and Recreation Safety
    • The Past – The Timeline in History (Flow Chart Key)
    • 12-Month Calendar Project
    • 2012 Resource Guide Preventing Child Maltreatment

    Files for downloading:

  • Writing Strategies

    Journal Entries:

    • List at least three basic objectives for providing a safe environment for children at home.
    • It is important to provide constant supervision in a preschool classroom because _________________.
    • Children need to learn about safety limits because _______________________.
    • Some signs that may indicate child neglect are _________________________.

    Writing Strategy:

    RAFT Writing Strategy
    Role – Editor of the local newspaper
    Audience – Community
    Format – Newspaper article
    Topic – Safety in the home

  • Communication 90 Second Speech Topics

    • The primary role of a staff at a child care center is to _______________________________.
    • The four types of child abuse are ________________________________.
    • Three behavior patterns exhibited by emotionally abused children are ____________________________.
  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    • Investigate the last five years of abuse in your community. Categorize the cases by the types of abuse and the sex and age of the child. What trends have been established in the child abuse cases? Have child abuse cases increased or decreased in the past five years? What predictions can be made for the next five years? How can child abuse be prevented?

    Multiple Choice Social Studies Assessment Questions Child Development

    • (6) The student analyzes the growth and development of school-age children of diverse backgrounds,
      including those with special needs. The student is expected to:
      • (D) investigate care and protection of school-age children such as child care, abuse, guidance, services and agencies, immunizations and appropriate health care
      • (H) discuss legislation and public policies affecting children

    10. Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society programs included all of the following EXCEPT?
    a. the Office of Economic Opportunity
    b. the Alliance for Progress
    c. the Elementary and Secondary Education Act
    d. Head Start

    Answer: B

    TEDx Talks:

    TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks videos and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event.

    The video below is related to this lesson. Allow students to view the video, and lead a discussion concerning the TED Talk.

    Gever Tulley: Five dangerous things you should let your kids do
    At TED U, Gever Tulley, founder of the Tinkering School, spells out five dangerous things you should let your kids do — and why a little danger is good for both kids and grownups.
    https://www.ted.com/talks/gever_tulley_on_5_dangerous_things_for_kids

  • Family/Community Connection

    • Research resources available to your community using the newspaper, telephone directory, interviews, or other ways of locating social services and organizations that help children. Find out what services are offered, what qualifications recipients must meet, what the cost is, and how the services or organizations receive funds. Choose one resource you think is particularly beneficial to children. Throughly research the resource and write a report.
    • Contact possible guest speaker related to the role of the school environment on growth and development in addition to the area of care and protection of the school-age child.
    • Arrange to visit a child care center to learn about their safety measures. Ask to view any safety checklists they might use.
  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)

    http://www.fcclainc.org

    STAR Event:
    Early Childhood: An individual event – recognizes participants who demonstrate their ability to use knowledge and skills gained from their enrollment in an occupational early childhood program.

    Focus on Children: An individual or team event – recognizes participants who use Family and Consumer Sciences skills to plan and conduct a child development project that has a positive impact on children and the community.

  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to lesson.
    http://www.nylc.org/

    • Create calendars and donate to local child care centers (see Independent Practice activity)
    • Locate information about local charities that help children who are developmentally disabled, such as Special Olympics. Discuss each organization you find, what it does, and how students can volunteer wth their friends as a group activity. If you are able, plan to volunteer as a class activity.