Children and Safety: Infancy to Toddler

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Human Services

    Course : Child Development

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (1) The student analyzes roles and responsibilities of parenting. The student is expected to:
      • (E) assess the safety of purchases for children such as cribs, toys, clothing, and food
    • (3) The student investigates strategies for optimizing the development of infants of diverse backgrounds, including those with special needs. The student is expected to:
      • (B) generate ideas and gather information relevant to care and protection of infants such as child care options, abuse, guidance, services and agencies, immunizations, and appropriate health care
    • (4) The student investigates strategies for optimizing the development of toddlers of diverse backgrounds, including those with special needs. The student is expected to:
      • (D) identify community resources relevant to the care and protection of toddlers, including child care services, health care services, and organizations such as the National Association for the Education of Young Children
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • evaluate safety considerations for the purchases for children such as cribs, toys, clothing, and food
    • develop a safety checklist for common household items
    • investigates strategies for optimizing the development of infants and toddlers
    • develop an Edcanvas presentation to include:
      • guidelines of safety considerations for the purchases for children such as cribs, toys, clothing, and food
      • research on resources pertaining to care and protection of infants and toddlers
  • Rationale

    “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure”. What does this mean and how does it pertain to the safety of infants and toddlers? How safe is your home for an infant or toddler? What steps would you need to take in your home to prevent an accident with an infant or toddler? What resources are available to care and protect infants in areas such as child care options, abuse, guidance, services and agencies, immunizations and appropriate health care?

  • Duration of Lesson

    Five 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Abandonment: It is now defined in many states as a form of neglect. In general, a child is considered to be abandoned when the parent’s identity or whereabouts are unknown, the child has been left alone in circumstances where the child suffers serious harm, or the parent has failed to maintain contact with the child or provide reasonable support for a specified period of time

    Abuse: Any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation

    Bacteria: Harmful microorganisms associated with foodborne illness. Carried by people, animals, insects, and objects

    Contaminated Food: Food that contains harmful microbes

    Foodborne Illness: Sickness caused by eating contaminated food, sometimes called food poisoning

    Immunization: To make immune. Having a special capacity for resistance (as to a disease)

    Juvenile Products Manufacturers Association (JPMA):  It is a national trade organization that represents the juvenile industry defined as from prenatal to preschool. JPMA has developed a unique certification program and certification seal that have been guiding parents and caregivers for more than 35 years

    National Association for the Education of Young Children: NAEYC’s mission is to serve and act on behalf of the needs, rights and well-being of all young children with primary focus on the provision of educational and developmental services and resources

    Suffocate: To stop the respiration of (as by strangling or asphyxiation) and to deprive of oxygen

    U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC): It is in charge of protecting the public from unreasonable risks of injury or death associated with the use of the thousands of consumer products under the agency’s jurisdiction

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with Internet for multimedia presentations

    Materials:

    Teacher note: Prior to the lesson, you can order “Safe and Sound for Baby A Guide to Baby Product Safety, Selection and Use” by Juvenile Products Manufacturers Association from:
    http://jpma.org/content/retailers/safe-and-sound
    You can also download it and print an English and Spanish copy.

    • broken toys
    • children’s clothing
    • first aid kit
    • food items such a uncooked beans, grapes, and popcorn
    • household cleaners
    • kitchen tools
    • magnets
    • medicine bottles
    • plants
    • safety locks

    Supplies:

    • computer paper
    • glue
    • magazines
    • scissors
    • copies of all handouts (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
  • Anticipatory Set

    Before class begins:

    Print Vital Signs posters (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and display in classroom for the remainder of the lesson.

    Note to teacher: Become familiar with Edcanvas.com. Students will be using it to complete a project during Independent Practice. You must first register and set up an account. Then you can invite your students to Edcanvas with three simple steps:
    1) Log on to Edcanvas and click on the owl on the right.
    2) Create a class for your students.
    3) Invite your students by writing their emails or copy/pasting from a list.
    Your students will receive an email invitation to sign up for Edcanvas. It’s that simple! View the tutorial at:
    http://youtu.be/mcxnwcy8bUo

    Display as many of the lesson related supplies (see Materials or Specialized Equipment Needed) that you have available, on a table in front of the room.

    As the students are seated, have them take out a sheet of notebook paper and number it from 1-10. They are going to take a quiz about children and safety. Ask the following questions:

    True or False
    1. When a baby is teething, many parents will reach for a pain remedy containing benzocaine to help soothe sore gums. This is safe for babies to consume.
    2. Anyone can get food poisoning, but babies and toddlers are at especially high risk and once they become infected, young children can have a hard time getting well.
    3. When done properly, washing hands with warm water and soap is less effective than sanitizers in reducing the number of bacteria and viruses on hands.
    4. Lathering should last 10 seconds – about the time it takes to sing the “Happy Birthday” song – once.
    5. When soap and water aren’t available, sanitizers that contain at least 30 percent alcohol can be a good choice. But, for sanitizers to work, they have to air dry on the hands instead of being dried off with a towel.
    6. Dangerous germs – like hepatitis A virus and rotavirus – can live on surfaces for several weeks. If someone touches those surfaces, germs can get on the person’s hands and then be transferred into the mouth, to other people, or to food. That’s why it’s so important to clean and sanitize frequently-touched surfaces.
    7. Cleaning and sanitizing are the same.
    8. A good “recipe” for a safe and effective sanitizing solution: combine 1 tablespoon liquid chlorine bleach with 2 gallons of water in a clean bucket.
    9. Milk is susceptible to bacterial contamination if it is not handled and stored properly. Breast milk and prepared formula must be refrigerated at 50 °.
    10. Young children are at particular risk for foodborne illness, in part because they have developing immune systems that are not strong enough to combat dangerous pathogens. Their lower body weight allows smaller doses of pathogens to have a greater impact on their health, and compared to adults they have reduced stomach acid production. These acids help to contain dangerous bacteria that enter the body.

    Answers to quiz:
    1. False
    Liquids for mouth and gum pain can lead to a rare but serious—and sometimes fatal—condition called methemoglobinemia, a disorder in which the amount of oxygen carried through the blood stream is greatly reduced.
    2. True
    3. False
    When done properly, washing hands with warm water and soap is more effective than sanitizers in reducing the number of bacteria and viruses on hands.
    4. False
    Lathering should last 20 seconds – about the time it takes to sing the “Happy Birthday” song – twice.
    5. False
    When soap and water aren’t available, sanitizers that contain at least 60 percent alcohol can be a good choice. But, for sanitizers to work, they have to air dry on the hands instead of being dried off with a towel.
    6. True
    7. False
    Cleaning and sanitizing aren’t the same. Cleaning – which is removing dirt and debris – comes before sanitizing. A sanitizing solution is then used to kill germs.
    8. False
    A good “recipe” for a safe and effective sanitizing solution: combine 1 tablespoon liquid chlorine bleach with 1 gallon of water in a clean bucket.
    9. False
    Milk is susceptible to bacterial contamination, if it is not handled and stored properly. Breast milk and prepared formula must be refrigerated at 40 °.
    10. True

    Allow for questions and discussions pertaining to quiz.

  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce lesson objectives, terms, and definitions.

    Distribute handout Children and Safety Note-taking (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will be expected to take notes while viewing the slide presentation. Teacher will determine what notes will be taken.

    Introduce PowerPoint™ Children and Safety: Infancy to Toddler (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and begin discussion with students. Allow for questions and answers to check for understanding.

    YouTube™ videos included in the PowerPoint™:

    • Baby Monitor Safety Tips and Strangulation Warning Video from JPMA
      Are you wondering how to create a safe nursery and sleep environment for your baby? This video will show you how to safely use and position your baby monitor from the Juvenile Products Manufacturers Association (JPMA). Learn more at www.BabyMonitorSafety.org for more information, buying guide and tips.
      http://youtu.be/3MujupBNLBg
    • Secure Your Furniture
      The simplest solution is to install hardware or other devices that anchor furniture to a wall — they’re inexpensive and easy-to-install.
      http://youtu.be/g6oHH9GTzsg
    • Sleep Positioners: A Suffocation Risk
      CPSC and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are warning parents and caregivers to stop using sleep positioners. 
      http://youtu.be/3xvdPpKJoMc
    • Teen to Teen: Magnet Talk
      High-powered magnets are a deadly safety risk to children age toddler through teen. Swallowing incidents are on the rise and can result in surgery. SafetyGov USCPSC.
      http://youtu.be/HmqlhnPt1qk

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • check for understanding
    • copy of slide presentation provided
    • allow students to make illustrations instead of writing out information

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Scenario: You are going to babysit your 1-year-old and 3-year-old cousins for the weekend at your home. Your number one priority is to baby-proof your home.
    With your partner, develop the safety checklist which will include 11 listed items on the handout. Identify five additional items that will require your attention in your home.

    Distribute Safety Checklist for Securing Common Household Items (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Have students work with a partner to develop a safety checklist for the following items:

    • cleaning products
    • dishwasher
    • clothing
    • food
    • furniture
    • gardening and garage products
    • medicines
    • outdoor play
    • personal care products
    • plants
    • toys

    Complete handout and allow for questions and discussion.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • allow students to quietly read aloud (sub-vocalization)
    • teach self-questioning
    • paraphrase key points and have students paraphrase

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Students will work with a partner to create an Edcanvas presentation.

    Students will go to www.Edcanvas.com to create presentation. Teachers will need to set up an educational account prior to start of the lesson. Instructions on how to create an Edcanvas for beginners can be found at http://youtu.be/S-JMl9_7x14
    Explain that information will be expected to be retrieved only from reliable sources.

    Distribute “Child Safety First” Project
    The students will work with a partner to create an Edcanvas presentation. They will add supporting text to each resource.
    The Edcanvas presentation must include:

    • guidelines of safety considerations for the purchases for children such as cribs, toys, clothing, and food
    • research resources pertaining to care and protection of infants such as:
    • child care options
    • abuse
    • guidance
    • services and agencies
    • immunizations
    • appropriate health care
    • determine resources relevant to the care and protection of toddlers
    • child care services
    • health care services

    Distribute Rubric for Multimedia Edcanvas Presentation-“Child Safety First” Project (see All Lesson Attachments tab) so that students are aware of assessment procedures.

    Distribute Hotlines and Online Resources (see All Lesson Attachments tab) for the students to use as an additional reference tool.

    Keep students focused and on task.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • use visual imagery
    • use prereading and post reading activities to pre-teach or reinforce main ideas

  • Lesson Closure

    Review lesson objectives, terms, and definitions.

    Distribute handout Lesson Closure Activity (see All Lesson Attachments tab). The lesson closures activity is an instructional strategy which allows students to summarize main ideas, evaluate class processes, answer questions posed at the beginning of the lesson, and link to both the past and future. It also allows the teacher to evaluate the progress of the students and lesson.

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Students will be assessed by Rubric for Multimedia Edcanvas Presentation-“Child Safety First” Project

    Reflection: Using the information gathered in “Child Safety First” Project, each team member is required to write a reflection on their role in this group project and a brief analysis of how this project will assist them with the roles and responsibilities of being a parent or caregiver. The reflection and rubric will be submitted for assessment.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • shorten writing assignments
    • require lists instead of sentences
    • use Post-It notes for organization
    • provide note takers.

  • References/Resources

    Images:

    • Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft.

    Textbook:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child development: Early stages through age 12. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company.

    Websites:

    • Consumer Federation of America
      When It Comes to Protecting Our Nation’s Children, Regulations are Effective. The CPSIA empowers the CPSC to respond swiftly to emerging toy and product hazards, implement strong safety standards for these products, and immediately inform the American public through an online product database about safety hazards.
      http://www.consumerfed.org/news/627
    • Juvenile Products Manufacturers Association
      Safe and Sound for Baby A Guide to Baby Product Safety, Selection and Use
      http://jpma.org
    • National Association for the Education of Young Children
      Founded in 1926, The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) is the world’s largest organization working on behalf of young children with nearly 80,000 members, a national network of more than 300 state and local Affiliates, and a growing global alliance of like-minded organizations.
      http://www.naeyc.org/
    • Safe Kids
      Here you will find a wealth of information from across Safe Kids Worldwide, covering everything from safety basics and fact sheets to activities you can adapt for your lesson plans.
      http://www.safekids.org/

    YouTube™:

    • Baby Monitor Cords Have Strangled Children
      CPSC knows of 7 deaths and 3 near strangulations since 2002 involving baby monitors. Always keep ALL cords and monitor parts out of the reach of babies and young children — at least 3 feet away.
      http://youtu.be/RXhuZivjxUk
    • United States Consumer Product Safety Commission
      In this month’s Consumer Product Safety Commission Recall Round-Up: Dunecraft Water Balz, skulls, orbs and flower toys, DynoCube high-powered magnets, and Enesco’s Shelly’s Diner collectibles.
      http://youtu.be/suS54XU8S0I
    • United States Consumer Product Safety Commission
      Nikki Fleming, CPSC spokesperson discusses whether you just had a baby, expecting a new baby, or taking care of a young infant – it’s important to create a safe sleep environment for your baby.
      http://youtu.be/UGFvlRQFY30
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

    • Make sure students understand the vocabulary (word wall) before moving forward with this lesson. They are to make flash cards using an index card with the word on one side of the card and the definition on the other side. It is important for all students; especially ELL’s to have a firm foundation before moving forward. This is the key to them following the entire lesson.
    • Ask students to repeat your instructions back to you to be sure they know what is expected of them before each phase of the lesson.
    • Discuss vocabulary in detail and make sure everyone has a firm grasp on it before moving forward with the lesson.
    • Use graphic organizers and visuals to explain the lesson in detail.
  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Recommended Strategies

    Reading Strategies

    Current Events:
    Assign student to read about children and safety concerns. Information can be found in newspaper articles, magazines, journals, and online print.
    Suggestions:

  • Quotes

    One of the most important accomplishments of the Caucus is raising awareness with law enforcement and communities nationwide on the issues of child safety and Internet safety.
    -Nick Lampson

    For safety is not a gadget but a state of mind.
    -Eleanor Everet

    Safety doesn’t happen by accident.
    -Author Unknown

    “Safety First” is “Safety Always.”
    -Charles M. Hayes

    Better a thousand times careful than once dead.
    -Proverb

  • Multimedia/Visual Strategies

    PowerPoint™:

    • Children and Safety: Infancy to Toddler
    • Presentation Notes for Children and Safety: Infancy to Toddler

    Technology:

    YouTube™:

    • Baby Monitor Safety Tips and Strangulation Warning Video from JPMA
      Are you wondering how to create a safe nursery and sleep environment for your baby? This video will show you how to safely use and position your baby monitor from the Juvenile Products Manufacturers Association (JPMA). Learn more at www.BabyMonitorSafety.org for more information, buying guide and tips.
      http://youtu.be/3MujupBNLBg
    • Secure Your Furniture
      The simplest solution is to install hardware or other devices that anchor furniture to a wall — they’re inexpensive and easy-to-install.
      http://youtu.be/g6oHH9GTzsg
    • Sleep Positioners: A Suffocation Risk
      CPSC and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are warning parents and caregivers to stop using sleep positioners. 
      http://youtu.be/3xvdPpKJoMc
    • Teen to Teen: Magnet Talk
      High-powered magnets are a deadly safety risk to children age toddler through teen. Swallowing incidents are on the rise and can result in surgery. SafetyGov USCPSC.
      http://youtu.be/HmqlhnPt1qk

    Files for downloading:

  • Graphic Organizers/Handout

    Graphic Organizers:

    • Children and Safety Note-taking

    Handouts:

    • Assessment: The Safety of Toys and Equipment
    • Benzocaine and Babies: Not a Good Mix
    • “Child Safety First” Project
    • Crib Sheets Tips
    • Hotlines and Online Resources
    • Lesson Closure Activity
    • Rubric for Multimedia Edcanvas Presentation-“Child Safety First” Project
    • Safe Sleep for Babies
    • Safety Checklist for Securing Common Household Items
    • Vital Signs

    Files for downloading:

  • Writing Strategies

    Journal Entries:

    • Safety should always be a priority to a parent because__________.
    • Toddlers need special attention because_____________.
    • Infant cribs should have the following safety features………

    Writing Strategy:

    • RAFT Writing Strategy
      RAFT (Role/Audience/Format/Topic) writing strategy:
      Role: parent of a infant
      Audience: Crib company
      Format: Letter of complaint
      Topic: Defects in crib and how to correct them

    Write a compliant letter to a department store that continues to sell children’s pajamas made out of flammable material. Although they know they are out of compliance, they have not stopped selling the sleepwear. What will you say to this store? What other steps can you take to help save children’s lives?

  • Communication 90 Second Speech Topics

    • Child-care mandates and restrictions are necessary because ____________.
    • An example of a type of professional assistance available to children is _____________.
    • An example of a health resource available that benefit children is _________________.
  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    Plan a field trip to a local child care center. Students may complete handout Assessment: The Safety of Toys and Equipment (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

    Meet with business reporters of your local newspaper, and encourage them to do a story about the ways that local businesses are or could be supporting early childhood programs. Another story could be on the “business” of providing child care—all the factors that go into providing a good program for children and their costs as compared to the price parents pay.

    TED Talks:

    TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks videos and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event.

    The video below is related to this lesson. Allow students to view the video and lead a discussion concerning the TED Talk.

    Myriam Sidibe: The simple power of hand-washing
    Myriam Sidibe is a warrior in the fight against childhood disease. Her weapon of choice? A bar of soap. For cost-effective prevention against sickness, it’s hard to beat soapy hand-washing, which cuts down risk of pneumonia, diarrhea, cholera and worse.
    http://www.ted.com/talks/myriam_sidibe_the_simple_power_of_hand_washing

  • Family/Community Connection

    • Organize festivals, fairs, or exhibitions at a community park, shopping mall, bank, or community center. Invite schools, agencies, and local businesses that serve children and their families to provide information about their programs and services. Any group reserving a booth could be asked to provide an activity for young children to enjoy. This can be a great way to have a fun-filled event that provides valuable information and goods to parents and highlights the importance of young children to the community.
    • Invite local retailers to participate in a community-wide event with local organizations. Businesses can show their support of early childhood education while parents learn about local early learning opportunities.
  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) www.fcclainc.org

    STAR Events:

    • Applied Technology – An individual or team event: Recognizes participants who develop a project using technology that addresses a concern related to Family and Consumer Sciences and/or related occupations. The project integrates and applies content from academic subjects.
    • Chapter Service Project (Display and Manual): A team event – recognizes chapters that develop and implement an in-depth service project that makes a worthwhile contribution to families, schools, and communities. Students must use Family and Consumer Sciences content and skills to address and take action on a community need.
    • Families First- Students display research posters, mobiles, tri-fold boards on the development of an infant at a school open house or community
  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to lesson.
    http://www.nylc.org/

    Host a Walk to School Day
    Join thousands of schools around the world to teach school children how to be safe pedestrians as they walk to and from school.

    If you’re an elementary school teacher, administrator, or staff member, and would like to host an International Walk to School Day event at your school, we’ve provided a step-by-step guide, plus downloadable materials for use at the event. You can print at home or provide artwork to your local print shop for t-shirts, stickers, posters etcetera, at http://www.safekids.org/educators/host-iwtsd-event-at-your-school/

    Please check with your school to get approval for your event.

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