Caregiving 101: Early Childhood Development

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Human Services

    Course : Principles of Human Services

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (4) The student demonstrates the skills necessary to enhance personal and career effectiveness in early childhood development and services. The student is expected to:
      • (A) identify the basic needs of children
      • (B) analyze the responsibilities of caregivers for promoting the safety and development of children
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • identify key theories related to the basic needs of children, as described by leading theorists
    • investigate the cognitive, social, emotional and physical needs of children ages one through five
    • review safety standards for child care facilities, including day care licensing, NAEYC and Head Start/Early Head Start to identify key safety requirements
    • select an age group and devise three days’ worth of activities that include different developmental strategies
  • Rationale

    Script:

    Early childhood development is critical to the physical, emotional, social and intellectual development of a child’s life. Children learn with all of their senses by using their eyes, ears, mouths and hands to explore their new world. It is important to understand the aspects of growth during each stage to nurture healthy growth and development of a child. In order to understand the impact of early childhood development on each individual, we should have an understanding of the different theorists who have impacted views on child development, such as Piaget, Erikson, Skinner and Kohlberg. Are you interested in a career caring for young children? We are going to spend some time exploring the developmental needs of young children and how caregivers can provide support and safety.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Four 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Cepha-locaudal development: Related to the long axis of the body, from head to foot; the human development that happens from the head to the foot

    Cognitive development: Refers to the process of growth and change in intellectual/mental abilities such as thinking, reasoning and understanding

    Early childhood: Early childhood is defined as the period from birth to eight years old; a time of remarkable brain growth, these years lay the foundation for subsequent learning and development

    Fine motor skill: Having to do with the ability to manipulate items with the fingers rather than the whole hand

    Gross motor skill: Having to do with the large muscles, such as arms and legs

    Head Start/Early Head Start: A federal program that promotes the school readiness of children ages birth to five years from low-income families by enhancing their cognitive, social and emotional development

    Irreducible: Not to be reduced or lessened

    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Four interdependent levels of basic human needs that must be satisfied in a strict sequence starting with the lowest level; the levels are Physiological, Safety and Security, Love and Belonging, and Self-Esteem

    NAEYC: National Association for the Education of Young Children; the world’s largest organization working on behalf of young children

    Physical development: Growth in the ability of children to use their bodies and physical skills, including both gross and fine motor skills

    Proximal-distal development: Related to the short axis of the body; development occurs from the center of the body outward

    Social/emotional development: Includes the child’s experience, expression and management of emotions and the ability to establish positive and rewarding relationships with others

    State licensing: Child care licensing is governed by state law, which varies by state. The state agency administering child care licensing is responsible for protecting the health, safety and well-being of children who attend or reside in regulated child-care facilities and homes

    Theorist: Someone who develops an idea or a set of ideas in order to explain something

    Theory: A way of looking at things; in this case, human development

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with Internet for multimedia presentations (be sure to follow district guidelines for Internet access)
    • computers/laptops with printer capabilities
    • presenter/remote
    • reserved computer lab, if needed

    Materials:

    • balls
    • children’s books
    • children’s clothes
    • children’s educational toys
    • CPR information
    • curriculum for a child care center
    • jump rope
    • toddler’s bicycle

    Supplies:

    • a list of descriptions of apples for teacher reference
    • black and white pictures of apples
    • color photo of apples
    • plastic apples
    • variety of types of fresh apples

    • copies of all handouts (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
  • Anticipatory Set

    Prior to class:

    Refer to the following lesson for additional resources and activities:

    Exploring Careers in Human Services
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/exploring-careers-in-human-services-2/

    The Hidden Epidemic
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-hidden-epidemic/

    Know the Standards: Center-Based and Home-Based Child Care Programs
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/know-the-standards-center-based-and-home-based-child-care-programs/

    A Caregiver’s Responsibilities for additional resources and activities
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-caregivers-responsibilities/

    This lesson is divided into several mini-lessons to make it easier to present the information on multiple days. By distributing the information into mini-lessons, it will be easier for students to understand the information.

    Display as many of the lesson-related supplies (see Materials or Specialized Equipment Needed) as you have available on a table in front of the room.

    Before class begins:

    Write on the board, “What is a theory? If you had to write a theory about child development, what would you write?” Have students write their answers and share out loud as class begins.

    • When you were a child, did you think the way you think now? Explain.
    • Why do babies need so much attention?
    • Do you think that children “construct” their own learning? That is, can they learn by themselves, without adult help? Why or why not? Give an example.

    Divide students into five groups. Distribute one of these to each of the groups: a list of descriptors about apples, black and white pictures of apples, a color photo of apples, plastic apples and fresh apples. Have each group discuss apples based ONLY on which item they have received. After the discussion, point out how real objects offer much more clarity in learning than any representations of the objects. Children need to experience real objects as often as possible. (Teacher may opt to cut the apples and serve the slices to the students.)

    • What are ways that caregivers can help children learn?
    • How can teachers and parents help children learn?

    Distribute the graphic organizer KWL Chart – Caregiving 101: Early Childhood Development (see All Lesson Attachments tab), and have students fill out the first two columns of the chart.

    • K – What do I know about young children? What do I know about early childhood development?
    • W – What do I want to know about young children? What do I want to know about early childhood development?

    The last box will be completed during Lesson Closure.

  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Distribute the handout Notes for Caregiving 101: Early Childhood Development (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will be expected to take notes while viewing the slide presentation.

    Introduce the PowerPoint™ Caregiving 101: Early Childhood Development (see All Lesson Attachments tab), and begin the discussion with the basic needs of young children and the theories of development. View slides 1 – 14 of the PowerPoint ™ presentation. Allow for questions and answers to check for understanding.

    Use appropriate notes from Presentation Notes for Caregiving 101: Early Childhood Development (see All Lesson Attachments tab) for discussion.

    See Guided Practice Activity One.

    Continue with the slide presentation, and discuss slides 15-30 on the cognitive, social, emotional and physical needs of young children. Continue to use the appropriate notes from Presentation Notes for Caregiving 101: Early Childhood Development (see All Lesson Attachments tab) for discussion.

    See Guided Practice Activity Two.

    Continue with the slide presentation and discuss slides 31-39 on being a responsible child care provider. Continue to use the appropriate notes from Presentation Notes for Caregiving 101: Early Childhood Development (see All Lesson Attachments tab) for discussion. Review the health and safety guidelines for Head Start, NAEYC and local licensing regulations in Texas.

    See Guided Practice Activity Three.

    Using Notes for Caregiving 101: Early Childhood Development (see All Lesson Attachments tab), students will have an opportunity to reflect upon, review and respond to the information pertaining to the PowerPoint™. They will write a summary of questions, topics or statements which reflect the information from the lesson:

    • Discuss the topic
    • Write down your thoughts
    • Make a real-world connection to the lesson
    • How is this going to help you in the future?

    Allow for questions and answers to check for understanding.

    Videos included in the PowerPoint™:

    • Six Core Strengths for Healthy Child Development: An Overview
      This brief overview provides an introduction to the Six Core Strengths program developed by Dr. Bruce Perry and The Child Trauma Academy.
      http://youtu.be/skaYWKC6iD4
    • The Science of Early Childhood Development
      This video from the Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University features Center Director Jack P. Shonkoff, M.D., professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, the Harvard School of Public Health, and Harvard Medical School.
      http://youtu.be/tLiP4b-TPCA

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • providing a copy of slide presentation
    • allowing students to make illustrations instead of writing out information

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Guided Practice Activity One

    Distribute the handout Compare and Contrast the Theories (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Individually, students will select two theorists who impacted views on human development, specifically those of children. Each student will name the theorists and provide an explanation of their theories and how they impacted child development. They will then complete the handout by comparing and contrasting the two theorists.

    Guided Practice Activity Two

    Distribute the handout Take 15 – Cognitive Development (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Taking 15 minutes to focus on cognitive development with a child will help increase intelligence and mental capacity. Individually, students will list ten activities a parent/caregiver can do to interact with a child for 15 minutes which will benefit cognitive development. Then they will describe the benefits of the activity for the child and write a summary sentence at the bottom of the page.

    Guided Practice Activity Three

    Scenario: You have recently been hired as the safety coordinator at a day care center. You have been assigned the duty of creating a safety checklist for the center.

    Distribute the Child Health and Safety Checklist (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout. Using information from licensing regulations and NAEYC safety criteria, in groups of four, students will work together to create a child health and safety checklist for a child care setting and provide an explanation of the importance of each criteria. Discuss each group’s safety list, and, as a class, develop a safety checklist. Assign someone to type up the check list and display it for the remainder of the lesson.

    Students will work on activities included in Guided Practice One, Two and Three.

    Lead students to share and discuss their responses. Check for understanding.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • pairing up students with elbow partners who can assist them with verbal and written responses to the lesson
    • providing shortened, simplified instructions
    • providing extra time for assignments

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Scenario: You have recently been hired at a local day care center. You have been assigned the task of developing the daily activities of the day care center, keeping in mind the physical, intellectual, emotional and social development of the children there.

    Distribute the Caregiving 101: Responsibilities Group Project handout (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will work in groups of four to research the developmental stages of a child and determine strategies for optimizing the physical, intellectual, emotional and social development of children, including those with special needs. The project will be assessed by Rubric for Caregiving 101: Responsibilities Group Project (see All Lesson Attachment tab) and an individual reflection.

    Note to teacher: You may invite a day care owner/worker as a guest speaker. She can evaluate the students’ three-day planning activity. She may share an insightful view of being a caregiver and provide the students with suggestions and advice on their three-day planning activity.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • allowing students to work in a group setting, each identifying their own similarities and differences, but guided by the teacher or other student(s)
    • proof-reading and assisting students with making corrections before presentation
    • pointing out strategies for proper delivery of the speech
    • providing time for the student to practice speech with you prior to final delivery date

  • Lesson Closure

    Review lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Have students complete the last section of their KWL Chart – Caregiving 101: Early Childhood Development (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

    • What did I learn about young children? What did I learn about early childhood development?

    Theories that study people and life help us understand how people grow and develop throughout their lives. Different theories allow us to contemplate different aspects of life and different age groups. Ask students to share why they think they might or might not be interested in a career in early childhood education.

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Students will be assessed by the Rubric for Caregiving 101: Responsibilities Group Project.

    Reflection: Using the information gathered in Caregiving 101: Responsibilities Group Project, each team member is required to write a reflection on his or her role in this group project and a brief analysis of how this project will assist him or her with the roles and responsibilities of a caregiver. The reflection and rubric will be submitted for assessment.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • allowing extended time for writing assignments
    • providing more time for practice of certain tasks
    • providing computers for writing tasks

  • References/Resources

    Images:

    • Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft.

    Textbook:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child development: Early stages through age 12. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company.

    Websites:

    YouTube™:

    • Six Core Strengths for Healthy Child Development: An Overview
      This brief overview provides an introduction to the Six Core Strengths program developed by Dr. Bruce Perry and The Child Trauma Academy.
      http://youtu.be/skaYWKC6iD4
    • The Science of Early Childhood Development
      This video is from the Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University features Center Director Jack P. Shonkoff, M.D., professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education.
      http://youtu.be/tLiP4b-TPCA
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

    • Ask students to repeat your instructions back to you to be sure they know what is expected of them before each new phase of the lesson.
    • Discuss vocabulary in detail and make sure everyone has a firm grasp on it before moving forward with the lesson.
    • Use graphic organizers and visuals to explain the lesson in detail.
    • Print fill-in-the-blank handouts of the PowerPoint™ notes for students to follow along with the lesson.
  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Recommended Strategies

    Reading Strategies

    Current Events:
    Assign students to read about being a caregiver for children. Information can be found in newspaper articles, magazines, journals and online print.
    Suggestions:

    • Minimum Standards for Child Care Centers in Texas (see All Lesson Attachments tab).
    • Have students write down any questions that come to mind while reading the text.
    • Word Attack Strategies: Prior to reading, allow students to skim the passage or text, circling words that are unfamiliar to them. Once these words have been decoded (dictionaries, either physical or online, classroom discussion), students will have a better understanding of pronunciations and meanings of the unfamiliar word(s), facilitating comprehension. Add these words to your classroom word wall.
  • Quotes

    Early childhood education begins early, even before birth.
    -Madeleine M. Kunin

    Your memories from your early childhood seem to have such purchase on your emotions. They are so concrete.
    -Dana Spiotta

    The human brain has 100 billion neurons, each neuron connected to 10 thousand other neurons. Sitting on your shoulders is the most complicated object in the known universe.
    -Michio Kaku

    Experts tell us that 90% of all brain development occurs by the age of five. If we don’t begin thinking about education in the early years, our children are at risk of falling behind by the time they start kindergarten.
    -Bob Ehrlich

    Physical fitness is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity.
    -John F. Kennedy

    Meanwhile, the decline of play is closely linked to ADHD; behavioral problems; and stunted social, cognitive and creative development.
    -Darell Hammond

    Every child should have a caring adult in their lives. And that’s not always a biological parent or family member. It may be a friend or neighbor. Often times it is a teacher.
    -Joe Manchin

  • Multimedia/Visual Strategies

    PowerPoint™:

    • Caregiving 101: Early Childhood Development
    • Presentation Notes for Caregiving 101: Early Childhood Development

    Technology:

    YouTube™:

    • Six Core Strengths for Healthy Child Development: An Overview
      This brief overview provides an introduction to the Six Core Strengths program developed by Dr. Bruce Perry and The Child Trauma Academy.
      http://youtu.be/skaYWKC6iD4
    • The Science of Early Childhood Development
      This video is from the Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University features Center Director Jack P. Shonkoff, M.D., professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education.
      http://youtu.be/tLiP4b-TPCA

    Files for downloading:

  • Graphic Organizers/Handout

    Graphic Organizers:

    • KWL Chart – Caregiving 101: Early Childhood Development
    • Notes for Caregiving 101: Early Childhood Development

    Handouts:

    • Caregiving 101: Responsibilities Group Project
    • Child Health and Safety Center Visit – Head Start and Early Head Start
    • Child Health and Safety Checklist
    • Compare and Contrast the Theories
    • Minimum Standards for Child Care Centers in Texas
    • Rubric for Caregiving 101: Responsibilities Group Project
    • Take 15 – Cognitive Development

    Files for downloading:

  • Writing Strategies

    Journal Entries:

    • One child development theory really makes sense to me. It is ____________________.
    • I didn’t know that brain development was so important but the two very important things I learned are _________________ and _______________________.
    • Safety is very important in the field of child care. The three things I learned about keeping children safe are __________________, ______________________and ______________________________.
    • How can caregivers help young children grow cognitively?
    • Describe the difference between gross motor skills and fine motor skills.

    Writing Strategy:

    • RAFT Writing Strategy

    Role: Child care provider
    Audience: Parents of the children in the preschool class
    Format: Flyer
    Topic: Seven important safety tips and/or topics for parents

  • Communication 90 Second Speech Topics

    • Why nurturing, responsive care for young children is so important.
    • Describe educational activities to help infants and toddlers learn and grow socially and emotionally.
    • Describe educational activities to help infants and toddlers learn and grow cognitively.
    • Describe educational activities to help infants and toddlers learn and grow physically.
    • Describe educational activities to help preschoolers learn and grow socially and emotionally.
    • Describe educational activities to help preschoolers learn and grow cognitively.
    • Fun activities to help preschoolers learn and grow physically include ________________.
    • What can be expected during a licensing visit?
    • These are the reasons I want to work with young children: ______________________.
  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    • Using the checklist created by the class (see Guided Practice Activity Three), groups of students or individuals will monitor the school or a center setting if possible for compliance with the regulations. Students can report back to the class. For further follow-up, a graph can be generated tracking the frequency of any non-compliance.

    Principles of Human Services Multiple Choice Social Studies Assessment Question

    Children were protected from working full-time jobs on farms, in factories, or in businesses after passing:
    a. an amendment to the Constitution of the United States
    b. immigration laws
    c. child labor laws
    d. unions

    Answer: C

    TEDx Talk:

    TED is a nonprofit organization devoted to spreading ideas, usually in the form of short, powerful talks (18 minutes or fewer). The video below is related to this lesson. Allow students to view the video and lead a discussion concerning the TED Talk.

    Patricia Kuhl: The linguistic genius of babies
    Patricia Kuhl shares astonishing findings about how babies learn one language over another — by listening to the humans around them and “taking statistics” on the sounds they need to know.
    https://www.ted.com/talks/patricia_kuhl_the_linguistic_genius_of_babies#t-231527

  • Family/Community Connection

    • Plan to visit a preschool to conduct a no-heat cooking experience. Create a picture recipe so children can follow along. Keep it very simple and healthy. Lead the children in the activity.
    • Interview parents to determine ten strategies used to develop children intellectually, physically, socially and emotionally. Develop a list and post in the classroom.
    • Visit a Head Start facility and interview the director. Use the Child Health and Safety Center Visit – Head Start and Early Head Start (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout to assist with the interview. Report your findings with the class.
  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)

    www.fcclainc.org

    FCCLA Family First Project

    http://www.fcclainc.org/content/families-first/

    The FCCLA Families First national peer education is a program through which youth gain a better understanding of how families work and learn skills to become strong family members. Its goals are to help youth become strong family members and leaders for today and tomorrow and strengthen the family as the basic unit of society. To help members focus their projects, Families First offers five units. Members may complete projects in one or several units. There is no particular order to them; however, “Families Today” might be a good place to start. It covers topics that provide a general overview of families and related issues:

    • Families Today: Understand and celebrate families
    • You-Me-Us: Strengthen family relationships
    • Meet the Challenge: Overcome obstacles together
    • Balancing Family and Career: Manage multiple responsibilities

  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to the lesson.
    http://www.nylc.org/

    Possible idea:
    Organize a group to spend time at a non-profit child care facility identified as needing some playground improvements. Activities could include weeding, sanding and/or painting equipment and checking equipment for missing or loose bolts/screws and correcting the problem.

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