Assisting in the Development of Children with Special Needs

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Human Services

    Course : Child Guidance

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (1) The student analyzes roles and responsibilities of caregivers. The student is expected to:
      • (A) determine the roles and responsibilities of caregivers related to the physical, intellectual, emotional and social development of children
      • (C) identify strategies for optimizing the physical, intellectual, emotional and social development of children, including those with special needs
      • (E) investigate the legal responsibilities and laws involved in caring for children
    • (5) The student summarizes appropriate guidance techniques for children of various ages and developmental levels. The student is expected to:
      • (B) determine appropriate guidance techniques
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • identify characteristics indicative of special needs or disabilities in children
    • determine appropriate techniques for guiding children, including those with special needs
    • develop appropriate strategies and adaptations of curriculum for special needs children
  • Rationale

    Conditions such as developmental disabilities, physical disabilities, emotional problems (behavior problems) and even giftedness are often referred to as “special needs.” As a future employee in the field of Human Services especially in Child Guidance, it is important to understand the roles and responsibilities associated with special needs children in order to be able to assist them appropriately. In this lesson we will focus on the development of children specifically those with special needs.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Four 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Accommodations: Practices and procedures that allow students with disabilities to learn, have access to and be tested on the same curriculum as students without disabilities

    Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act of 2008 (Amendments Act): Effective January 1, 2009, amends the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) and includes a conforming amendment to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Rehabilitation Act) that affects the meaning of the term disability in Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act (Section 504)

    Assistive technology: Any item, piece of equipment or product system that is used to increase, maintain or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability

    Autism (AU): As defined by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, autism is a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, which adversely affects a child’s educational performance

    Communication disorder: A disorder which renders a child unable to speak or understand spoken language

    Disability: Any condition that prevents, delays or interferes with a child’s normal achievement and development

    Dyslexia: Texas Education Code defines dyslexia as a disorder manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence and sociocultural opportunity

    Gifted/talented: Gifted/talented children show a potential for high achievement; their talents may be in intellectual, creative, academic or leadership areas

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): The federal law that grants children with disabilities the right to receive “a free appropriate public education”

    Inclusion: The action or state of including or of being included within a group or structure

    Intellectual disability: The term now used in federal law to describe what was previously referred to as mental retardation

    Learning disability: A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical calculations

    Modifications: A change in what the student is expected to learn that is different from the general education curriculum

    Special education: Specially designed instruction, at no cost to parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability, including instruction conducted in the classroom, in the home, in hospitals and institutions and in other settings, as well as instruction in physical education

    Special needs: The individual requirements (as for education) of a person with a disadvantaged background or a mental, emotional or physical disability or a high risk of developing one

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with projector for PowerPoint™ presentation
    • computers with Internet access (be sure to follow district guidelines)

    Note: If individual equipment is not available, teacher can utilize a projected copy as long as students can see the screen.

    Materials:

    • technological aids for individuals with disabilities (see Special Education department)

    Supplies:

    • assistive listening devices
    • audio recorder
    • Braille or large print items
    • calculator
    • canes or crutches
    • cotton balls
    • dictionary
    • exercise band
    • eye glasses with petroleum jelly-based product on lenses
    • handkerchiefs for blindfolds
    • petroleum jelly-based product
    • samples of alternative assessments or rubrics
    • sign language cards
    • wheelchair

    Other appropriate lessons

    Positive Guidance = Positive Children
    Child Guidance
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/positive-guidance-positive-children

    A Caregiver’s Responsibilities
    Child Guidance
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-caregivers-responsibilities

    Four Areas of Development: Infancy to Toddler
    Child Development
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/fours-areas-of-development-infancy-to-toddler

    Four Areas of Development: Preschool to School-Age
    Child Development
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/fours-areas-of-development-preschool-to-school-age

    • copies of handouts (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
  • Anticipatory Set

    Prior to class:

    Become familiar with PowerPoint™, handouts and activities.

    Display as many of the lesson-related supplies (see Materials or Specialized Equipment Needed) as you have available on a table in front of the room.

    Before class begins:

    In pairs, students will experience a specific type of special need through the use of props. Distribute the Special Needs Learning Activity (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout and the corresponding props to each group. Allow them time to get ready and use their props on for the remainder of the class period. Allow the students to share with the class the disability they are experiencing. You might elect to have the student partake in a physical activity such as a team-building activity.

    Ask the following questions:

    • How did you feel as you were experiencing your disability?
    • What difficulties were you experiencing?
    • Was the classroom modified for your disability?
    • Was the instructional activity modified for your disability?
    • How can educators and caregivers design a diverse classroom?
    • What are the roles and responsibilities of special needs professionals?

    Note to teacher:

    Special needs may be a sensitive topic for some students in your class. Students may be personally experiencing the special needs related to this subject area. They may have a friend or family member who has a special need. It is important to demonstrate sensitivity to students while teaching this lesson.

  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce lesson, objectives, terms and definitions.

    Distribute the Anticipation Guide – Assisting in the Development of Children with Special Needs (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout prior to viewing the PowerPoint™. Prior to the start of this lesson, students will place a check mark by each statement they THINK is true. At the conclusion of the lesson, students will reread each statement and place a check mark by each statement you KNOW is true. After they have answered each statement, students are to put the handout away for later use during Lesson Closure.

    Distribute the graphic organizer Note-taking: Assisting in the Development of Children with Special Needs (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will be expected to take notes while viewing the slide presentation.

    Introduce the PowerPoint™ Assisting in the Development of Children with Special Needs (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Allow time for questions and class discussion.

    Use appropriate notes from Presentation Notes for Assisting in the Development of Children with Special Needs (see All Lesson Attachments tab) for discussion.

    Discuss the importance of using positive language versus negative language when talking with special needs children. Allow for discussion and questions.

    Using the Assisting in the Development of Children with Special Needs Note-taking (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout, students will have an opportunity to reflect upon, review and respond to the information pertaining to the PowerPoint™. They will write a summary of the topics or statements which reflect the information from the lesson:

    • Discuss the topic
    • Write down your thoughts
    • Make a real-world connection to the lesson
    • How is this going to help you in the future?

    Allow for questions and answers to check for understanding.

    Videos included in the PowerPoint™ presentation:

    • A Brother’s Devotion to His Special Needs Sister Will Break You Down Into Tears
      This brother’s devotion to his sister, who has spinal muscular atrophy, is one of the sweetest things we have ever seen. Let his pure devotion wash over you, it’s incredible.
      http://youtu.be/P-PgdePJI94
    • Special Needs, But No Diagnosis – The Azima Family – Our Special Life — Episode 7
      Kingston is a 4-and-a-half year old boy with special needs that have not yet been diagnosed. He presents some symptoms of Angelman Syndrome but has so far tested negative for that diagnosis. His mother and nanny work with him full-time, along with his Special Education Itinerant Teacher (SEIT), to develop the Activities of Daily Life (ADL) many parents take for granted.
      http://youtu.be/LPzNjX_8NFQ
    • What is it like to have dyslexia? Animations and Illustrations
      This is a series of animations taken from a project aimed at helping people to find out what it is like to have dyslexia.
      http://youtu.be/gwZLFTW4OGY

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • providing students with a copy of the notes or a fill-in-the-blank note sheet to follow along with instruction
    • pairing up students with elbow partners who can assist them with verbal and written responses to the lesson

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Distribute the Tasks of a Special Education Professional (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout. As a caregiver of special needs children, it is important to understand the needs of the children. Caregivers must know how to create a positive environment for children with special needs in their care. Students will complete the chart with the appropriate information.

    Teacher note: KEY Tasks of a Special Education Professional (see All Lesson Attachments tab) has been provided to check students’ answers.

    Check for understanding.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • working with a peer tutor
    • participating in a small group/classroom

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Scenario: You have recently been hired as an assistant at the Center for Youth with Disabilities. It is important to you that your clients achieve and fulfill their highest potential. You will be working with an array of individuals with different special needs.

    Distribute the Designing Instruction for Individuals with Special Needs (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout. Students will complete the chart with the appropriate information.

    Check for understanding.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • providing specific websites or articles from which students can obtain their research information
    • providing students with a checklist or rubric to help them organize and complete all steps of the process

  • Lesson Closure

    Review lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Students will retrieve the Anticipation Guide – Assisting in the Development of Children with Special Needs handout they completed at the beginning of Direct Instruction. Students are to respond to the statements again in the after (right hand) column. As a class, compare the two sets of answers.

    Ask students to share the most important thing they learned from the lesson.

    Allow for questions and class discussion. Check for understanding.

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Students will write a one-page reflection of what they have learned from this lesson and how they will apply it to their lives, now and in the future. Content of the reflection may include how working with special needs individuals and children requires continual evaluation and readjustment.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • assisting students with research for assignments
    • modifying assignments if IEP calls for modification
    • giving students copies of slide presentations for study

  • References/Resources

    Images:

    • Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft™.
    • Photos obtained through a license with Shutterstock.com™.

    Textbooks:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child development early stages through age 12. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Decker, C. (2004). Children: the early years. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.

    Websites:

    • Building the Legacy: IDEA 2004
      The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a law ensuring services to children with disabilities throughout the nation. IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services to more than 6.5 million eligible infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities.
      http://idea.ed.gov

    YouTube™:

    • A Brother’s Devotion to His Special Needs Sister Will Break You Down Into Tears
      This brother’s devotion to his sister, who has spinal muscular atrophy, is one of the sweetest things we have ever seen. Let his pure devotion wash over you, it’s incredible.
      http://youtu.be/P-PgdePJI94
    • Special Needs, But No Diagnosis – The Azima Family – Our Special Life — Episode 7
      Kingston is a 4-and-a-half year old boy with special needs that have not yet been diagnosed. He presents some symptoms of Angelman Syndrome but has so far tested negative for that diagnosis. His mother and nanny work with him full-time, along with his Special Education Itinerant Teacher (SEIT), to develop the Activities of Daily Life (ADL) many parents take for granted.
      http://youtu.be/LPzNjX_8NFQ
    • What is it like to have dyslexia? Animations and Illustrations
      This is a series of animations taken from a project aimed at helping people to find out what it is like to have dyslexia.
      http://youtu.be/gwZLFTW4OGY
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

    • ask students to repeat your instructions back to you to be sure they know what is expected of them before each new phase of the lesson
    • discuss vocabulary in detail and make sure everyone has a firm grasp on it before moving forward with the lesson
    • use graphic organizers and visuals to explain the lesson in detail
    • print fill-in-the-blank handouts of the PowerPoint notes for students to follow along with the lesson
    • provide note-taking assistance using Article Stop and Jot
  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism, and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Recommended Strategies

    Reading Strategies

    Current Events:
    Assign students to read about special needs children with disabilities. Information can be found in newspaper articles, magazines, journals and online print.
    Suggestions:

  • Quotes

    Like so many other kids with special needs, I have been bullied. Kids in elementary school made me eat sand, and those same boys would walk behind me, teasing me. Finally I had enough, and I told them to grow up.
    -Lauren Potter

    Sometimes even the greatest joys bring challenge, and children with special needs inspire a very, very special love.
    -Sarah Palin

    As a mom, you worry about protecting your kid. But there are extra added layers of fears when you’re talking about a kid with autism or who has some special needs issue.
    -Holly Robinson Peete

    I was born in Corpus Christi, Texas, the youngest of four girls, including my oldest sister, Lisa, who has special needs. My mom was a special education teacher, and my dad worked on the Army base. We weren’t wealthy, but we were determined to succeed.
    -Eva Longoria

  • Multimedia/Visual Strategies

    PowerPoint™:

    • Assisting in the Development of Children with Special Needs
    • Presentation Notes for Assisting in the Development of Children with Special Needs

    Technology:

    • Free iPad App:

    EyeNote
    https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/eyenote/id405336354?mt=8

    • Infographic:

    Gift Guide for Children with Special Needs
    http://www.friendshipcircle.org/blog/2013/02/20/the-13-top-special-needs-infographics/#five

    • TedTalk:

    Overcoming Dyslexia, Finding Passion: Piper Otterbein at TEDxYouth@CEHS
    Piper Otterbein is a senior at Cape Elizabeth High School. Piper was born in New York, but she has lived in Cape Elizabeth for the past eleven years. When Piper was in first grade, she was diagnosed with a learning disability. While Piper struggled throughout elementary school, it was not until 7th grade that this disability was identified as dyslexia. Piper and her family spent a great deal of time and resources trying to fix her dyslexia; during her middle school years.
    http://youtu.be/ugFIHHom1NU

    YouTube™:

    • A Brother’s Devotion to His Special Needs Sister Will Break You Down Into Tears
      This brother’s devotion to his sister, who has spinal muscular atrophy, is one of the sweetest things we have ever seen. Let his pure devotion wash over you, it’s incredible.
      http://youtu.be/P-PgdePJI94
    • Special Needs, But No Diagnosis – The Azima Family – Our Special Life — Episode 7
      Kingston is a 4-and-a-half year old boy with special needs that have not yet been diagnosed. He presents some symptoms of Angelman Syndrome but has so far tested negative for that diagnosis. His mother and nanny work with him full-time, along with his Special Education Itinerant Teacher (SEIT), to develop the Activities of Daily Life (ADL) many parents take for granted.
      http://youtu.be/LPzNjX_8NFQ
    • What is it like to have dyslexia? Animations and Illustrations
      This is a series of animations taken from a project aimed at helping people to find out what it is like to have dyslexia.
      http://youtu.be/gwZLFTW4OGY

    Files for downloading:

  • Graphic Organizers/Handout

    Graphic Organizers:

    • Note-taking: Assisting in the Development of Children with Special Needs

    Handouts:

    • Accommodating Instruction for Individual with Special Needs
    • Anticipation Guide – Assisting in the Development of Children with Special Needs
    • Designing Instruction for Individuals with Special Needs
    • KEY Accommodating Instruction for Individual with Special Needs
    • KEY Anticipation Guide – Assisting in the Development of Children with Special Needs
    • KEY Tasks of the Special Education Professional
    • Special Needs Learning Activity
    • Tasks of the Special Education Professional

    Files for downloading:

  • Writing Strategies

    Journal Entries:

    • Some symptoms of learning disabilities a caregiver can look for in preschool children are ___________________________.
    • Some challenges gifted/talents individuals present to a caregiver are __________________.
    • Inclusion is important in the classroom because __________________.
    • An assessment is important to determine ________________________.

    Writing Strategy:

    RAFT Writing Strategy
    Role – Counselor
    Audience – Parents/caregivers
    Format – Newsletter
    Topic – Working with children who have special needs

  • Communication 90 Second Speech Topics

    • I would like to be a caregiver to special needs children because _________________.
    • A daily schedule may need to be more structured for children with special needs because _______________________.
    • Two tips for arranging the environment for children with special needs are ___________________________ and __________________________________.
  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    Encourage the students to take free online courses for working with special populations at Texas A & M Agrilife Extension. For more information, visit:
    https://extensiononline.tamu.edu/courses/specialpopulations.php

    View the YouTube™ video, “Tips for Story Times for Children with Special Needs” at http://youtu.be/oG0B_KWFC8A
    A step-by-step guide for librarians, daycares, parents, guardians and other professionals to help them prepare and deliver story times for children with special needs. To download the how-to guide and find more information visit: http://www.torontopubliclibrary.ca/content/storytime-tips/toolkit.pdf

    Have students develop a booklet for parents on specific ways to discipline special needs children based on age.

    Scenario: You are the owner of a child care center. Make or gather the materials for one or more examples of planned activities for preschool children.

    Human Services Child Guidance Writing Prompts

    • (1) The student analyzes roles and responsibilities of caregivers. The student is expected to:
      • (E) investigate the legal responsibilities and laws involved in caring for children

    Think about the legal responsibilities and laws involved in caring for children. Write an
    essay in which you explain these responsibilities and laws. (9th and 10th grade expository writing)

    TEDx Talk:

    TED is a nonprofit organization devoted to spreading ideas, usually in the form of short, powerful talks (18 minutes or fewer).

    TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks videos and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event.

    TED-Ed’s commitment to creating lessons worth sharing is an extension of TED’s mission of spreading great ideas. This allows users to take any useful educational video, not just TED’s, and easily create a customized lesson around the video.

    The video below is related to the lesson. Allow students to view the video, and lead a discussion concerning the TED Talk.

    Overcoming Dyslexia, Finding Passion: Piper Otterbein at TEDxYouth@CEHS
    Piper Otterbein is a senior at Cape Elizabeth High School. Piper was born in New York, but she has lived in Cape Elizabeth for the past eleven years. When Piper was in first grade, she was diagnosed with a learning disability. While Piper struggled throughout elementary school, it was not until 7th grade that this disability was identified as dyslexia. Piper and her family spent a great deal of time and resources trying to fix her dyslexia; during her middle school years.
    http://youtu.be/ugFIHHom1NU

  • Family/Community Connection

    • Plan a field trip to a day care center to have the students observe toddlers. Students should describe ways toddlers differ from infants in terms of intellectual, social, emotional and physical development.
    • Observe a class of three-year-old children in a child development or child-care center. Compare and contrast the physical, mental, emotional and social development of three of the children. Applying what you have learned from this unit, formulate an explanation for the differing developmental levels of the children. A portion of your explanation may be speculative. Also, construct a one-day schedule of activities for this age group that would address and promote their physical, mental and social development.
    • Invite a pediatrician or child psychologist to explain the temperament, skills and development of preschoolers.
    • Write a story from a preschooler’s point of view which will help parents understand how a preschooler feels, develops and speaks.
    • Invite the school district’s Director of Special Education to explain strategies caregivers can use with special needs children.
  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)

    http://www.texasfccla.org

    STAR Events:

    • Early Childhood Education Event – An individual event that recognizes participants who demonstrate their ability to use knowledge and skills gained from their enrollment in an occupational Early Childhood Education program.
    • Focus on Children – An individual or team event that recognizes participants who use Family and Consumer Sciences skills to plan and conduct a child development project that has a positive impact on children and the community. Childhood development encompasses birth through adolescence.
    • Interpersonal Communications – An individual or team event that recognizes participants who use family and consumer sciences and/or related occupational skills and apply communication techniques to develop a project designed to strengthen communication in a chosen category: community, employment relationships, family, peer groups or school groups.

    Texas Association of Future Educators (TAFE)

    tafeonline.org

    Competitive Events:

    • Researching Learning Challenges Competition – Understanding how to support students with special needs is central to success as an educator. This competition offers Future Educators Association (FEA) students the opportunity to explore deeply and to develop recommendations regarding effective educational supports for students with special needs.
  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to the lesson. For additional information on service learning see
    http://www.ysa.org.

    Conduct a book drive and donate books to an after school program specifically designed to meet the needs of children ages five to fifteen with learning disabilities. Schedule time and dates to read to the children.

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