A Look at Theories: Part II (revised 8/14)

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Education and Training

    Course : Human Growth and Development

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (6) The student understands the development of adolescents ages 11 through 19 years. The student is expected to:
      • (C) discuss various theoretical perspectives relevant to adolescent growth and development
    • (8) The student understands the development of adults ages 20 through 39 years. The student is expected to:
      • (A) analyze various development theories relating to early adults, including biological and cognitive development
      • (B) analyze various development theories relating to early adults, including emotional, moral and psychosocial development
    • (9) The student understands the development of adults ages 40 through 65 years. The student is expected to:
      • (A) analyze various development theories relating to middle adults, including biological and cognitive development
      • (B) analyze various development theories relating to middle adults, including emotional, moral and psychosocial development
    • (10) The student understands the development of adults ages 66 years and older. The student is expected to:
      • (A) analyze various development theories relating to those within the state of late adulthood, including biological and cognitive development
      • (B) analyze various development theories relating to those within the stage of late adulthood, including emotional, moral and psychosocial development
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • understand the major developmental changes which happen throughout the lifetime, from early childhood through adults ages 66 years and older, and how the theories relate to the lifespan
    • be able to articulate the major points of developmental theorists and how the theories apply to their own lives
  • Rationale

    We continue to grow and change as we go through life. Do you think teenagers think differently than young children or adults? What happens as we age and grow? How do people handle death and dying and the grief that goes with it? In this lesson, we’ll look at the theories that influence growth, development and behaviors throughout our lifetimes.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Four 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Chronosystem: The way in which an individual’s environment affects his or her development over time; also, the way transitions, such as divorce, affect the individual’s growth and development

    Exosystem: Relations between a microsystem and a system in which the individual is not directly involved

    Generativity: A concern for establishing and guiding the next generation

    Grief: A multifaceted response to loss, particularly to the loss of someone or something to which a bond was formed

    Life course theory: Theory referring to a sequence of socially defined, age-graded events and roles

    Macrosystem: The culture in which somebody lives— nation, ethnicity, religious group, economic or social class

    Mesosystem: Relations between microsystems such as between one’s family members and school personnel

    Microsystem: An individual’s immediate environment such as family, school, church, friends or neighborhood

    Psychosocial theory: States that personality continues to develop after age five

    Self-actualization: The state of being all we can be; meeting our full potential

    Theory: A way of looking at things; in this case, human development

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with Internet access for multimedia presentations
    • computer lab with Internet access (be sure to follow school district guidelines)

    Materials:

    • backpack
    • brief case
    • calendar
    • cane
    • clothing (appropriate for each age group)
    • cell phone
    • computer
    • diaper bag
    • day care pamphlets
    • empty prescription bottles
    • funeral planning information
    • grocery bag of food
    • iPad
    • music
    • name badge
    • retirement information
    • sample of a will
    • soccer ball
    • stack of play money
    • travel brochures
    • walker

    Supplies:

    • large markers for creating Word Wall and posters
    • magazines with pictures of adults and children
    • poster paper
  • Anticipatory Set

    Prior to class:

    Refer to additional Interpersonal Studies lessons for additional resources:

    Financial Obligations Throughout the Family Life Cycle
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/financial-obligations-throughout-the-family-life-cycle/

    Understanding Family Dynamics
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/understanding-family-dynamics/

    The Impact of Technology on the Family Life Cycle
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-impact-of-technology-on-the-family-life-cycle/

    Display as many of the lesson-related materials (see Materials or Specialized Equipment Needed) as you have available on a table in front of the room.

    Become familiar with PowerPoint™, handouts and activities.

    Before class begins:

    On a table at the front of the room, arrange a display of items used by adolescents ages 11 through 19 years, adults ages 20 through 39 years, adults ages 40 through 65 years and adults ages 66 years and older. Examples would include clothing (appropriate for each age group), music, computer, brief case, stack of play money, name badge, calendar, backpack, empty prescription bottles, walker, soccer ball, grocery bag of food, day care pamphlets or diaper bag, travel brochures, retirement information and sample of a will.

    As students enter the classroom distribute and have them complete the handout, What I’ve Always Wanted to Be (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Discuss their answers before the class begins.

    —-

    Distribute the handout My Micro and Meso Systems (see All Lesson Attachment tab). In the inner microsystem circle, have students add the people in their families (or other close relationships) that touch their lives on a daily basis. Examples: Mother-daughter, father-son, boyfriend-girlfriend or grandmother-granddaughter. In the outer mesosystem, have students add entities that are important on a daily or near-daily basis, such as at home, school or work. Discuss their results with the class.

    • What are the similarities and differences that are evidenced within the class?
    • Will your microsystem circle change as you get older? How?
    • Will your mesosystem circle change as you get older? How?

    Distribute KWL Chart – Theories: Part II (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout and have students fill out the first two sections.

    K – What do I KNOW about theories and how they impact understanding people?
    W – What do I WANT to know about theories and how they impact understanding people?

    The last box will be completed during Lesson Closure.

  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Note to teacher: Prior to beginning this lesson, please review, preview and select the appropriate multimedia for your classes.

    Introduce lesson objective, terms and definitions.

    Distribute handout A Look at Theories: Part II Note-Taking and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Notes (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will use these documents for taking notes.

    Introduce PowerPoint™ A Look at Theories: Part II, slides 1-16 (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Use appropriate notes from Presentation Notes for A Look at Theories: Part II (see All Lesson Attachments tab) for discussion.

    Discuss the meaning of theories and how they impact our behaviors and interactions with others.

    Discuss Erikson’s theory – slide 12.

    • Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development – Part 1
      This video reviews the first four stages of Erikson’s theory.
      http://youtu.be/8_IY-pFK3qI

    Discuss Maslow’s Theory and play online game – slide 16.

    —-

    Continue PowerPoint™ A Look at Theories: Part II, slides 17 – 26 (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Use appropriate notes from Presentation Notes for A Look at Theories: Part II (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

    Discuss the grieving process after viewing the following video on slide 25:

    • OjaiWomen – Alana Sheeren – Owning Our Grief
      Alana Sheeren believes in love, beauty and the transformative power of grief. After the stillbirth of her son, she began writing about her personal journey into grief and whole-self healing.
      http://youtu.be/gqX3Ygy8NOo

    Using A Look at Theories: Part II Note-taking (see All Lesson Attachments tab), students will have an opportunity to reflect on, review and respond to the information pertaining to the PowerPoint™. They will write a summary of questions, topics or statements which reflect the information from the lesson:

    • Discuss the topic
    • Write down your thoughts
    • Make a real-world connection to the lesson
    • How is this going to help you in the future?

    Allow for questions and answers to check for understanding.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • providing assistance with note-taking

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Divide students into groups of five. Distribute magazines and large sheets of poster paper. Assign one of the following topics to each group:

    • Bronfenbrenner’s Bio-Ecological Systems Theory
    • Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development
    • Explanation of major theories using real-world examples
    • Kohlberg’s Theory of Morality
    • Levels of Maslow’s Hierarchy

    Each group will create a collage with pictures of people and items which represent its topic. Have students use the markers to title and subtitle, if they wish. Each group will have a reporter, responsible for reporting back to the class about the poster collage.

    Have students share their posters. Check for understanding.

    Distribute the word search Developmental Theories Part II Puzzle (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Allow students to work with a partner to complete the activity. You may use Developmental Theories Part II Puzzle (Key) (see All Lesson Attachments tab) to check their answers.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • allowing for work with peer-mentor

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Distribute Major Theorist Project (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout. Each student will choose one theorist introduced in this lesson. The research must include information about the theorist’s life and a simple explanation of the key points of his or her theory. Each student will choose one theory to use as a basis for studying his or her own family. Using the salient points of the theory, students will submit a two-page paper that discusses the stages, growth and development and/or systems that are in place in their own families.

    Distribute Theories: Part II Project Rubric (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Review all components of the rubric.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • working orally with instructor

  • Lesson Closure

    Review lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Have students complete the last section of their KWL Chart – Theories: Part II (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

    What did I LEARN about the importance of theories in understanding people?

    We’ve spent a lot of time thinking and talking about various theories that pertain to human development. It’s important to remember that theories help us understand growth and development at all stages of life. Theories also give us questions to ask. If there is a gap in our understanding, theories will often reveal that. They provide us with a starting point, enabling us to go to the next level of research. Finally, theories offer looks with different views. One problem or issue, viewed with multiple lenses, can often be solved with the added information. Which theory do you favor to help you understand growth and development? Why?

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Assessments during lesson:

    • Developmental Theories Part II Puzzle
    • KWL Chart – Theories: Part II
    • Theories: Part II Project Rubric

    Distribute A Look at Theories: Part II Quiz (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Use A Look at Theories: Part II Quiz (Key) (see All Lesson Attachments tab) to grade the end-of-lesson assessment.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • allowing for additional time

  • References/Resources

    Images:

    • Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft.

    Periodicals:

    • Mitchell, B.A. (2003)
      “Life Course Theory,” in J.J. Ponzetti, Jr. (ed). International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, 2nd ed., pp. 1051-1055, New York: Macmillan.
    • Swick, J. and Williams, R. (2006). An Analysis of Bronfenbrenner’s Bio-Ecological Perspective for Early Childhood Educators: Implications for Working with Families Experiencing Stress. Early Childhood Education Journal, Vol. 33, No. 5, April. DOI: 10.1007/s10643-006-0078-y

    Textbooks:

    • Berk, L. (2008). Infants and children: prenatal through middle childhood. (6th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Crain, W. (1985). Theories of development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    • Dacey, J., Travers, J., Fiore, L. (2009). Human development across the lifespan. (7th ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies.

    Websites:

    • BrainyQuote
      Share our extensive collection of famous quotes by authors, celebrities, newsmakers and more. Enjoy our Quotes of the Day on the web, Facebook and blogs.
      http://www.brainyquote.com

    YouTube™:

    • Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development – Part 1
      This video reviews the first four stages of Erikson’s theory.
      http://youtu.be/8_IY-pFK3qI
    • OjaiWomen – Alana Sheeren – Owning Our Grief
      Alana Sheeren believes in love, beauty and the transformative power of grief. After the stillbirth of her son she began writing about her personal journey into grief and whole-self healing.
      http://youtu.be/gqX3Ygy8NOo
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism, and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Recommended Strategies

    Reading Strategies

    Current Events:
    Assign students to read about why theories are important in understanding human development. Information can be found in newspaper articles, magazines, journals and online print.
    Suggestions:

  • Quotes

    Right action tends to be defined in terms of general individual rights and standards that have been critically examined and agreed upon by the whole society.
    -Lawrence Kohlberg

    If you plan on being anything less than you are capable of being, you will probably be unhappy all the days of your life.
    -Abraham Maslow

    It’s only when we truly know and understand that we have a limited time on earth – and that we have no way of knowing when our time is up, we will then begin to live each day to the fullest, as if it was the only one we had.
    -Elisabeth Kubler-Ross

    All growth depends upon activity. There is no development physically or intellectually without effort and effort means work.
    -Calvin Coolidge

  • Multimedia/Visual Strategies

    PowerPoint™:

    • A Look at Theories: Part II
    • Presentation Notes for A Look at Theories: Part II

    TedxTalk:

    • OjaiWomen – Alana Sheeren – Owning Our Grief
      Alana Sheeren believes in love, beauty and the transformative power of grief. After the stillbirth of her son, she began writing about her personal journey into grief and whole-self healing.
      http://youtu.be/gqX3Ygy8NOo
    • Rafe Esquith The 6 Levels of Moral Development
      Esquith describes how he teaches the six levels of moral development to his students.
      http://youtu.be/j81-44ADf74

    YouTube™:

    • Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development – Part 1
      This video reviews the first four stages of Erikson’s theory.
      http://youtu.be/8_IY-pFK3qI

    Online Games:

    Files for downloading:

  • Graphic Organizers/Handout

    Graphic Organizers:

    • A Look at Theories: Part II Note-Taking
    • KWL Chart – Theories: Part II

    Handouts:

    • Developmental Theories Part II Puzzle
    • Developmental Theories Part II Puzzle (Key)
    • A Look at Theories: Part II Quiz
    • A Look at Theories: Part II Quiz (Key)
    • Major Theorist Project
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Notes
    • My Micro and Meso Systems
    • Theories: Part II Project Rubric
    • What I’ve Always Wanted to Be

    Files for downloading:

  • Writing Strategies

    Journal Entries:

    • What did I learn about theories today?
    • How do these theories apply to my family and me?
    • The five steps in the grieving process include ________________________.
    • The theorists I relate the most to is ____________________ because ________________________.

    Writing Strategy:

    RAFT writing strategy

    • Role: Elderly person
    • Audience: Young adult
    • Format: Informative
    • Topic: What you have to look forward to as you get older

  • Communication 90 Second Speech Topics

    • We can help children move from mistrust to trust.
    • Children develop initiative when they are given opportunities to achieve and accomplish on their own __________________.
    • How to build self-esteem in young adults.
    • My microsystem and mesosystem could be described as ______________________.
    • Society can influence your life path by ______________________.
  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    Use the Bronfenbrenner Quizlet website for extra credit. It includes flash cards, study help, an online quiz and games.
    Urie Bronfenbrenner Credited with the Ecological Theory
    http://quizlet.com/16271721/bronfenbrenner-flash-cards/

    Use the Erikson Quizlet website for extra credit. It includes flash cards, study help, an online quiz and games.
    Erikson’s Stage of Psychosocial Development 0 -2 Trust versus Mistrust
    http://quizlet.com/16007202/eriksons-stage-of-psychosocial-development-flash-cards/

    Human Growth and Development Math Assessment Problems

    • (8) The student understands the development of adults ages 20 through 39 years. The student is expected to:
      • (A) analyze various development theories relating to early adults, including biological and cognitive development

    Question 8. Andrea’s daughter mentioned above in question #5 has now reached her adult height of 5 feet 3 inches tall. What is the percentage difference from her predicted height? a. 3% b. 5% c. 7% d. 10%

    Answer: B

    TED Talks:

    TED is a nonprofit devoted to spreading ideas, usually in the form of short, powerful talks (18 minutes or fewer). The video below is related to this lesson. Allow students to view the video, and lead a discussion concerning the TED Talk.

    • OjaiWomen – Alana Sheeren – Owning Our Grief
      Alana Sheeren believes in love, beauty and the transformative power of grief. After the stillbirth of her son, she began writing about her personal journey into grief and whole-self healing.
      http://youtu.be/gqX3Ygy8NOo
    • Rafe Esquith The 6 Levels of Moral Development
      Esquith describes how he teaches the six levels of moral development to his students.
      http://youtu.be/j81-44ADf74
  • Family/Community Connection

    • Interview your parents or grandparents. Develop five to seven questions to ask them about their life course. How do their answers fit into Bronfenbrenner’s Bio-Ecological Theory and Elder’s Life Course Theory?
  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)

    http://texasfccla.org

    Illustrated Talk – An individual or team event which recognizes participants who make an oral presentation about issues concerning Family and Consumer Sciences and/or related occupations. Participants use visuals to illustrate content of the presentation.

    Texas Association of Future Educators (TAFE)

    http://www.tafeonline.org/

    • Educational Leadership Fundamentals – This competition is an individual event that recognizes participates who take a 30-minute timed exam about knowledge of the teaching profession.
  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to lesson.
    www.ysa.org

    Students may wish to volunteer at a senior citizen center. Older students with drivers’ licenses may wish to help with a food delivery service, such as Meals on Wheels.

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