A Look at Theories: Part I (revised 8/14)

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Education and Training

    Course : Human Growth and Development

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (1) The student understands historical, theoretical and research perspectives of human growth and development. The student is expected to:
      • (A) explain the role of theories in understanding human development
      • (B) describe the theoretical perspectives that influence human development throughout the lifetime
      • (C) summarize historical influences on modern theories of human development
      • (D) compare and contrast the research methods commonly used to study human development
      • (E) compare and contrast pedagogy and andragogy
    • (3) The student understands the development of children ages newborn through two years. The students is expected to:
      • (B) analyze various developmental theories relating to infants and toddlers
    • (4) The student understands the development of children ages three through five years. The student is expected to:
      • (B) analyze various developmental theories relating to preschoolers
    • (5) The student understands the development of children ages six through ten years. The student is expected to:
      • (B) analyze various developmental theories relating to children in the early to middle childhood stage of development
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • understand why theories are important in understanding human development
    • identify some major child/human development theorists and theories
    • summarize the major components of several theories
    • analyze their own attitudes and beliefs concerning human development
  • Rationale

    The study of how humans grow and develop is a natural topic of interest for most people. Watching babies develop into adults gives most families reason to question why a child looks or acts more like one parent or the other. Wondering what kind of person will be the end result of the unique combination of genetics, experiences and lifestyle is a question most parents find fascinating. Being able to recognize patterns of growth and development is essential to those who work with children in any capacity. Are you interested in how people develop? What can you expect of infants and toddlers? Do you want to know why your little brother acts the way he does? Theory can give us a framework to understand these and many more things about how human beings grow and develop. This first lesson focuses on theories about infants and young children.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Five 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Andragogy: Helping adults learn

    Attachment: A bond that involves a desire for regular contact with a person and the experience of distress during separation from that person (Ainsworth)

    Behaviorism: A theory that states experience guides behavior and development (Locke, Pavlov, Watson or Skinner)

    Concrete operations: Logical, organized thinking that appears in middle childhood (Piaget)

    Conditioning: Learning through repeated experiences (Pavlov)

    Constructivism: Children constructing their own learning (Piaget)

    Ego: Central part of our personality (Freud)

    Formal operations: Thinking in abstract ways; appears around age eleven (Piaget)

    Id: Houses our basic instincts; a formulation of apparent relationships or underlying principles of certain observed phenomena which has been verified to some degree (Freud)

    Pedagogy: The art of teaching (children)

    Preoperational: The stage in which preschoolers learning to use symbols, language and pretend play to represent things that have been learned (Piaget)

    Psychoanalytic: Describes all thoughts and activities influenced by the unconscious mind (Freud)

    Scaffolding: When adults or more advanced peers help a child up to the next level of learning (Vygotsky)

    Sensorimotor: The stage in which infants learn primarily through the five physical senses (Piaget)

    Sociocultural: A theory which states that people and culture impact our growth and development (Vygotsky)

    Superego: Conscience (Freud)

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with Internet access for multimedia presentations
    • computer lab with Internet access (be sure to follow school district guidelines)

    Materials:

    • 3 x 5 index cards

    Supplies:

    • drawing paper
    • large markers for creating word wall

    • copies of handouts (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
  • Anticipatory Set

    Prior to class:

    Before class begins, make sure to have index cards ready to hand out to the students and the questions and instructions on the board.

    Before class begins:

    Distribute the index cards and have the following questions on the board or screen:

    • When you were a child, did you think the way you think now? Explain.
    • Why do babies need so much attention?
    • Do you think that children “construct” their own learning? That is, can they learn by themselves, without adult help? Why or why not? Give an example.
    • What are ways that adults can help children learn? How can teachers and parents help with learning?

    As students enter the classroom, give each student an index card and instruct students to answer the questions on their own index cards.

    Discuss student answers.

    Have students draw/sketch or locate an example of children helping other children learn something new.

    Distribute KWL Chart – Theories: Part I (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout and have students fill out the first two sections.

    • K – What do I KNOW about theories and how they impact understanding people?
    • W – What do I WANT to know about theories and how they impact understanding people?

    The last box will be completed during Lesson Closure.

  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Note to teacher: Prior to beginning this lesson, please review, preview and select the appropriate multimedia for your classes.

    Introduce lesson objective, terms and definitions.

    If the terms are challenging for your students, you may select to have them create a Personal Word Wall. See cte.sfasu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Personal-Word-Wall1.pdf or utilize the Four Corners Vocabulary/ Word Wall Activity cte.sfasu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Four-Corner-Vocabulary2.pdf.

    Distribute handout A Look at Theories: Part I Note-taking (see All Lesson Attachments tab) for note-taking.

    Introduce PowerPoint™ A Look at Theories: Part I, slides 1- 9 (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

    Use appropriate notes from Presentation Notes: A Look at Theories, Part I (see All Lesson Attachments tab) for discussion.

    Discuss the meaning of theories and how they impact our behaviors and interactions with others.

    • Ainsworth and Attachment: Part I
      This first part looks at the early influences on the work of Mary Ainsworth, including John Bowlby and Konrad Lorenz
      http://youtu.be/4HHTohtXEq8

    Continue with PowerPoint™ A Look at Theories: Part I, slides 10 – 16 (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Use appropriate notes from Presentation Notes: A Look at Theories: Part I (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

    • Behaviorism 101
      Vanessa Monaghan/Claire Whitehead/Catherine Lonegan/Ciara McDonnell developed this video on behaviorism.
      http://youtu.be/RU0zEGWp56Y

    —-

    Continue with PowerPoint ™ A Look at Theories: Part I, slides 17 – 23 (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

    Use appropriate notes from Presentation Notes: A Look at Theories: Part I (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

    Using A Look at Theories: Part I Note-taking (see All Lesson Attachments tab), students will have an opportunity to reflect, review and respond to the information pertaining to the PowerPoint™. They will write a summary of questions, topics or statements which reflect the information from the lesson:

    • Discuss the topic
    • Write down your thoughts
    • Make a real-world connection to the lesson
    • How is this going to help you in the future?

    Allow for questions and answers to check for understanding.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • providing assistance with note-taking

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Distribute the crossword puzzle Human Development A Look at Theories Part I (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Allow students to work with a partner to complete the activity. You may use Human Development A Look at Theories Part I (Key) (see All Lesson Attachments tab) to check their answers.

    Distribute the handout Interview Assignment (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Review instructions with students. Students may complete the Interview Assignment as a homework assignment. Upon completion, students may briefly discuss and compare their findings with the class.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • providing peer tutoring
    • reducing length of assignment

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Distribute Major Theorists Project (see All Lesson Attachments tab) handout. Each student will choose one theorist introduced in this lesson. Student will create and present a 5- to 7-minute oral presentation to the class, using at least one prop. The presentation must include information about the theorist’s life and a simple explanation of the key points of his or her theory. The conclusion will demonstrate at least one way in which this theory could be used in an early childhood classroom.
    Presentations will be graded using the Oral Presentation Rubric (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Review all components of the rubric.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • assisting student in gathering information
    • providing praise and encouragement

  • Lesson Closure

    Review lesson objectives, terms and definitions.

    Have students complete the last section of their KWL Chart – Theories: Part I (see All Lesson Attachments tab).

    • What did I LEARN about the importance of theories in understanding people?

    Theories that study people and life help us understand how people grow and develop throughout their lives. Different theories allow us to contemplate different aspects of life and different age groups.

  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Oral presentation will be assessed with the appropriate rubric.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • providing praise and encouragement
    • reducing length of assignment

  • References/Resources

    Articles:

    Images:

    • Microsoft Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft.

    Textbooks:

    • Berk, L. (2008). Infants and children: Prenatal through middle childhood. (6th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Dacey, J., Travers, J., Fiore, L. (2009). Human development across the lifespan. (7th ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies.

    Websites:

    • Jean Piaget Society
      Society of scholars, teachers and researchers interested in exploring the nature of the developmental construction of human knowledge.
      http://www.piaget.org/aboutPiaget.html

    YouTube™:

    • Ainsworth and Attachment: Part I
      This first part looks at the early influences on the work of Mary Ainsworth, including John Bowlby and Konrad Lorenz
      http://youtu.be/4HHTohtXEq8
    • Behaviorism 101
      Vanessa Monaghan/Claire Whitehead/Catherine Lonegan/Ciara McDonnell developed this video on behaviorism.
      http://youtu.be/RU0zEGWp56Y
  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism, and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Recommended Strategies

    Reading Strategies

    Current Events:
    Assign students to read about why theories are important in understanding human development. Information can be found in newspaper articles, magazines, journals and online print.
    Suggestions:

    Print and distribute to students to read. Encourage the use of the reading strategy “prediction.”

    • Encourage students to connect reading to real life experiences or prior knowledge.
    • Encourage students to “make predictions” about the text content prior to reading. “I think it’s going to be about…” This encourages active reading and keeps students interested. While reading, the students may revise their original predictions or make new ones.
  • Quotes

    As for teaching children concepts that they have not already acquired in their spontaneous development, it is completely useless.
    -Jean Piaget

    What we see changes what we know. What we know changes what we see.
    -Jean Piaget

    Hope is both the earliest and the most indispensable virtue inherent in the state of being alive. If life is to be sustained hope must remain, even where confidence is wounded, trust impaired.
    -Erik Erikson

    Doubt is the brother of shame.
    -Erik Erikson

    Children love and want to be loved and they very much prefer the joy of accomplishment to the triumph of hateful failure. Do not mistake a child for his symptom.
    -Erik Erikson

  • Multimedia/Visual Strategies

    PowerPoint™

    • A Look at Theories: Part I
    • Presentation Notes for A Look at Theories: Part I

    TedxTalk:

    Marshmallows and Children a Lesson in Time Preference Theory
    This is too cute not to share. – In this short talk from TED U, Joachim de Posada shares a landmark experiment on delayed gratification — and how it can predict future success. This priceless video shows kids trying their hardest not to eat the marshmallow.
    http://youtu.be/lWURnHkYuxM

    YouTube ™:

    • Ainsworth and Attachment: Part I
      This first part looks at the early influences on the work of Mary Ainsworth, including John Bowlby and Konrad Lorenz
      http://youtu.be/4HHTohtXEq8
    • Behaviorism 101
      Vanessa Monaghan/Claire Whitehead/Catherine Lonegan/Ciara McDonnell developed this video on behaviorism.
      http://youtu.be/RU0zEGWp56Y

    • Files for downloading:
  • Graphic Organizers/Handout

    Graphic Organizers:

    • A Look at Theories: Part I Note-taking
    • KWL Chart – Theories: Part I

    Handouts:

    • Historical Theories
    • Human Development A Look at Theories: Part I
    • Human Development A Look at Theories: Part I (Key)
    • Interview Assignment
    • Major Theorists Project
    • Oral Presentation Rubric
    • Files for downloading:
  • Writing Strategies

    Journal Entries:

    • Children’s behavior can be described by the following theory: ________________.
    • The psychodynamic perspective can be described as __________________________.
    • The behavioral perspective can be described as _______________________________.
    • The cognitive perspective can be described as _________________________________.
    • As an educator, it is important to understand the theories of development because _________________________________.

    Writing Strategy:

    Newspaper Article: Write a newspaper article interviewing one of the theorists that you learned about. Inform the public about the person and his or her theory.

  • Communication 90 Second Speech Topics

    Ask students to report verbally on one of the following topics:

    • Secure attachment is very important to babies because _______________.
    • Behaviorism works well as a guidance technique because _____________________.
    • Behaviorism does not work well as a guidance technique because _________________.
    • Piaget’s sensorimotor stage states that children _______________________.
    • Vygotsky’s use of “scaffolding” in education.
  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    • Students who wish to learn more about Piaget’s theory may wish to work with a preschool child to observe behaviors based on Piaget’s Theory of Conservation. The following YouTube video demonstrates them. Students may wish to replicate them with a preschooler, being sure to get permission from parents and/or the child care facility. Students can chart their observations and report out their findings to the class.
    • Human Growth and Development Math Assessment Problem
    • (3) The student understands the development of children ages newborn through two
      years. The student is expected to:
      • (B) analyze various developmental theories relating to infants and toddlers

    Question 5. Andrea heard that adult height can be estimated by doubling a child’s height at age 2. What is her child’s estimated adult height if at age 2 she is 30 inches tall?
    a. 5 feet tall
    b. 5 feet 4 inches tall
    c. 5 feet 8 inches tall
    d. 6 feet tall

    Answer: A

    • TED Talks:
      TED is a nonprofit devoted to spreading ideas, usually in the form of short, powerful talks (18 minutes or fewer). The video below is related to this lesson. Allow students to view the video and lead a discussion concerning the TED Talk.

    Marshmallows and Children a Lesson in Time Preference Theory
    This is too cute not to share. – In this short talk from TED U, Joachim de Posada shares a landmark experiment on delayed gratification — and how it can predict future success. This priceless video shows kids trying their hardest not to eat the marshmallow.
    http://youtu.be/lWURnHkYuxM

  • Family/Community Connection

    Create a survey related to a specific theory, distribute to family members, collect data and report findings to the class.

  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA)

    http://texasfccla.org

    Star Events:

    • Chapter Service Project (Display and Manual): A team event – recognizes chapters that develop and implement an in-depth service project that makes a worthwhile contribution to families, schools and communities. Students must use Family and Consumer Sciences content and skills to address and take action on a community need.
    • Interpersonal Communication – An individual or team event – recognizes participants who use Family and Consumer Sciences and/or related occupations skills and apply communication techniques to develop a project designed to strengthen communication.

    Texas Association of Future Educators (TAFE)

    http://www.tafeonline.org/

    • Educational Leadership Fundamentals – This competition is an individual event that recognizes participates who take a 30-minute timed exam about knowledge of the teaching profession.
  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to the lesson. For additional information on service learning see
    http://www.ysa.org/

    Students will develop a brochure of the theories of development for distribution to a women’s shelter. Distribute Historical Theories (see All Lesson Attachments tab) to be used as a resource.

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