A Look at Legal Responsibilities and Child Labor Laws

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  • Lesson Identification and TEKS Addressed

    Cluster : Human Services

    Course : Child Guidance

  • TEKS Student Expectations

    • (1) The student analyzes roles and responsibilities of caregivers. The student is expected to:
      • (E) investigate the legal responsibilities and laws involved in caring for children
      • (F) analyze the impact of changing societal patterns and demographics on the role of parents, children, and other family members
    • (6) The student makes informed career decisions that reflect personal, family, and career goals. The student is expected to:
      • (D) exhibit employability skills such as communication, problem solving, leadership, teamwork, ethics, and technical skills
      • (E) demonstrate effective verbal, nonverbal, written, and electronic communication skills
      • (F) demonstrate skills and characteristics of leaders and effective team members
  • Basic Direct Teach Lesson

    Instructional Objectives

    Students will:

    • recognize the injustices against child laborers in the past
    • identify the function and impact of labor laws designed to protect children in the United States
    • investigate the legal responsibilities and laws involved in caring for children
    • evaluate the impact of changing societal patterns and demographics on the role of parents, children, and other family members
  • Rationale

    As a child guidance professional you will need to know about the legal responsibilities of your clients, which may be parents or caregivers. In this lesson we will focus on legal regulations and US and Texas Child Labor Laws.

  • Duration of Lesson

    Four 45 minute class periods

  • Word Wall

    Child Labor: Work done by children that is harmful to them

    Child Labor Laws: Laws that control the work that children are permitted to do

    Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA): Establishes minimum wage, overtime pay, record keeping, and child labor standards affecting full-time and part-time workers in the private sector and in Federal, State, and local governments

    National Child Labor Committee: A group formed in 1904 to eliminate child labor

    Promulgated: To make known or public the terms of (a proposed law)

  • Materials/Specialized Equipment Needed

    Equipment:

    • computer with projector for multimedia presentation
    • computers with Internet access (be sure to follow district guidelines for Internet access)
    • light projector (Elmo)
    • presenter remote

    Materials:

    • newspapers (large stack)
    • play money (including coins)
    • sewing materials (buttons, fabric pieces, thread, crochet needles)

    Images of vintage and present day items (if available)

    • 16 mm film reels
    • blackboards
    • cars
    • cell phones
    • computers
    • filmstrips
    • school desks
    • textbooks
    • typewriters

    • copies of all handouts (see All Lesson Attachments tab)
  • Anticipatory Set

    Before class begins:

    Display as many of the lesson-related supplies (see Materials or Specialized Equipment Needed) that you have available on a table in front of the room.

    The newspapers, play money, and sewing materials are used to depict the items that young children used to sell and make to earn money. The coins can be used to show students that children would earn 10 to 15 cents an hour.

    The images of vintage and present day items would depict how society has changed through the years. Ask students what they think these items may look like in 5, 10, or 20 years.

    Distribute graphic organizer KWL – Child Labor (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and ask the following questions:

    • What do you KNOW about Child Labor?
    • What do you WANT to know about Child Labor?

    The students will answer the final question at the end of the lesson in Lesson Closure.

  • Direct Instruction with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Introduce lesson objectives, terms, and definitions.

    Distribute handout A Look at Legal Responsibilities and Child Labor Laws Notes (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students will be expected to take notes while viewing the slide presentation. Teacher may determine the notes which will be recorded by students.

    Introduce PowerPoint™ A Look at Legal Responsibilities and Child Labor Laws (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and begin the discussion with students. Allow for questions and answers to check for understanding.

    Distribute handouts Family and Medical Leave Act and Family Code (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and review with your students as you present slides 5 and 6.

    Display handout Minimum Wage Poster (see All Lesson Attachments tab) as you present slide 14 and announce to your students that employers must have this poster displayed in a prominent place at their business.

    Videos included in the PowerPoint™:

    • Lewis Hine: The child labor photos that shamed America
      Lewis Hine is most famous for his photographs of the construction workers who helped build the Empire State Building in 1930.
      http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-17673213

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • checking for understanding
    • providing a copy of slide presentation

  • Guided Practice with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Display Lewis Hine’s photographs from the Progressive Era as a slide presentation. Ask students the questions below as they view the photos.

    • Lewis Hine – The Progressive Era
      In 1908, Hine became the photographer for the National Child Labor Committee. Over the next decade, Hine documented child labor in American industry to aid the NCLC’s lobbying efforts to end the practice. Photographs are from between January 1908 and January 1912.
      http://www.flickr.com/photos/usnationalarchives/sets/72157630403221230/
    • What do you think the age range of the children is in the photographs?
    • What kind of jobs are the children doing?
    • What do think the conditions were like in the factories?
    • How do you think the children were treated?
    • Why did the children look older than their actual age?
    • What was the pay for working children?
    • Did hazardous child labor exist?
    • What factors led to the existence of hazardous child labor in the 1900’s?
    • What were some of the problems associated with hazardous child labor?
    • Why did parents allow their children to work in dangerous factories and coal mines?
    • How have today’s legal responsibilities and laws involved in caring for children improved the treatment of children?

    Distribute graphic organizer Child Labor Reform (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Discuss with your students how progress has been made through the years for children working in factories, agricultural fields, and street vending.

    Place Child Labor Reform (Key) (see All Lesson Attachments tab) on light projector and display one section at at time.

    The timeline begins in 1832 and highlights important steps that led to the Fair Labor Standards Act. Reference to the pictures can be made as to each of the reforms throughout the years.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • check for understanding
    • shortened assignment
    • encourage participation

  • Independent Practice/Laboratory Experience with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Distribute handout Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and review details with students.

    Divide class into subgroups of three or four students and allow each group to choose a topic to research. Students will create a timeline depicting how society has changed from the past, how it is today, and predict what they think will happen in the future.

    Allow students to create the timeline using a method of their choice.
    Examples: computer generated timeline template, string with clothespins or clips, graphic organizer, and so forth.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • provide specific websites or articles from which students can obtain their research information
    • provide students with a checklist or rubric to help them organize and complete all steps of the process

  • Lesson Closure

    Review lesson objectives, terms, and definitions.

    Distribute Youth Rules! bookmarks (see All Lesson Attachments tab) for general information.
    Explain to students that because of the hardships of children many years ago, their first priority now is to go to school and receive an education.

    Re-distribute the KWL – Child Labor (see All Lesson Attachments tab) and ask the final question:

    • What did you LEARN about Child Labor?
  • Summative/End of Lesson Assessment with Special Education Modifications/Accommodations

    Students will present their timeline to the class.

    Student projects will be assessed with appropriate rubric.

    Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for all special education students must be followed. Examples of accommodations may include, but are not limited to:

    • encourage participation
    • praise efforts
    • assist in verbal presentation

  • References/Resources

    Article:

    Images:

    Textbook:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child development: Early stages through age 12. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company.

    Websites:

    Videos:

  • Additional Required Components

    English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategies

    • Draw connections between content and real life.
    • Speak slowly and clearly in a normal tone of voice.
    • Repeat key phrases to the students.
    • Stress the main words in a sentence.
  • College and Career Readiness Connection

    AchieveTexas Career Cluster Crosswalks

    The Career Cluster Crosswalks housed on the AchieveTexas website http://www.achievetexas.org/index.html provide Texas teachers with a direct connection between their CTE course TEKS and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, and Cross-Disciplinary integration are the focus of the CCRS. These college and career readiness standards are essential in the planning and delivery of CTE lessons. The extent to which the integration occurs is determined by the methods and strategies utilized by each teacher.

    Career Cluster Crosswalks for Education and Training, Hospitality and Tourism, and Human Services Career Clusters can be found at:
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Career%20Cluster%20Crosswalks.htm

  • Recommended Strategies

    Reading Strategies

    Current Events:
    Assign students to read about behaviors and laws concerning child labor laws. Information can be found in newspaper articles, magazines, journals, and online print.
    Suggestions:

    • Encourage students to connect reading to their life experiences or prior knowledge.

  • Quotes

    There is work that profits children, and there is work that brings profit only to employers. The object of employing children is not to train them, but to get high profits from their work.
    -Lewis Hine, American Photographer and Child Labor Activist, 1908

    If we can’t begin to agree on fundamentals, such as the elimination of the most abusive forms of child labor, then we really are not ready to march forward into the future.
    -Alexis Herman

    After all, despite the economic advantage to firms that employed child labor, it was in the social interest, as a national policy, to abolish it – removing that advantage for all firms.
    -Barry Commoner

    Now is the time to act – for the future of our generation. The question of child abuse is crucial; we call on the general public to join hands with us.
    -Boonthan Verawongse

    Together let us build the global alliance to realize that goal, secure in the knowledge that in serving the best interests of children, we serve the best interests of all humanity.
    -Carol Bellamy

    Safety and security don’t just happen; they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear.
    -Nelson Mandela

  • Multimedia/Visual Strategies

    PowerPoint™:

    • A Look at Legal Responsibilities and Child Labor Laws
    • Presentation Notes for A Look at Legal Responsibilities and Child Labor Laws

    Technology:

    Video:

    • Lewis Hine: The child labor photos that shamed America
      Lewis Hine is most famous for his photographs of the construction workers who helped build the Empire State Building in 1930.
      http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-17673213

    Files for downloading:

  • Graphic Organizers/Handout

    Graphic Organizers:

    • A Look at Legal Responsibilities and Child Labor Laws Notes
    • Child Labor Reform
    • Child Labor Reform (Key)
    • KWL – Child Labor

    Handouts:

    • Family Medical Leave Act
    • Family Code
    • Minimum Wage Poster
    • Rubric for Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow Timeline Group Project
    • Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow
    • YouthRules! Bookmarks

    Files for downloading:

  • Writing Strategies

    Journal Entries:

    • Child labor reform was necessary because….
    • Hazardous work means to me….
    • Hazardous child labor still exists today because….
    • The minimum wage should be raised because …

    Writing Strategy:

    RAFT Writing Strategy
    Role – Lewis Hine’s Photography Assistant
    Audience – United States Supreme Court
    Format – Persuasive letter
    Topic – Choose one of Hine’s pictures and describe it in detail. What do you think it is saying? What does it represent about children working during that time? How do you think your picture influenced people during that time? State why child labor laws should be passed. Students must include what life is like without an education and the terrible working conditions that they faced on a daily basis from their employer.

  • Communication 90 Second Speech Topics

    • The federal act which regulates child labor is called…. and it states…..
    • Hazardous employment—jobs involving activities or machines that prohibited people under the age of 18 from working are…….
    • Some of the consequences of children trapped in hazardous work include…
    • Three ways that technology has changed through the years are ….
  • Other Essential Lesson Components

    Enrichment activity

    • Students will compose a one page paper stating whether or not child labor still exists today. If so, where? Do you think that it will ever change? What can you do to stop child labor? Students must include a map of where the child labor still exists.
    • Write a paper entitled “A Day in the Life of___________”. Identify countries where hazardous labor exists. Describe what a day in the life of a child laborer would be like. Describe the physical and emotional impacts hazardous work has on child laborers. Identify some factors that contribute to the existence of hazardous child labor.
    • Students will watch “Child Labor” and comprise a one page paper on Child Labor in Britain During the Industrial Revolution.

  • Family/Community Connection

    • Invite a U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Special Agent to talk about child labor and child exploitation.
    • Interview a senior citizen about his/her first job, salary and working conditions.
    • Invite a small panel of senior citizens to speak about growing up during the 20th century. Ask senior friends to bring pictures of their youth and events they experienced throughout their life span. Students should prepare questions ahead of time.
  • CTSO connection

    Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) http://www.fcclainc.org

    STAR Events:

    • Advocacy: An individual or team event recognizes participants who demonstrate their knowledge, skills, and ability to actively identify a local, state, or national concern, research the topic, identify a target audience and potential partnerships, form an action plan, and advocate for the issue in an effort to positively affect a policy or law.
  • Service Learning Projects

    Successful service learning project ideas originate from student concerns and needs. Allow students to brainstorm about service projects pertaining to lesson.
    http://www.nylc.org/

    • While studying child labor in the U.S during the industrial revolution, students will research the alleged use of child labor in the production of the goods they buy. They will develop a letter writing campaign in which students will write letters to corporations urging them to monitor and prevent the use of child labor in their overseas plants and work with foreign governments to end the poverty that forces children to work. They will make presentations to other classes in which they will explain the issue and ask for other students to join the letter writing campaign. The letters will be mailed to the heads of the various corporations.
    • Conduct a book drive and donate books to countries which need the books for school-age children.