Science in Hospitality and Tourism Online Course

  • Science in Hospitality and Tourism Online Course Introduction

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    Welcome to the Science in Hospitality and Tourism Online Course

    This self-paced online, professional course is designed to familiarize Texas educators, the connections between the Sciences of Biology, Integrated Physics and Chemistry (IPC) and the Hospitality and Tourism Career Cluster® courses such as:

    • Principles of Hospitality
    • Culinary Arts
    • Hospitality Services
    • Restaurant Management
    • Hotel Management
    • Practicum in Culinary Arts
    • Practicum in Hospitality and Tourism

    Hospitality workers, including those in the restaurant, hotel or travel industries need a basic understanding of biology, chemistry and environmental science to assist them in planning and implementing strategies, techniques and practices that are an essential part of working with the public and the environment.

    Understanding basic science concepts will help workers in the hospitality and tourism industry make informed decisions that can affect the outcome of the community, the customers and even the economic gains of the proprietors.

    Important
    This online course consists of an introduction and seven modules. Carefully read all of the course content to become familiar with the TEKS, student expectations and science information related to hospitality and tourism. Each module ends with multiple choice statements.

    After completing the course, you will be required to complete a 50 question quiz and submit your name and email address. You will receive a certificate of completion at that address.

    The certificates for the successful completion of the online courses are NOT automatically computer generated and are reviewed individually. Certificates will be generated Monday through Friday between the hours of 8:00am and 5:00pm.
    For questions, contact: sfacte@gmail.com

    As approved by the Texas Education Agency, a passing score of 80 is required to receive a certificate equaling six (6) Continuing Professional Education (CPE) credits.

  • I. Physical and Chemical Changes in Food

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    TEKS Addressed

    Chemistry

    (4) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics of matter and can analyze the relationships between chemical and physical changes and properties. The student is expected to:

    • (A) differentiate between physical and chemical changes and properties

    Integrated Physics and Chemistry

    (7) Science concepts. The student knows that changes in matter affect everyday life. The student is expected to:

    • (B) recognize that chemical changes can occur when substances react to form different substances and that these interactions are largely determined by the valence electrons


    Culinary Arts

    (6) The student understands the history of food service and the use of the professional kitchen. The student is expected to:

    • (G) demonstrate moist and dry cookery methods
    • (H) demonstrate the preparation skills of items commonly prepared in food service operations such as breakfast cookery, salads and dressings, soups and sandwiches, stocks and sauces, appetizers, seafood, poultry, meat, pastas and grains and fruits and vegetables
    • (I) demonstrate baking techniques such as yeast breads and rolls, quick breads and desserts

    Food Science

    (6) The student studies the chemical properties of food. The student is expected to:

    • (I) analyze chemical and physical changes in food


    Science is such an intricate part of our daily lives that some obvious examples are often overlooked. Such is the case of the chemical and physical changes involved during the food preparation process and cooking.

    Chemistry is the study of matter and matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Humans are examples of matter as well as the air we breathe and the foods we eat. Physical changes occur when matter’s physical appearance is changed in some way, but its chemical composition remains the same.

    Chopping an onion for use in a soup is an example of a physical change. The onion’s physical appearance has merely been changed for use in the recipe.

    Making almond flour from blanched almonds requires the use of a food processor and changes the physical appearance of the almonds. Grinding is another example of a physical change because the chemical composition of the almonds remains intact.

    Making lemonade requires you to dissolve sugar in water. Although it may seem the sugar has disappeared, a quick taste test would confirm it is still present. Dissolving is in fact another example of a physical change. The water, sugar and lemon juice are still present in the mixture and no new substances have been created.

    Melting, boiling and freezing are very common terms in a culinary kitchen and are also considered physical changes. These changes in state from solid to liquid or liquid to gas are just physical since the substance’s chemical makeup remains the same.

    Chemical changes result when substances react to form new substances that were not originally present. These changes may be accompanied by the production of a new color or odor and the change is usually irreversible.

    The mixing of the ingredients used to make a cake batter is a physical change, but the baking process is not since the oven’s heat caused chemical reactions within the ingredients to occur.

    Most kitchens have baking soda and vinegar readily available since they are common cooking ingredients. Mixing a little of both results in a chemical change that produces lots of bubbling. This bubbling is a new gas formed by the reaction of the vinegar and baking soda.

    Making chili requires the browning of ground beef first. This chemical change occurs as the proteins in the meat denature and its chemical composition is altered.

    The degree of change that occurs during the cooking process depends on the links of cooking time, the temperature and the cooking technique you use.

    The three cooking techniques are:

    1. dry
    2. moist
    3. combination of both

    Dry cooking techniques uses metal and the radiation of hot air, oil, or fat to transfer heat. No moisture is used in this cooking process. Any moisture that comes from the food evaporates, or escapes, into the air. Remember, in the case of dry cooking methods, that the use of oil still constitutes dry cookery. The addition of water to the cooking process makes it a moist cooking technique.

    Moist cooking techniques uses liquid instead of oil to create the heat energy needed to cook the food. Boiling is a good example of this technique.

    Combination cooking uses both moist and dry cooking techniques. This kind of cooking is a two-step process. You start cooking using one technique and finish with the other. The objective of combination cooking is to build upon the food flavors. By understanding each cooking technique, you can begin to combine them in ways that create great tasting food.

    Accuracy in measurement is crucial in baking because most baked products are made from the same basic ingredients:

    • egg
    • fat
    • flour
    • leavening agent
    • water

    The difference between two baked products often lies in the proportion of each of these ingredients in the formula. If the proportions are off, you will end up with a different product or an unacceptable product.

    Related lessons

    Module I: Physicial and Chemical Changes in Culinary Arts Questions

    1. Salt is stirred into a boiling pot of spaghetti. This is an example of a _________________ change.

    • a. physical
    • b. chemical

    2. Melting butter changes butter from a solid state to a liquid state. This is an example of a _________________ change.

    • a. physical
    • b. chemical

    3. Hard-boiled eggs are a favorite at my house. The change the egg undergoes is classified as ____________________.

    • a. physical
    • b. chemical

    4. The changes that occur in order to make a smoothie using a blender are considered ____________________ changes.

    • a. physical
    • b. chemical

    5. Which of the following is NOT a chemical change?

    • a. dissolving
    • b. digesting
    • c. decomposing
    • d. rotting

    6. Which of the following is NOT a physical change?

    • a. grinding
    • b. bending
    • c. evaporating
    • d. burning

  • II. Ecosystems of the World

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    TEKS Addressed

    Biology

    (12) Science concepts. The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an environmental system. The student is expected to:

    • (B) compare variations and adaptations of organisms in different ecosystems


    Principles of Hospitality and Tourism

    (10) The student demonstrates research skills applicable to the hospitality and tourism industry. The student is expected to:

    • (D) identify local and regional tourism issues

    Travel and Tourism Management

    (11) The student uses technical knowledge and skills required to pursue careers in the travel and tourism industry. The student is expected to:

    • (H) develop an awareness of cultural diversity to enhance travel planning by exploring differences in social etiquette, dress and behaviors of different countries


    Did you know that half of all living things can be found in the rain forest?

    The tropical rainforest is only one of the many ecosystems, or biomes, found on our planet. Biomes are large geographical areas with similar climate and plant and animal life.

    People travel to different areas of the world for different reasons.

    Tourism, for pleasure or business, not only gives us the opportunity to explore ecosystems different than our own, but is also one of the world’s most important sources of employment.

    The United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) believes in sustainable tourism, or ecotourism, since tourism can have a negative impact on natural resources and ecosystems. Many of the plant and animal life of these biomes have developed specific adaptations that enable them to survive in these regions and ecotourism is responsible for minimizing the environmental impact that tourism may have on them.

    The terrestrial biomes are classified according to latitude and humidity with biodiversity increasing towards the equator and away from the poles.

    If the Turner family decides to take a road trip beginning in Canada and ending in the country of Ecuador, they would notice an increase in the number of plants and animals the closer they got to Ecuador.

    The biomes the family would encounter include the:

    • coniferous forest
    • deciduous forest
    • desert
    • grassland
    • tropical rainforest
    • tundra

    The tundra biome can be found in places like Alaska and has permanently frozen subsoil called permafrost where only small vegetation can grow. These conditions make the biome often appear lifeless and barren.

    Lemmings, artic fox and snowy owls are some of the few animals found in the harsh weather conditions of the tundra.

    Moose and deer are abundant in the coniferous forest, as well as, evergreen trees such as pine and spruce.

    The deciduous forest has trees whose leaves fall in the autumn and animals such as bald eagles and coyotes.

    Biome names vary by region.

    Australians may refer to the grasslands as savannas, where people from Mongolia may call them steppes. Grasses are the dominant vegetation in the grasslands. Large numbers of gazelles, zebras and lions are often seen grazing on the nutrient-rich soil of the grasslands.

    The organisms living in any particular biome have developed adaptations to survive the specific weather conditions of that biome.

    Cacti, for example, have thorns and photosynthetic stems that allow them to thrive in harsh desert conditions.

    The proximity to the equator and plentiful amount of rainfall make the tropical rainforests the biome with the largest amount of biodiversity on the planet. There are many tall trees in the rainforest and the vegetation is so dense that very little light actually penetrates the forest floor.

    One of the main reasons for traveling is to experience new and different surroundings. Unfortunately, tourism can also have a huge impact on any of these biomes since “over visitation” of any particular city or attraction can threaten nature’s delicate balance.

    Through ecotourism, one can rest assured that travel to these fragile ecosystems conserves the environment and well-being of the local people while providing the visitor with an opportunity to explore earth’s natural beauty.

    Related Lessons:

    Module II: Ecosystems of the World Questions

    1. The Smith family will be traveling to the Alaskan Tundra for spring break. Which of the following plants are they likely to find?

    • a. moss
    • b. pine trees
    • c. cacti
    • d. maple trees

    2. The _____________________ is the ecosystem with the least amount of inhabiting plants and animals.

    • a. Tundra
    • b. Taiga
    • c. Grassland
    • d. Desert

    3. Which of the following is NOT a negative impact of tourism on the local environment?

    • a. coral reef damage caused by ships coming into the wharf
    • b. insufficient water treatment
    • c. beaches cluttered with garbage
    • d. low-flow showerheads

    4. Which ecosystem is likely to be present if the regional climate is typically hot and dry?

    • a. Rainforest
    • b. Tundra
    • c. Desert
    • d. Taiga

    5. Which of the following is NOT likely an adaptation of organisms during the winter months of the tundra?

    • a. flying south
    • b. long growing season
    • c. remaining in a dormant phase
    • d. thick layer of fur coat

    6. Sustainable ecotourism includes all of the following EXCEPT _____________________.

    • a. neglecting the needs of the host people
    • b. promoting conservation
    • c. low negative visitor impact
    • d. enjoying and appreciating nature

  • III. Feeding Relationships

    TEKS Addressed

    Biology

    (12) Science concepts. The student knows that interdependence and interactions occur within an environmental system. The student is expected to:

    • (F) describe how environmental change can impact ecosystem stability


    Principles of Hospitality and Tourism

    (10) The student demonstrates research skills applicable to the hospitality and tourism industry. The student is expected to:

    • (D) identify local and regional tourism issues

    Travel and Tourism Management

    (11) The student uses technical knowledge and skills required to pursue careers in the travel and tourism industry. The student is expected to:

    • (H) develop an awareness of cultural diversity to enhance travel planning by exploring differences in social etiquette, dress and behaviors of different countries


    Just like interdependency exists in the tourism industry as hotel guests dine at local restaurants, living things live in interdependence with other organisms and their environment. No organism lives in isolation on this planet and we all depend on one another for survival.

    Ecotourism seeks to offer visitors a window into earth’s delicate ecosystems while simultaneously minimizing the impact of that tourism on the natural environment.

    Feeding relationships among varying organisms of the same ecosystem are illustrated through food webs. Food webs are, in turn, comprised of simpler food chains.

    The food chain below illustrates the energy transfer from to the sun to the grass, from the grass to the grasshopper, from the grasshopper to the bird, from the bird to the snake and from the snake to the owl.

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    (click on image to enlarge)

    All energy ultimately comes from the sun. Producers, also known as autotrophs, are the only ones with the ability to harness the sun’s energy through the process of photosynthesis.

    The producer in this food chain is the grass. Producers, such as plants and algae, make up the first trophic level of a food chain. Organisms that have to eat other organisms for energy are called consumers or heterotrophs.

    The grasshopper, bird, snake, and owl are the consumers in this food chain, but the grasshopper is the primary consumer since it is the first consumer in the chain.

    Cows, lions and humans are also considered consumers because they cannot photosynthesize and rely on others for energy.

    Food webs may also contain decomposers; organisms, such as fungi, that break down the remains of living organisms.

    Food webs are more complex than food chains because they show the different feeding relationships of various organisms in an ecosystem.

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    (click on image to enlarge)

    The food web above shows that the wildcat can obtain its energy by feeding not only on the rabbit, but also on the mouse. It further shows that owls, snakes, wild cats and rabbits all prey on the mouse.

    Food webs are important because they show how a change in one population of animals in a food chain can have a catastrophic impact on the entire ecosystem since all organisms rely on each other in order to survive.

    Environmentally responsible travel is crucial to the sustainability of these food webs as it promotes the conservation of nature’s delicate balance.

    Module III: Feeding Relationships Questions

    1. Deer are producers because they feed on grasses.

    • a. True
    • b. False

    2. Deer are consumers because they feed on grasses.

    • a. True
    • b. False

    3. Which of the following would negatively impact an aquatic food web?

    • a. compost garbage
    • b. tourist demand for seafood
    • c. using nontoxic pest control
    • d. recycling

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    Use the food web above to answer the following questions.

    4. Grasses are the only ___________________ illustrated in the food web.

    • a. producer
    • b. consumer
    • c. decomposer

    5. If the grasshopper population suddenly vanished, the ______________ would become the snake’s only source of energy.

    • a. grass
    • b. snake
    • c. mouse
    • d. fox

    6. The rabbit is a ___________________ consumer in this food web.

    • a. primary
    • b. secondary
    • c. tertiary

    7. Producers are also known as _____________________.

    • a. heterotrophs
    • b. autotrophs
    • c. carnivores
    • d. herbivores

  • IV. Energy Sources

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    TEKS Addressed

    Integrated Physics and Chemistry

    (5) Science concepts. The student recognizes multiple forms of energy and knows the impact of energy transfer and energy conservation in everyday life. The student is expected to:

    • (I) critique the advantages and disadvantages of various energy sources and their impact on society and the environment


    Principles of Hospitality and Tourism

    (8) The student explains how employees, guests, and property are protected to minimize losses or liabilities in the hospitality and tourism industry. The student is expected to:

    • (D) determine how environmental issues such as recycling and saving energy affect the hospitality and tourism industry

    Culinary Arts

    (3) The student demonstrates an understanding that personal success depends on personal effort. The student is expected to:

    • (A) demonstrate a proactive understanding of self-responsibility and self-management

    (6) The student understands the history of food service and the use of the professional kitchen. The student is expected to:

    • (D) analyze how current trends in society affect the food service industry

    Practicum in Culinary Arts

    (10) The student understands the history of food service and the use of the professional kitchen. The student is expected to:

    • (D) analyze how current trends in society affect the food service industry

    Restaurant Management

    (9) The student demonstrates an understanding that personal success depends on personal effort. The student is expected to:

    • (A) demonstrate a proactive understanding of self-responsibility and self-management


    Most, if not all, the devices humans use on a regular basis for work and play rely on electricity to function. And what kind of a vacation would it be if electricity were not available?

    The tourism industry relies heavily on the use of electricity. For example, lighting can account for 30 to 40 percent of a hotel’s electricity consumption.

    But where does our electricity come from? Electricity comes from energy sources that can be classified either as renewable or nonrenewable, depending on the amount of time required to replenish them.

    The vast majority of the energy in the United States comes from nonrenewable sources of energy such as the fission of uranium and burning of fossil fuels. These are considered nonrenewable energy sources since they are created over thousands of years and are being used faster than they can be replenished.

    • Coal, oil and natural gas are the different types of fossil fuels.
    • Coal is a dark sedimentary rock formed over millions of years ago and the most abundant fuel in the United States.
    • Crude oil, also known as petroleum, is extracted from the earth and used to make gasoline and other fuels.
    • Methane, an odorless gas, is the main component of the natural gas that is used in our homes.
    • Uranium ore is mined and sent to a nuclear power plant where the splitting of uranium atoms can generate lots of energy.

    Sustainable tourism looks for ways to minimize the negative impact of tourism on the environment. One way the lodging sector could reduce their energy use and cut costs is by using energy efficient lighting.

    • Biomass energy is energy derived from the burning of human sewage, animal manure, wood, and crops.
    • Compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) use 75% less energy than incandescent bulbs.
    • Our planet’s oceans and bodies of water can also provide energy in the form of hydropower.
    • Wind energy can be captured with massive turbines, while photovoltaic cells in solar panels can capture the sun’s radiant energy.
    • Wind, solar, hydropower and biomass are renewable sources of energy.

    Steps must be taken in order to shift our energy consumption from nonrenewable sources to renewable sources as the burning of fossil fuels has a huge impact on our environment.

    Eco efficiency, or being “green,” is about providing more goods and services while using less resources and producing less waste and pollution.

    How can resorts, motels and lodges become more sustainable? Look into solar panels to heat your water and consider wind power. Although renewable energy sources may seem like a huge financial investment, some energy providers offer to help offset the cost by implementing other energy-saving techniques or by helping with tax credits.

    Sustainability is all about small efforts making big differences.

    Related Lessons:

    Module IV: Energy Sources Questions

    1. Which of the following is a renewable source of energy?

    • a. nuclear
    • b. natural gas
    • c. petroleum
    • d. wind

    2. Fossil fuels include coal, oil, and ___________________________________.

    • a. nuclear
    • b. natural gas
    • c. biomass
    • d. wind

    3. Nuclear energy is created by the fission of ______________________ atoms.

    • a. hydrogen
    • b. nitrogen
    • c. carbon
    • d. uranium

    4. Wood chips are an example of _______________________ energy.

    • a. radiant
    • b. coal
    • c. biomass
    • d. petroleum

    5. Currently most of our energy comes from ______________________ sources of energy.

    • a. renewable
    • b. nonrenewable

    6. Sustainable properties would NOT implement which of the following practices?

    • a. increasing building insulation
    • b. using natural day lighting whenever possible
    • c. use Styrofoam and nonbiodegradable drinking cups
    • d. installing LED exit signs

  • V. Interactions Between the Digestive System and the Body

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    Biology

    (10) Science concepts. The student knows that biological systems are composed of multiple levels. The student is expected to:

    • (A) describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction and defense from injury or illness in animals

    Principles of Hospitality and Tourism

    (1) The student applies academic skills for the hospitality and tourism industry. The student is expected to:

    • (E) infer how scientific principles are used in the hospitality and tourism industry

    (11) The student understands the importance of customer service. The student is expected to:

    • (A) determine ways to provide quality customer service
    • (D) examine different types of food service


    Food service is a major part of customer service in the hospitality industry. The ability to cater to the different needs of the customer is very important.

    People with special dietary needs also make up a large portion of the customer population. It is for this reason, that knowledge of the digestive system and how it affects the other body systems, is necessary in the hospitality industry.

    A few of the special diet needs that are prominent include:

    • casein free
    • diabetic
    • food allergies
    • gluten-free
    • lactose-free
    • low cholesterol
    • low fat
    • low sodium
    • low-sugar/low glycemic

    These affect different body systems such as the:

    • circulatory system
    • digestive system
    • endocrine system (hormonal)
    • immune (lymphatic) system

    There are more dietary needs but these are just a few.

    The digestive system therefore, interacts with all the other major body systems since it is responsible for the intake, processing and absorption of nutrients for the body.

    The digestive system’s main function is to break down food into molecules that the body can use.

    Some of the major organs involved in this process include the:

    • esophagus
    • gall bladder
    • intestines
    • liver
    • mouth
    • oral cavity
    • pancreas
    • pharynx
    • salivary glands
    • stomach
    • teeth
    • tongue

    These organs work together to perform the following major functions of the digestive system.

    1. oral cavity – ingestion and breakdown of the food begins
    2. pharynx – helps funnel the food down to the esophagus and then to the stomach
    3. stomach – breakdown of the food continues; contains hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes to aid in the breakdown of food
    4. small intestine – absorption, as well as the continued breakdown of food, continues where 90% of the nutrients are absorbed into the body. This is in part due to the length and ridges in the small intestine that increase the surface area (the total area of the surface) of skin for absorption.
    5. liver and gall bladder – accessory organs (organs that aid in the digestive process but are part of another system as well) that help aid in digestion by producing and secreting bile into the small intestine
    6. gall bladder – helps to recycle this bile for repeated use
    7. pancreas – another accessory organ that secretes digestive enzymes to aid in digestion in the small intestines
    8. large intestine (sometimes called the colon) – helps absorb any water or final nutrients left; also contains billions of beneficial bacteria to aid in the breakdown of waste

    The dependence of all the body systems on the nutrients absorbed by the digestive system is an important aspect to consider when planning and working in a food service environment/industry.

    The digestive system has either a direct or indirect effect on all of this.

    Module V: Interactions Between the Digestive System and the Body Questions

    1. Anabel just ate a large meal and says that her stomach is full. What is her stomach doing, aside from storing the food?

    • a. breaking down the food
    • b. absorbing the food
    • c. eliminating the waste

    2. Mr. Johnson cannot eat spicy foods because he gets heartburn. The heartburn is caused by the hydrochloric acid that helps break down the food in which organ during digestion?

    • a. small intestine
    • b. pancreas
    • c. stomach

    3. Mrs. Kyrish has Celiac disease and cannot eat gluten because it will damage her small intestine which is responsible for:

    • a. 90% of nutrient absorption
    • b. the secretion of digestive enzymes
    • c. the absorption of water

    4. Lisa works as a meal planner in the local hospital’s cafeteria. As such, she must take into account the various dietary needs of the patients.
    Mr. Hudson is suffering from constipation and needs extra water in his diet to help soften his stools. It is important for Lisa to know about the large intestine because it is responsible for:

    • a. the secretion of digestive enzymes
    • b. the absorption of water and breakdown of waste
    • c. the absorption of 90% of nutrients

    5. Liana recalls that some organs, not part of the digestive tract, aid in digestion and are called accessory organs. Which of these are accessory organs?

    • a. tongue, pharynx and esophagus
    • b. pancreas, liver and gall bladder
    • c. stomach, small intestine and large intestine

    6. Lisa is working on her meal planning for the hospital cafeteria. Which of the following includes a list of special dietary needs she needs to know?

    • a. ulcers, dermatitis, alopecia
    • b. influenza, measles, diphtheria
    • c. gluten-free, lactose-free, low glycemic, low sodium

    7. Rosie’s small intestines are very long and have many tiny ridges that help increase her ability to absorb nutrients, so she has the energy to prep all her foods at the restaurant. What is this large area for absorption called?

    • a. circumference
    • b. surface Area
    • c. radius

    8. Calvin’s large intestines have billions of tiny microorganisms that help break down any remaining food during the digestion process. A diet containing yogurt helps to maintain a healthy balance of these microorganisms. What are they called?

    • a. parasites
    • b. viruses
    • c. bacteria

  • VI. Biomolecules and Food

    TEKS Addressed

    Biology

    (9) Science concepts. The student knows the significance of various molecules involved in metabolic processes and energy conversions that occur in living organisms. The student is expected to:

    • (A) compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

    Principles of Hospitality and Tourism

    (11) The student understands the importance of customer service. The student is expected to:

    • (A) determine ways to provide quality customer service
    • (D) examine different types of food service


    A big part of the hospitality business depends on providing customers with food service that meets their various dietary needs. It is important to understand what the basic nutritional makeup of food is in order to accomplish this goal.

    Biomolecules are the basic building blocks of all living things. Biomolecules are very large molecules found in living organisms. Three of these biomolecules are also found in the foods we eat and provide our bodies with different, essential nutrients.

    These biomolecules are:

    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • proteins

    All foods fall into one or more of these categories.

    The biomolecules not found in our food are nucleic acids which will not be discussed here.

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    Carbohydrates are a good source of quick energy for the body.

    They are found in:

    • breads
    • candy
    • fruits
    • grains
    • pastas

    These molecules are made up of simple sugars like disaccharides, monosaccharides and more complex sugars known as polysaccharides.

    Disaccharides include:

    • sucrose
    • lactose
    • maltose

    Monosaccharides include:

    • fructose
    • galactose
    • glucose
    • ribose

    Polysaccharides include:

    • cellulose
    • glycogen
    • starch

    Some commonly known carbohydrates are sucrose, which is table sugar and lactose, which is the sugar found in milk.

    As well as supplying the body with short term energy, some carbohydrates can also serve to supply the body with some long term energy.

    The body also uses these biomolecules at the molecular and cellular levels to build larger molecules and perform other necessary functions.

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    Lipids are a good source of stored energy for the body.

    These include:

    • fats
    • oils
    • steroids
    • waxes

    These biomolecules are made up of triglycerides and serve as good, long-term energy storage.

    They also contribute to:

    1. cell membrane structure
    2. protecting cells from drying out
    3. insulation against the cold

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    Proteins are important to the body for performing a myriad of functions that sustain life.

    Amino Acids (another key nutrient) are the building blocks of proteins.

    These are found in:

    • dairy
    • fish
    • legumes
    • meats
    • poultry

    Proteins are responsible for a variety of functions including:

    • aiding in the body’s defenses
    • communication among cells
    • hair and nail growth
    • regulating sugar
    • signaling hormones
    • transportation of other molecules throughout the body

    The hospitality business includes many food services. It is necessary to understand what the basic makeup of food is and how it affects the nutritional needs of the human body.

    Recognizing the foods that include these three biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins) can assist in accomplishing this goal.

    Module VI: Biomolecules and Food Questions

    1. Jessica eats a granola bar (full of carbohydrates) before her track meet because these are a source of:

    • a. quick energy
    • b. insulation against the cold
    • c. signaling hormones

    2. A scientist headed to Antarctica decides to eat a lot of lipids and gain weight. Lipids work as:

    • a. quick energy
    • b. insulation against the cold
    • c. signaling hormones

    3. Lisa’s body uses proteins for:

    • a. quick energy
    • b. insulation against the cold
    • c. hair and nail growth

    4. Foods like meat, eggs and dairy are rich in these and are important so your body can build proteins. These nutrients are called the building blocks of proteins. What are they?

    • a. monosaccharides
    • b. fatty acids
    • c. amino acids

    5. A client at a restaurant says they are on the Atkins Diet which means they are not eating carbohydrates. Which foods should they avoid?

    • a. meat, poultry and fish
    • b. breads, fruits and candy
    • c. cooking oils and butter

    6. Biomolecules are necessary for the body to function correctly and they are found in the foods we eat. What is the simplest definition of a biomolecule?

    • a. A very large molecule found in living organisms
    • b. A molecule made of two atoms
    • c. A disease-causing agent

    7. A caterer is trying to plan for a banquet at an Atkins Diet convention and is asked by the client to include mainly foods high in protein. What foods should he include?

    • a. meat, poultry and fish
    • b. breads, fruits and candy
    • c. cooking oils and butter

    8. Anabel is planning a menu for the local gymnastics team’s award ceremony at the hotel where she works. She has been asked to provide food low in lipids/fats. What should she avoid?

    • a. meat, poultry and fish
    • b. breads, fruits and candy
    • c. cooking oils and butter

  • VII. Sanitation, Microorganisms and Viruses

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    Biology

    (4) Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different from cells. The student is expected to:

    • (C) compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza

    (8) Science concepts. The student knows that taxonomy is a branching classification based on the shared characteristics of organisms and can change as new discoveries are made. The student is expected to:

    • (C) compare characteristics of taxonomic groups, including archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals

    (11) Science concepts. The student knows that biological systems work to achieve and maintain balance. The student is expected to:

    • (C) summarize the role of microorganisms in both maintaining and disrupting the health of both organisms and ecosystems

    Principles of Hospitality and Tourism

    (8) The student explains how employees, guests, and property are protected to minimize losses or liabilities in the hospitality and tourism industry. The student is expected to:

    • (B) implement the basics of sanitation


    Dealing with the public in a hospitality type of industry brings with it the responsibility of keeping the public safe from diseases that can be transmitted through unsafe food handling or general lack of sanitary methods.

    Among the myriad of pathogens (disease-causing agents), there are those that are nonliving, such as viruses, and those caused by living microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and parasitic protists and animals.

    Viruses happen to be one of the leading causes of foodborne illnesses. Viruses are nonliving, microscopic agents that invade the cells of its host and use each cell’s reproductive mechanisms to reproduce. It is this inability of the virus to reproduce on its own that categorizes it as a nonliving entity.

    Some common diseases caused by viruses include:

    • AIDS
    • chicken pox
    • Ebola
    • hepatitis A
    • herpes
    • influenza
    • norovirus
    • polio
    • rabies
    • shingles
    • the common cold

    Viruses can be found:

    • in air
    • in bodily fluids
    • in water
    • on surfaces

    The best way to prevent the spread of viruses is to practice good hygienic habits such as:

    • effective waste disposal
    • sanitation of surface areas and hands
    • use of clean water
    • vaccinations

    Food workers must wash their hands thoroughly after using the restroom to prevent spreading viruses found in their feces. Using gloves to handle food is another preventative measure. Unfortunately, viruses can survive cold temperatures, so freezing or refrigerating foods is not enough to prevent their spread.

    Bacteria are unicellular (one-cell) organisms that have been around for billions of years. Bacteria cells, unlike the cells of other organisms, lack a nucleus.

    Bacteria include both beneficial and harmful organisms in its kingdom. Different species of bacteria are able to survive in extreme environments with either extremely hot, cold or acidic conditions. They are found everywhere in the environment as well as within our bodies.

    For example, the strain of E. coli bacteria, found in our gut, helps us digest our food and produce vitamin K. However, another strain of E. coli bacteria found in our feces causes severe foodborne sickness.

    Some other common diseases caused by bacteria include:

    • meningitis
    • pneumonia
    • salmonella food poisoning
    • staph infections
    • strep throat

    Cooking food may not be enough to prevent sickness as some bacteria produce toxins when they die. These toxins remain in the food even after being cooked.

    The best way to prevent the spread of bacteria in foods is to keep it out of the temperature danger zone (between 41 degrees and 135 degrees Fahrenheit).

    Use of the previously mentioned sanitation techniques for viruses, such as washing hands, wearing gloves, using clean water and cleaning any surfaces that come into contact with foods are also helpful for preventing bacterial infections.

    The prevention of cross-contamination when dealing with foods is a must:

    1. sanitize all utensils that are used on raw meats, poultry and fish
    2. be careful not to use these utensils on foods that have already been cooked because this can re-contaminate them
    3. make sure to separate foods that can carry bacteria from other foods by using plastic bags or closed containers when in storage

    Fungi are organisms that look like plants but behave more like animals because they cannot make their own food. These organisms can be microscopic or cover a vast expanse of land.

    Some common fungi include:

    • mold
    • mushrooms
    • yeast

    Most fungi are responsible for causing spoilage in foods. However, some can cause illness as well if ingested.

    Some common diseases caused by fungi include:

    • ringworm
    • yeast infections (athlete’s foot, jock itch)

    However, these are not foodborne illnesses. Certain molds can produce poisonous toxins called mycotoxins. These toxins can cause high fevers or create larger health problems for people with compromised immune systems. Although cold temperatures can slow the growth of molds and yeasts in food, it cannot kill it. It’s important to keep a watchful eye for spoiled foods and throw them out to prevent sickness.

    Other microorganisms (microscopic organisms) that can cause foodborne and waterborne illness include parasites. Parasites are microorganisms that get their food and protection from other living organisms known as hosts.

    Parasites will live and reproduce within (sometimes on) their hosts and are often excreted in their feces. The most common parasites transmitted through foods belong to the animal and protist kingdoms. These include worms and protozoa, respectively.

    Protozoa are animal-like protists that are unicellular and heterotrophic (cannot make their own food). They may be transmitted from one host to another through food or water that has come in contact with the feces of an infected host.

    Many parasites live in:

    • chickens
    • cows
    • fish
    • pigs

    The best way to prevent a foodborne illness caused by a parasite is to purchase food from reputable suppliers.

    Many microscopic worms live as parasites within a host.

    The most common include:

    • Anisakis spp.
    • Diphyllbothrium spp. (tapeworms)
    • Taenia spp.
    • Trichinella spp. (roundworms)

    Again, many of these can be transmitted by water or contaminated food that is undercooked.

    Possible carriers if not prepared and/or cooked properly include:

    • aquatic plants such as watercress
    • crabs
    • fish
    • meat
    • mollusks
    • raw vegetables contaminated with feces

    The best form of prevention is proper food preparation and good hygiene.

    The responsibility of keeping the public safe falls on the shoulders of all those in charge of sanitation and food-handling in all aspects of the hospitality business.

    These include:

    • hotel operators and owners
    • restaurateurs
    • travel industries
      • planes
      • ships
      • trains

    The best way to prevent spreading diseases of any sort is to create and maintain safe habits in the workplace.

    Module VII: Sanitation, Microorganisms and Viruses Questions

    1. Jonah is learning how to prevent the spread of pathogens in his culinary class. What is a pathogen?

    • a. an antimicrobial substance
    • b. a medication for treating disease
    • c. a disease causing agent

    2. Jessica recalls that one type of pathogen is not considered a living organism. Which one is it?

    • a. bacteria
    • b. virus
    • c. fungi

    3. Viruses can survive cold temperatures, so freezing or refrigerating foods is not enough to prevent their spread. What else can Chef Jason do to prevent spreading a viral infection?

    • a. clean his hands thoroughly
    • b. wear gloves
    • c. both a & b

    4. These microorganisms include both beneficial and pathogenic types. Michael may need to supplement his diet to increase these beneficial microorganisms in his gut.

    • a. bacteria
    • b. virus
    • c. fungi

    5. Some common fungal infections that can be prevented by proper sanitary practices include:

    • a. athlete’s foot and yeast infections
    • b. strep throat and pneumonia
    • c. chicken pox and herpes

    6. Some common bacterial illnesses that can be spread from unsanitary food workers include:

    • a. E. coli and salmonella poisoning
    • b. chicken pox and herpes
    • c. trichinosis and toxoplasmosis

    7. Some common foodborne illnesses caused by viruses include:

    • a. E. coli and salmonella poisoning
    • b. norovirus and hepatitis A
    • c. trichinosis and toxoplasmosis

    8. The best way to prevent the spread of bacteria in foods is to keep it out of this temperature range: between 41 degrees and 135 degrees Fahrenheit. What is a term used to describe this temperature range?

    • a. hazardous region
    • b. temperature hole
    • c. danger zone

    9. Fungi can be found in the kitchen as either a beneficial or harmful organism. Which of the following lists include different types of fungi a food worker should know?

    • a. mold, yeasts and mushrooms
    • b. probiotics, E. coli and staph
    • c. protozoa, slime molds and algae

  • Quiz

    Science in Hospitality and Tourism Online Course

    Progress:

    1. Salt is stirred into a boiling pot of spaghetti. This is an example of a _________________ change.

    2. Melting butter changes butter from a solid state to a liquid state. This is an example of a _________________ change.

    3. Hard-boiled eggs are a favorite at my house. The change the egg undergoes is classified as ____________________.

    4. The changes that occur in order to make a smoothie using a blender are considered ____________________ changes.

    5. Which of the following is NOT a chemical change?

    6. Which of the following is NOT a physical change?

    7. The Smith family will be traveling to the Alaskan Tundra for spring break. Which of the following plants are they likely to find?

    8. The _____________________ is the ecosystem with the least amount of inhabiting plants and animals.

    9. Which of the following is NOT a negative impact of tourism on the local environment?

    10. Which ecosystem is likely to be present if the regional climate is typically hot and dry?

    11. Which of the following is NOT likely an adaptation of organisms during the winter months of the tundra?

    12. Sustainable ecotourism includes all of the following EXCEPT _____________________.

    13. Deer are producers because they feed on grasses.

    14. Deer are consumers because they feed on grasses.

    15. Which of the following would negatively impact an aquatic food web?

    16. Grasses are the only ___________________ illustrated in the food web.

    17. If the grasshopper population suddenly vanished, the ______________ would become the snake’s only source of energy.

    18. The rabbit is a ___________________ consumer in this food web.

    19. Producers are also known as _____________________.

    20. Which of the following is a renewable source of energy?

    21. Fossil fuels include coal, oil, and ___________________________________.

    22. Nuclear energy is created by the fission of ______________________ atoms.

    23. Wood chips are an example of _______________________ energy.

    24. Currently most of our energy comes from ______________________ sources of energy.

    25. Sustainable properties would NOT implement which of the following practices?

    26. Anabel just ate a large meal and says that her stomach is full. What is her stomach doing, aside from storing the food?

    27. Mr. Johnson cannot eat spicy foods because he gets heartburn. The heartburn is caused by the hydrochloric acid that helps break down the food in which organ during digestion?

    28. Mrs. Kyrish has Celiac disease and cannot eat gluten because it will damage her small intestine which is responsible for:

    29. Lisa works as a meal planner in the local hospital’s cafeteria. As such, she must take into account the various dietary needs of the patients. Mr. Hudson is suffering from constipation and needs extra water in his diet to help soften his stools. It is important for Lisa to know about the large intestine because it is responsible for:

    30. Liana recalls that some organs, not part of the digestive tract, aid in digestion and are called accessory organs. Which of these are accessory organs?

    31. Lisa is working on her meal planning for the hospital cafeteria. Which of the following includes a list of special dietary needs she needs to know?

    32. Rosie’s small intestines are very long and have many tiny ridges that help increase her ability to absorb nutrients, so she has the energy to prep all her foods at the restaurant. What is this large area for absorption called?

    33. Calvin’s large intestines have billions of tiny microorganisms that help break down any remaining food during the digestion process. A diet containing yogurt helps to maintain a healthy balance of these microorganisms. What are they called?

    34. Jessica eats a granola bar (full of carbohydrates) before her track meet because these are a source of:

    35. A scientist headed to Antarctica decides to eat a lot of lipids and gain weight. Lipids work as:

    36. Lisa’s body uses proteins for:

    37. Foods like meat, eggs and dairy are rich in these and are important so your body can build proteins. These nutrients are called the building blocks of proteins. What are they?

    38. A client at a restaurant says they are on the Atkins Diet which means they are not eating carbohydrates. Which foods should they avoid?

    39. Biomolecules are necessary for the body to function correctly and they are found in the foods we eat. What is the simplest definition of a biomolecule?

    40. A caterer is trying to plan for a banquet at an Atkins Diet convention and is asked by the client to include mainly foods high in protein. What foods should he include?

    41. Anabel is planning a menu for the local gymnastics team’s award ceremony at the hotel where she works. She has been asked to provide food low in lipids/fats. What should she avoid?

    42. Jonah is learning how to prevent the spread of pathogens in his culinary class. What is a pathogen?

    43. Jessica recalls that one type of pathogen is not considered a living organism. Which one is it?

    44. Viruses can survive cold temperatures, so freezing or refrigerating foods is not enough to prevent their spread. What else can Chef Jason do to prevent spreading a viral infection?

    45. These microorganisms include both beneficial and pathogenic types. Michael may need to supplement his diet to increase these beneficial microorganisms in his gut.

    46. Some common fungal infections that can be prevented by proper sanitary practices include:

    47. Some common bacterial illnesses that can be spread from unsanitary food workers include:

    48. Some common foodborne illnesses caused by viruses include:

    49. The best way to prevent the spread of bacteria in foods is to keep it out of this temperature range: between 41 degrees and 135 degrees Fahrenheit. What is a term used to describe this temperature range?

    50. Fungi can be found in the kitchen as either a beneficial or harmful organism. Which of the following lists include different types of fungi a food worker should know?

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