Principles of Human Services Online Course

  • Principles of Human Services Online Course Introduction

    Principles of Human Services (One-Half to One Credit)

    This laboratory course will enable students to investigate careers in the human services career cluster including counseling and mental health, early childhood development, family and community, and personal care services. Each student is expected to complete the knowledge and skills essential for success in high-skill, high-wage, or high-demand human services careers.

    Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

    This course is recommended for students in grades 9-12.

    The Texas Education Agency (TEA) recommends that students have access to computers, access to foods laboratory facilities, tools and equipment for basic apparel maintenance, and access to professionals in each pathway within human services.

    Students will identify this course as part of a Career and Technical Education (CTE) program of study, understand that CTE in Texas is organized around 16 career clusters and 79 career pathways, and that Principles of Human Services is one of 12 courses in the Human Services career cluster that equips students with:

    • core academic skills
    • employability skills
    • job specific technical skills

    Important
    This online course consists of an introduction and seven modules. Carefully read all course content to become familiar with the TEKS, student expectations, published lessons, and suggested activities. Names of handouts, graphic organizers and slide presentations appear in bold letters. Refer to attachments at the end of each module for additional information. 12 pre-assessment multiple choice statements can be found at the end of the Introduction. Each module ends with five multiple choice statements.

    After completing the course you will be required to complete a 50 question quiz and submit your name and email address. You will receive a certificate of completion at that address.

    The certificates for the successful completion of the online courses are NOT automatically computer generated and are reviewed individually. Certificates will be generated Monday through Friday between the hours of 8:00am and 5:00pm.
    For questions, contact: sfacte@gmail.com

    As approved by the Texas Education Agency, a passing score of 80 is required to receive a certificate equalling six (6) Continuing Professional Education (CPE) credits.

    Refer to the Introductory Lesson: Principles of Human Services for an introduction to Career and Technical Education, Career Clusters™, coherent sequence of courses, programs of study and this course.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/introductory-lesson-principles-of-human-services/

  • I. Personal Characteristics for Success - Part I

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student demonstrates personal characteristics for success in high-skill, high-wage, or high-demand careers.

    • (A) explain and practice responsible decision making consistent with personal needs, wants, values, and priorities
    • (B) establish measurable short-term and long-term goals for personal and professional life
    • (C) describe personal management skills needed for productivity such as time and energy
    • (D) practice ethical and appropriate methods of conflict resolution
    • (E) analyze the significance of grooming and appearance in personal and professional settings
    • (F) assess the relationship of wellness to achievement
    • (G) determine personal and occupational implications of substance abuse
    • (H) evaluate appearance in personal and professional settings

    Module Content

    Personal Characteristics for Success is the first module for the Principles of Human Services course. This module has ten TEA units of study in the scope and sequence of the course. It is the longest module in the course. Due to the amount of information covered in the ten units, it has been divided into two sections, Part I and Part II. The presentation of these units will need to be adjusted to fit time allotted in each instructor’s course.

    Module I – Part I Handouts

    Part I

    • A. Decision-Making Process
      • 1. Ways to make decisions
      • 2. Wants and needs
      • 3. Values – influences on
      • 4. Priorities
    • B. Characteristics of Maturity
    • C. Long-Term and Short-Term Goals
    • D. Management
      • 1. Management process and techniques
      • 2. Personal energy techniques
    • E. Types of Conflict and Negotiation
      • 1. Family, peers, coworkers, authority figures
      • 2. Negative and positive methods of conflict resolution
      • 3. Negotiation techniques
    • F. Effects of Wellness
      • 1. Health risk resources
      • 2. Substance abuse

    Module 1 Part I handouts

    A. Decision-Making Process
    The Decision-Making unit will address the importance of making responsible choices and the ripple effect created by our decisions. Decisions are made by impulse or through rational organized preparation. We make decisions based on our wants and needs. This unit is to be used to teach students the importance of using values and priorities to make responsible decisions. The decision making process is a systematic organized method of evaluating information to make a selection. Our lives are a series of choices that connect our past and future.

    Decision-making can be regarded as the mental processes (cognitive process) resulting in the selection of a course of action among several alternatives. Every decision-making process produces a final choice. The output can be an action or an opinion of choice.

    Human performance in decision-making terms has been the subject of active research from several perspectives. From a psychological perspective, it is necessary to examine individual decisions in the context of a set of needs and preferences an individual has and values he or she seeks.
    From a cognitive perspective, the decision-making process must be regarded as a continuous process integrated in the interaction with the environment.
    From a normative perspective, the analysis of individual decisions is concerned with the logic of decision-making and rationality and the invariant choice to which it leads.

    Some of the decision-making techniques people use in everyday life includes the following:

    • Acquiescing to a person in authority or an “expert”—or— just following orders
    • Choosing the alternative with the highest probability-weighted utility for each alternative
    • Flipping a coin, cutting a deck of playing cards, and other random or coincidence methods (also known as flipism)
    • Listing the advantages and disadvantages of each option, popularized by Plato and Benjamin Franklin
    • Satisfying, or accepting the first option that seems like it might achieve the desired result

    Using the Decision-Making Process This step-by-step method will help you think when you need to make a decision. Using this process will help you make decisions and solve problems.

    • Identify the decision to be made.
      • What is the issue at hand that needs to be dealt with?
    • Identify the alternatives.
      • List all possible alternatives. At least two choices need to exist before a decision can be made.
    • Consider each alternative.
      • Think through each alternative. How does it relate to your goals, values, priorities and resources? Think about how each alternative will affect you and others, both now and in the future. Think about the consequences of each alternative.
    • Choose the best alternative.
      • Make the best decision according to your goals, values, priorities and resources.
    • Carry out the decision.
      • This step requires action. How will you carry out or implement your decision?
    • Evaluate the decision.
      • Ask yourself several questions to evaluate the outcome of your decision. Did you think of every alternative to this issue? What kind of impact did your decision have on you, your family, friends and job? How did it affect your goals, values, priorities and resources?

    Every day, each of us makes hundreds of decisions. Many of these are made unconsciously: what to wear, how to drive, words to use in conversations, as well as many other seemingly little unimportant choices. Other decisions can have a significant impact on our day, such as relationships, career, life, and ultimate outcomes that will be created as a result of these choices. There are also all of the major choices we make that we consciously rationalize. In the end, every choice has an outcome, or consequence. Remember these rules when making decisions:

    • Remember that your choices are yours and yours alone.
    • No one else is responsible for your outcomes.
    • Decisions made without clear thinking will tend to create poor outcomes.
    • Listen to your inner self, intuition, or gut when choosing.
    • Listen to your body, emotions, or feelings when deciding.
    • Be careful of casually overriding these inner messages.
    • Outcomes that seem negative may have longer-term positive results.
    • You can’t avoid consequences.
    • Consequences are neutral when it comes to feelings, attitudes or perceptions.
    • To see yourself as a victim is to wish that your circumstances continue.

    Today’s high school students are faced with MANY decisions on a daily basis. Their decisions are not that different from the ones we make as adults.

    Some decisions high school students make:

    • social
    • do the right thing (or not)
    • time management
    • resource management
    • financial
    • relationships
    • family dynamics

    Ask the following questions:

    • What type of decisions are there to be made in the human services industry?
    • What are some effects of improper decision making in the human services industry?
    • Who is making these decisions in the workplace?
    • What processes must you go through before making these decisions?
    • Who should you involve in the decision making process in the workplace?
    • What things should you consider when you make decisions in the workplace?
    • What sorts of timelines are common when making decisions in the workplace?

    B. Characteristics of Maturity
    Maturity is a state of being fully developed. Characteristics of maturity are included in our personal characteristics for success. This unit is designed to focus on emotional and intellectual development.

    This type of developmental maturity is based on an individual’s ability to:

    • make decisions
    • establish goals
    • manage responsibilities
    • handle conflict

    Biologist theorist Arnold Gesell’s Developmental Maturational Theory uses a biological basis to explain why all humans develop in a similar sequence. Gesell proposed that children’s behavior follows a pattern that is somewhat predictable because it is directly linked to their overall development and maturation. Maturation is the process by which a person becomes fully grown or developed. Gesell proposed that maturation is internally determined and relatively independent of external environmental influences. He did not, however, completely deny the role that culture, family, and other environmental influences could play in determining behavior. Gesell also stressed that each individual will develop in his or her own time. A child’s developmental progress should be judged according to his or her personal developmental timeline rather than compared with development of peers. Pressuring children to achieve beyond their maturational level is seen as unrealistic and detrimental to the child’s self-esteem.

    C. Long-term and Short-term Goals
    Students are to establish measurable short and long-term goals for personal and professional life. The establishment of goals in our lives provides focus and directions to our actions.

    Goals, long or short-term, should be:

    • clear
    • challenging
    • measurable
    • attainable

    Clear goals provide direction to our actions. The goals should be set by the individual and not directed by others. They should also be challenging so that the individual will push themselves to achieve success. All goals should also be measurable and attainable. The goal of “doing better in school” does not have clear measurement characteristics. The goal of “improving my grade point average by one point by graduation” is a clear goal that can be measured and attained. Students should be challenged to establish personal long and short-term goals for their personal success.

    D. Management
    Students should be able to describe personal management skills needed for productivity such as time and energy. Time management is essential to personal management. Prior thinking established that properly managing time equated to productivity success. The problem with solely focusing on time management is that energy is not the same during every hour of the day. Extended periods of work deplete personal energy levels and the amount of work successfully completed is reduced. This unit is designed to share personal management strategies with students that will manage both time and energy.

    Types of Conflict and Negotiation
    This unit is designed to have students practice ethical and appropriate methods of conflict resolution. Conflict is an inevitable fact of life. The way that we handle conflict in personal and professional settings will shape our life and the perception that others have of us. Learning to manage conflict is difficult, because emotions often control our reactions during conflict. This unit should focus on listening skills, the art of compromise, mediation, controlling emotional responses and ethical professional reactions. Role playing scenarios is an excellent way to have the students interact and practice appropriate responses to conflict. During these scenes, specific conflict resolution skills should be reinforced and reviewed. In addition to role playing scenarios, students could be asked to write an essay on how to resolve a specific conflict to be used as an evaluating tool and to reinforce writing skills.

    Effects of Wellness
    Our personal health and wellness affects every aspect of our life. When we are feeling well we are focused and able to accomplish more. Poor health or wellness in turn has a negative effect on our success or ability to complete tasks. A simple headache can change the quality of our work. Substance abuse also has occupational implications as well as personal consequences. Substance abuse affects our health and well-being resulting in a diminished quality of life. This unit is an excellent opportunity for students to study the positive effects of a healthy diet and exercise on personal success.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module I – Part I Handouts

    • Article Evaluation
    • Careers in Human Services
    • Conflict Resolution Scenarios – Principles of Human Services
    • Conflict Resolutions
    • Establishing Career Goals
    • FCCLA Planning Process
    • Goals and Values
    • Human Services Careers
    • Job-Related Conflict Scenarios
    • KWL Chart Dressing for Success
    • Rubric for Electronic Display – Glogster™
    • Rubric for Multi-media Display – Prezi™
    • Rubric for PowerPoint™ Presentation
    • Slide Presentation Notes
    • Steps to Resolve Conflicts
    • Values and Goals Crossword
    • Values and Goals Crossword (Key)
    • Venn-Diagram – Compare Setting Goals and Not Setting Goals
    • Word Chain Activity

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Distribute handout The FCCLA Planning Process and review the decision making process.
    • Distribute graphic organizer Goals and Values and allow students to answer the worksheet as you review the slide presentation from lesson Needs, Wants, Values, and Goals: Making the Right Decisions.
    • Distribute handout Values and Goals Crossword. Allow students to work individually or in groups to complete crossword and review lesson terms and definitions.
    • Have students establish measurable goals at 1 year, 5 year and 10 year intervals.
    • Have each student create a chart to compare their personal time and energy management strategies.
    • Role play various conflict resolution skills.
    • Invite a substance abuse counselor to speak to the class on the consequences of substance use or abuse.
    • Encourage students to participate in your local FCCLA chapter.
    • Create a live binder or digital file for the course that includes all of your resources in one easily accessible location.
    • Develop a list of possible guest speakers.
    • Locate video clips that address the content of each unit or lesson using a district approved video website and create links to your digital binder.
    • Lead students into a discussion on Needs versus Wants.
      Divide the board in two columns and label one side with NEEDS and the other with WANTS. Assign a scribe to write student answers to the following questions on the board:
      • What things do we need?
      • What things do we want?
      • Do we really have to have the name brand purse, jeans, shoes?
      • Are the name brands different from the no name brands?
      • Is the quality different between the name brands and no name brands?
      • Is the price different between the name brands and no name brands?
      • How much different?
      • What do we value?
      • How do we achieve things we want?
    • Allow students to read the following article on goals:
    • Have students discuss with their family the short-and long-term goals their family would like to achieve. Determine what resources are currently available and which resources would they need to obtain in order to achieve these goals.
    • Invite a guest speaker to come speak to students about establishing sound professional and personal values, in order to achieve their long-term personal and professional goals.
    • View lessons posted on the Statewide Instructional Resources website and create links to your digital binder.

    References and Resources

    Textbooks

    • Jackson, L., (2003). Careers In Focus. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Wilcox Company.
    • Kelly-Plate, J., & Eubanks, E., (2004). Today’s Teen. New York, NY: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.
    • Ryder/ Harder. (2004). Contemporary Living. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart- Wilcox Company.
    • Wehlage/Larson-Kennedy. (2001). Goals for Living. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Wilcox Company.

    Websites

    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      Government resource for health and well being
      www.cdc.gov
    • Live Binders
      Provides an online location to store all course information, resources and links in a binder format
      www.livebinder.com
    • Occupational Outlook Handbook
      The nation’s premier source for career information
      http://bls.gov/ooh/
    • The Texas Work Prep Learning Management System (LMS) designed and hosted by the Texas Workforce Commission. The Job Hunter’s Guide Course – This course will allow the student to gain knowledge and skills to attain employment. The course is approximately an hour and a half long. Students will receive a certificate upon completion of this course. Certificate can be printed and added to their professional portfolio.
      https://www.texasworkprep.com/texasworkprep.htm

    YouTube™

    Module I: Personal Characteristics for Success -Part 1 Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Responsible decision-making is not consistent with which of the following?

    • a. Personal needs
    • b. Wants
    • c. Impulse reaction
    • d. Priorities

    2. It is important to establish long-term and short-term goals that are_______________.

    • a. measurable
    • b. easy
    • c. fun
    • d. fair

    3. The practice of ethical and appropriate methods of conflict resolution does not include which type of conflict?

    • a. Family
    • b. Peer
    • c. Co-workers
    • d. Self

    4. Developmental maturity is based on an individual’s ability to:

    • a. make decisions
    • b. establish goals
    • c. manage responsibilities
    • d. all of the above

    5. Goals, long or short-term, should be:

    • a. clear and challenging
    • b. responsible and challenging
    • c. measurable and attainable
    • d. a and c

  • I. Personal Characteristics for Success - Part II

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student demonstrates personal characteristics for success in high-skill, high-wage, or high-demand careers.

    • (I) apply clothing selection, maintenance, and repair skills to enhance career opportunities
    • (J) practice leadership skills
    • (K) demonstrate communication skills

    (2) The student demonstrates the skills necessary to enhance personal and career effectiveness in consumer services.

    • (F) identify employment and entrepreneurial opportunities and preparation requirements in the areas of personal interest

    (3) The student demonstrates the skills necessary to enhance personal and career effectiveness in counseling and mental health services.

    • (H) identify employment and entrepreneurial opportunities and preparation requirements in the areas of personal interest

    (4) The student demonstrates the skills necessary to enhance personal and career effectiveness in early childhood development and services.

    • (F) identify employment and entrepreneurial opportunities and preparation requirements in the areas of personal interests

    (5) The student demonstrates the skills necessary to enhance personal and career effectiveness in family and community services.

    • (I) identify employment and entrepreneurial opportunities and preparation requirements in the areas of personal interests

    (6) The student demonstrates the skills necessary to enhance personal and career effectiveness in personal care services.

    • (F) identify employment and entrepreneurial opportunities and preparation requirements in the areas of personal interests

    Module Content

    Personal Characteristics for Success is the first module for the Principles of Human Services course. This module has ten TEA units of study in the scope and sequence of the course. It is the longest module in the course. Due to the amount of information covered in the ten units, it has been divided into two sections, Part I and Part II. The presentation of these units will need to be adjusted to fit time allotted in each instructor’s course.

    Part II

    • G. Grooming Habits and Effects
      • 1. How grooming affects appearance in personal and professional life
      • 2. Appropriate appearance for different occasions
    • H. Factors that Affect Clothing Choices
      • 1. Wardrobe planning
      • 2. Judging and recognizing quality clothing
      • 3. Clothing care
      • 4. Budgeting for apparel
      • 5. Clothing repair and maintenance
      • 6. Principles and elements of design
      • 7. Fashion terms
    • I. Introduction to CTSOs
      • 1. Opportunities for leadership
      • 2. Qualities of leaders
      • 3. Types of leaders
      • 4. Qualities of members
      • 5. Importance of teamwork
    • J. Researching Jobs of Personal Interest
      • 1. Requirements
      • 2. Résumés / job applications
      • 3. Interviewing and follow-up
      • 4. Entrepreneurial opportunities
    • K Demonstrate Communication Skills

    Module 1 Part II handouts

    —-

    G. Grooming Habits and Effects
    This unit is designed to demonstrate how appropriate dress affects the personal and professional lives of people. Students will explore the following topics during the presentation of this unit.

    1. How grooming affects appearance in personal and professional life

    When polling college recruiters, 40% cited image as the reason they reject qualified candidates. Proper dress/appearance may not be a reason for getting a job – however, improper dress/appearance is the most common reason candidates do not get a job. The job seeker should dress for a position two levels higher than the one he/she is being interviewed. When in doubt, conservative clothing choice for your interview is usually the safest.

    2. Appropriate appearance for different occasions

    Personal style is part of personal identity. The presentation needs to respect individual style while addressing appropriateness for specific occasions. Students should develop an understanding for professional dress and that grooming and appearance are part of the work duties and personal style may not be allowed on the job. Personal style can lead to stereotyping which can have a variety of effects on the impression that a person makes.

    When attending job fairs, dress should be professional. If you are looking for a job or networking, your appearance may be helpful in securing an interview or may be a strike against you. Please, no flip flops, t-shirts, caps and backpacks. Backpacks may be left at the registration table and picked up when you are leaving. Remember… you can only make ONE first impression.

    H. Factors that Affect Clothing Choices

    This unit reflects a visible outward impression of a person and should be presented in a manner that allows for students to explore individualisms and career choices related to fashion selections. Wardrobe planning is more than shopping for items that you like. Students should develop the skills needed to recognize quality clothing. This process should include budgeting considerations, care requirements and garment construction. In order to understand garment construction and quality students should have a basic understanding of fashion terms, design elements and construction.

    Clothing selections can be challenging and the following factors should be considered when making choices.

    1. Wardrobe planning

    Tips for Women

    • Conservative skirted suit in navy blue, dark brown or dark gray are best. Skirt length should be at or slightly above the knee.
    • Blouse in white or ivory, long sleeve with modest neckline.
    • Shoes match your suit. Clean and polished; heels no higher than 2 1/2 inches. No open-toed, open-heeled shoes.
    • Wear natural looking make-up.
    • No perfume/cologne. Clean bathed appearance.
    • Subtle color nail polish.
    • One pair of earrings, one ring on each hand, one necklace, professional-looking watch, one bracelet (Nothing dangling or distracting).

    Tips for Men

    • Suits – best colors are dark blue or navy solid, solid gray, blue/gray shadow plaid. First choice of material should be 100% wool. 2nd choice is polyester/wool blend. Avoid less than 45% wool.
    • Shirts should be cotton or 65% polyester/35% cotton blend in white or solid colors. White shirts are best. They give the impression the wearer is intelligent, honest, and successful. NEVER wear short sleeves.
    • 100% silk ties are the best in solid or small conservative patterns.
    • No facial hair and a conservative haircut is preferable.
    • No cologne. Clean bathed appearance.
    • Limit rings one to each hand, professional-looking watch.

    (Taken from John T. Molloy’s New Dress for Success and New Women’s Dress for Success)

    2. Judging and recognizing quality clothing

    Purchase clothes to fit your needs. Some other checkpoints to remember when purchasing clothes are:

    • Check the care label
    • Check the price tag
    • Check the fit
    • Check the quality-the garment has to be able to withstand the wear and tear of its care.

    3. Clothing care

    You can prevent wrinkles, stains, shrinkage, and repair problems with your clothes by taking routine, or regular, care of your clothes.

    • Storing clothes
    • Washing clothes
    • Drying clothes
    • Pressing and ironing
    • Dry cleaning
    • Clothing repair

    4. Budgeting for apparel

    Planning helps you make choices that will improve your wardrobe. Keep the following tips in mind:

    • Needs and wants – Which items do you actually need and which items to you want?
    • Budget – How much money do you have monthly to spend on clothes?
    • Versatility – Stretching your wardrobe makes good financial sense. Shop for separates that can be worn with pants, skirts, jackets or jeans. You can mix and match your wardrobe choices.
    • Fashion – Be aware of how the media can influence your wardrobe choice. Stay away from fad items and stick to classics.

    5. Clothing repair and maintenance

    Clothes kept in good repair look better and last longer. Making simple repairs is easy. Simple clothing repair done when needed prevents major problems later.

    • Take care of rips and tears as soon as they occur.
    • Use the proper way to sew a sew-through or shank button
    • Hooks and eyes are often used to fasten openings on which there’s a strain.

    6. Principles and elements of design

    Principles of design include:

    • Proportion
    • Emphasis
    • Harmony
    • Scale
    • Balance
    • Rhythm

    Elements of design include:

    • Line
    • Color
    • Texture
    • Shape
    • Pattern

    The principles of design help you combine the elements of design to fit you and your wardrobe choices.

    7. Fashion terms

    The fashion industry and fashion designers have a strong influence on our lives. The textile companies, apparel manufacturers, fashion merchandisers, and fashion promoters make up the fashion industry and provide us with an array of fashion terms.

    What are some ways the fashion industry influences teens? What is your fashion statement?

    I. Introduction to CTSOs

    Career and Technical Student Organizations are student leadership organizations designed to promote productive community and workforce leaders for the future of our country. These organizations address the following areas:
    1. Opportunities for leadership

    Leaders are people who have the power to influence the behavior of others. Individuals are often categorized as leaders or followers. In groups, leaders give direction to members of the group and help with goal setting and achievement of the goals. Good leaders involve members of the group and are able to motivate them to participate. Leaders are involved with goal setting, planning, implementation and evaluation of the group’s activities. Found in every area of our lives from business to education and government to families, leaders are needed at all levels of human organizations. Followers support a group through actions to help reach goals. Success requires good leaders and followers. Leaders often emerge from a group of followers who have developed leadership skills. Group members may be followers in some situations and leaders in others. Different situations require different types of leaders. A student organization may require different skills to lead than a business, or an athlete may lead on the field, but follow in the drama club.

    Students often begin developing leadership skills in youth groups at school or in the community. Leaders may also emerge in the classroom through group work. It is through the classroom and participation in youth groups that a style of leadership may become comfortable and seem more natural for an individual. This is an excellent time to evaluate leadership styles, experiment with various leadership styles and develop leadership skills.

    2. Qualities of leaders

    Very few individuals are natural leaders. Leadership skills are developed over time. Character, judgment, ethics, respect, trust, and vision are all a part of being a good leader. Character building begins at home, as does an understanding of respect and trust of others to work together. Over time we develop standards and integrity based on our values, which we learn at home, school, church and from our experiences. A virtue is a positive trait or quality that we consider to be morally good and valued collectively and individually. Personal virtues, when developed, create individual greatness and can lead to positions of leadership.

    Ten Essential Virtues:

    • Fortitude
    • Gratitude
    • Hard Work
    • Humility
    • Integrity
    • Justice
    • Love
    • Positive Attitude
    • Self-Control
    • Wisdom

    Desirable leadership skills vary by the situation, but generally a leader needs to be an effective communicator, must motivate others and understand how to use the planning process to solve problems.

    3. Types of leaders

    Styles of leadership

    Generally there are three types of leadership styles:

    • Autocratic
    • Democratic
    • Laissez-faire
  • Each type of leadership has good points. Sometimes leadership styles must vary to fit the group and the situation.

    • Autocratic leaders run the show and make the decisions. This style of leadership is successful when a group is willing to be lead and will get the results required to reach goals. Followers of an autocratic leader can be productive for the group when they follow directions of the leader. Autocratic leaders must give directions with positive influence and reinforcement to avoid confusion among the members of a group and avoid being viewed as dictatorial.
    • Democratic leaders stress balance and give and take among members. Decisions are discussed and negotiated by the members of a group. Leaders are typically selected by the group and while they may make some decisions for the group, generally the democrative leader will consult the group before making decisions.
    • Laissez-faire leaders are on hand to serve as resources and play down their role as a leader. This type of leader provides no real direction, timeline or pressure to move forward. Little control is a part of this type of leadership and members are free to act as they choose. While this leadership style may not be as productive as others, members may feel encouraged to be creative.

    4. Qualities of members

    The Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS), U. S. Department of Labor report identifies the following soft skills as necessary for work and career success. These qualities can also apply to members of CTSOs:

    • believing in one’s own self worth
    • communicating effectively
    • exhibiting self-control
    • giving strong efforts
    • having empathy
    • knowing how to learn
    • managing time
    • making effective decisions
    • persevering
    • prioritizing tasks
    • setting goals
    • taking responsibility
    • working well in teams

    5. Importance of teamwork
    Student leadership organizations provide opportunities for students to develop leadership skills and promote community involvement while working together as effective team members. Family, Career and Community Leaders of America is the leadership organization associated with this Family Consumer Science course and should be utilized as a co-curricular part of this course.

    Teamwork means combining individual efforts to reach a shared goal. Working as a team in the workplace is crucial for success; however, since we don’t get to choose who we work with we need to learn to get along with co-workers even when we disagree with their decisions.

    Developing effective teamwork skills in school will help in the workforce.

    Teamwork means that everyone must work together for the good of the group, whether it is a student organization, a team on the job or a team in class. All members of a group must be valued and considered important to the success of the team. An active group will draw more participants and interest and lead to success. Success will require a purpose, goals and a plan of attack. A productive setting to work in can provide consistency for the group.

    The roles of members of a group vary and may be determined by the activity or problem to be addressed, but generally a group will need structure and leadership to proceed. Some members will function as leaders, while others will follow. If the team is functioning within a formal structure, a constitution or by-laws may serve as the guiding force to govern. Officers or leaders may include a chairperson and secretary minimally, but may include additional roles such as a vice chair, public relations, project coordinator, treasurer and additional descriptions as dictated by the group. Various methods can be used to select leaders including elections, and/or volunteers. The governing constitution or laws should be consulted for direction.

    J. Researching Jobs of Personal Interest

    This course provides an overview of a variety of careers in the Human Services career cluster. Each module of this course calls for an investigation of careers related to each area of service. This section of the course should address the skills needed for personal success in obtaining a career. Students should identify and demonstrate the following:

    1. Requirements
    Personal success in obtaining a career can be accomplished by having thinking skills and personal qualities. This will help you get the job offer!

    Thinking Skills

    The following thinking skills are important to employers:

    • Learning
    • Reasoning
    • Creative thinking
    • Decision making
    • Problem solving

    Examples of thinking skills include:

    • Web sites created
    • A program from an event you helped plan
    • A list of conferences and workshops you have attended and a description of each
    • Samples of flyers, newsletters, or brochures that you have designed
    • Description of a class project you completed utilizing thinking skills

    Personal Qualities

    Included in this skill set are:

    • Being responsible
    • Having self-confidence
    • Possessing appropriate social skills
    • Being honest
    • Having integrity
    • Demonstrating adaptability and flexibility
    • Being a team player
    • Being punctual and efficient
    • Being self-directed
    • Possessing a positive work attitude
    • Being well groomed
    • Being cooperative
    • Being self-motivated
    • Demonstrating good time management

    These skills enable workers to work well with their peers and supervisors, to make sound, critical decisions, and to add value to the workplace. These skills also enable workers to contribute to the group and enjoy a greater degree of job satisfaction.

    2. Résumés / job applications

    A résumé is one of the components of the interviewing process. Show Yourself Off: Write A Résumé is a good lesson for the students to use to create their personal résumé.

    Including a résumé with a job application is impressive and can make a job application stand out. If hiring personnel were handed a stack of job applications and only a few included résumés, those applications with the résumés would be reviewed as possible job candidates. Make sure the students understand the collection of words concerning résumés:

    Chronological résumé: The most common résumé. It lists and highlights your work experience, education, and personal information

    Employment record: Jobs, duties, dates, companies and addresses of one’s present and/or previous work experiences

    Functional résumé: Allows you to focus on your skills when you do not have previous work experience to highlight

    Reference: A person to whom one refers for testimony as to another’s character and abilities

    Résumé: A brief summary of personal, educational, and professional qualifications and experience

    3. Interviewing and follow up

    When you complete a job application with a company, be prepared for the interview. Some companies might want to interview you immediately, while others might need a few days or even a few weeks to look over all the applicants before scheduling interviews. Your gestures, posture, and eye contact send powerful messages. Your body language can speak volumes! Have self-confidence, have positive attitude, good posture and good eye contact. A potential employer can tell a lot about a person in the way they carry themselves. Try to express a positive “Can Do” attitude at the interview. Show enthusiasm but do not overdo it. Be sincere and honest. The interviewer will know within the first five minutes of an interview if you are a good fit for the company, so be prepared.

    Panel or board interviews are often characterized by a standard set of questions for all applicants. Typically formal and organized, this interview format is often used in academia, government or for high-level executives. Occasionally, you’ll encounter a panel interview for other positions in a company.

    Some interviews are conducted by several people from the company. Try to keep control of your voice and gestures. Think before answering their questions. Speak positively about yourself and your job qualifications.

    An interviewer is looking for a genuinely sincere person who can give honest answers and shows interest. It is important for you to be able to be direct and give well thought out answers. Once again, make sure your appearance is impeccable. Wear the type of clothing required for the job. If you are going to apply for a job as a salesperson, dress a step above the way as a typical salesperson dresses. Pay close attention to your grooming habits; clean hair, nails clean and trimmed, teeth brushed, no offensive odors and hair neatly styled.

    After the interview, write a thank-you note to the person who interviewed you.

    4. Entrepreneurial opportunities

    Students should investigate job requirements and entrepreneurial opportunities prior to applying for a position to verify that they have the skills needed to perform the tasks of the job if hired. In order to apply for a job, students should demonstrate how to prepare a résumé and how to successfully complete a job application. The application process is changing and students need to be able to apply for a position in both hard copy and digital formats. Interviewing and follow up skills are the next step in obtaining an employment position. Students should investigate and practice these skills during the unit.

    K. Demonstrate Communication Skills

    Allow students opportunities to learn about, practice and demonstrate effective communication skills. Stress the importance of effective communication at home, in social setting and in the work environment. Each lessons provide topics for one – three minute student speeches.

    Communication is a process, not a skill. The process involves a sender and a receiver, encoding and decoding of messages, the channel or media in which the message travels, and barriers or filters. Communication involves a layering of many skills in an effort to be successful.

    Impersonal Communication

    This type of communication is typically superficial and is limited to subject matter only. It is the type of communication between a shopper and a sales person. The interaction of those involved is based on social roles. Impersonal communication can also be in written form such as the communication of rules and policies.

    Interpersonal Communication

    Interpersonal communication is generally defined as communicating one-on-one with others, or in small groups. Reasons for interpersonal communication: to gain information about another individual, to better understand an individual, to establish an identity or role within the relationship, and to fulfill interpersonal needs such as control, inclusion, or affection. Whichever the reason, there are skills that are required to be successful at interpersonal communications and eventual relationship development. Relationships are built over time and are based in trust. Successful interpersonal communication requires listening, tact, and courtesy. A display of genuine interest, self control over emotions, awareness and willingness to change, a respect and value of others and know-how to respond in socially acceptable ways are also key in successful interpersonal communication and relationships.

    Communication Filters

    Communication filters are similar to communication barriers. They both interfere with understanding the message being sent. Some of those filters are:

    • emotional state – whether it is happiness, anger, grief, joy or any other strong emotion, it will influence one’s ability to receive the message as it was intended
    • personal beliefs – perceptions and beliefs are strong filters for intended messages – it often involves trying to persuade a listener
    • culture – one’s upbringing and cultural rituals and even language and slang can have an impact on messages
    • experiences – one’s own experiences are frequent filters – everyone judges or relates a message based on past experiences
    • environment – the environment or surroundings can act as a filter or even barrier to communication – examples are distractions such as outside noises, cell phones, temperature of the room, too light or dark in the room, the vocabulary used is too complex or simplistic, or too many people talking

    Nonverbal Communication

    Nonverbal means without words. Nonverbal communication is the transfer of a message, information, and feelings without using words. This type of communication includes body language such as facial expressions, hand or arm gestures, posture, and tone of voice. Color and design are also means of nonverbal communication which are used in written communication and in the media. Physical touch is another way in which people communicate. Studies show that people respond more favorably when touched slightly on the hand or shoulder. However, touching can be viewed negatively when touched inappropriately or too harshly. Eye contact and the avoidance of eye contact are also considered to be a form of nonverbal communication and can communicate a great deal of emotion and feeling. This nonverbal communication is often a better indicator of the person’s true feelings.

    Effective Communication

    1. Who is responsible for effective communication? Some people would answer that question with “the one who is sending the message.” However, communication is a two-way process and all people involved are responsible if communication is to be effective. There is a sender and at least one receiver. In face-to-face meetings, people are both sender and receiver in a back-and-forth conversation. Whether it is a verbal communication or written, there are skills required to be effective.

    • Tact
    • Diplomacy
    • Dynamic or active listening
    • Showing interest
    • Eye contact (without staring)
    • Respect for others
    • Knowing and reading the audience
    • Understanding perceptions
    • Understanding cross-cultural needs and influences
    • Understanding gender and generation differences
    • Reducing defensiveness
    • Negotiation

    2. Improving personal communication is a continual practice.

    3. Active listening involves a mental process to not only hear the meaning but to also assimilate the information and provide feedback. Hearing is only the physical act of the ear.

    4. Empathic listening is also referred to as reflective listening. It is derived from the word empathy. It goes beyond active listening and involves listening to others and responding in a manner that builds trust and understanding. It is an essential skill for building personal or business relationships. Empathic listening employs a safe and protected atmosphere for constructive communication, one that reduces negative conflict and encourages problem solving.

    —-

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module 1 Part II handouts

    • Basic Information For A Résumé
    • Chronological Résumé Template
    • Functional Résumé Template
    • Interview Score Sheet
    • 25 Key Interview Principles
    • 101 Interview Questions

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Students will complete a résumé using the templates Chronological Résumé Template and Functional Résumé Template. Explain to them that this is the rough draft of their résumé. This rough draft will be used later as a guide for their typed résumé. They will incorporate the information they wrote on the Basic Information For A Résumé handout.
    • Have students locate two articles from the internet regarding the importance of a résumé and compare and contrast the content of the articles.
    • Introduce students to FCCLA STAR Event: Job Interview – An individual event – recognizes participants who use Family and Consumer Sciences and/or related occupations skills to develop a portfolio, participate in an interview, and communicate a personal understanding of job requirements.
    • Visit the following website to incorporate FCCLA in your classroom. FCCLA Lesson Plans and Activities.
      http://www.fcclainc.org/content/lesson-plans-and-activities/
    • Facilitate students to develop a list of interview questions. Have each student prepare to role play an interview using the developed list of questions.
    • Have students complete a “stare event” related to an area of career interest as a unit project.
    • Have students analyze significance of grooming by creating a digital wardrobe for professional and personal environments. Conduct a class discussion related to student wardrobe selections.
    • Using the list generated by the students, have students create a five-day wardrobe for an individual within the career field assigned. Students may use the website http://www.polyvore.com/cgi/app to create and publish a wardrobe for a five-day work week. Templates are provided on the website for both men and women’s clothing.
    • As an alternative to the assignment, students could use magazine cut-outs to create a poster of a five-day wardrobe for an individual within the career field assigned. Another possible alternative to the assignment, students could use www.glogster.com to create an online interactive poster of a five-day wardrobe for an individual within the career field assigned.
    • Have students demonstrate basic clothing repair and maintenance skills. Have students practice basic skills such as: sewing buttons, adjusting a hem, patch holes in a garment, make waistline adjustments, etc.
    • Have students shop online to make career wardrobe selections on a budget and present their choices to the class.
    • Distribute and review 25 Key Interview Principles handout. Discuss the interview principles and allow for questions and answers.
    • Role playing/rehearsing – Divide students into subgroups of three. Assign and discuss roles. One student will act as the” interviewer”, one student will act as the “applicant”, and one student will be the “assessor”. Provide three copies of the Interview Score Sheet per team. Thoroughly discuss the components of the score sheet. Students will have an opportunity to practice being interviewed as well as objectively assess the interview skills of their teammates. The interviewer will select and individually ask the applicant three questions from 101 Interview Questions (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Immediately after the interview, the assessor will provide positive and constructive feedback to the applicant. Students will rotate roles and continue the interview process.
    • Students will be assessed with “Test Your Job Interview Skills” (Interactive) at
      http://www.interviewcoach.me/job_interview_quiz.htm
      Students will print their results of the quiz and turn it in for a grade.
    • Have students visit a retirement home and interview the residents. Ask them about their previous work experiences and practices that helped them achieve job success. Ask the residents about the change in work ethics and what they would look for in a job candidate.
    • posters from different agencies to be displayed throughout the room:
      • American Red Cross/American Cancer Society
      • homeless shelter
      • local food banks
      • recycling center
      • senior citizen centers
      • local hospice providers
      • other local organization
    • Allow students to brainstorm and identify several school or community needs. Create a list based on their ideas and post in a visible location of the classroom.
    • Use the Think, Pair, Share strategy to assist class in determining their service learning project. As a class, have students revisit the list of school and community needs they created previously.
    • Develop a list of possible guest speakers.
    • View lessons posted on the Statewide Instructional Resources website and create links to your digital binder

    References and Resources

    Textbooks

    • Jackson, L., (2003). Careers In Focus. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Wilcox Company.
    • Kaye, C. B. (2010). The complete guide to service learning. Free Spirit Publishing.
    • Kelly-Plate, J., & Eubanks, E., (2004). Today’s Teen. New York, NY: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.
    • Ryder/ Harder. (2004). Contemporary Living. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart- Wilcox Company.
    • Wehlage/Larson-Kennedy. (2001). Goals for Living. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Wilcox Company.

    Websites

    • AchieveTexas
      AchieveTexas is an education initiative designed to prepare students for a lifetime of success. It allows students to achieve excellence by preparing them for secondary and postsecondary opportunities, career preparation and advancement, meaningful work, and active citizenship.
      http://www.achievetexas.org
    • Apparel News
      Provides multiple resources for fashion industry trends and business updates
      www.apparelnews.net
    • Family, Career and Community Leaders of America
      Family and consumer science student leadership organization
      www.fcclainc.org
    • Live Binders
      Provides an online location to store all course information, resources and links in a binder format
      www.livebinder.com
    • National Service Learning Clearinghouse
      A web page with lesson plans, success stories, and information about other resources for service learning.
      http://servicelearning.org
    • Résumé Templates
      You will find over 250 free résumé templates along with tips for writing your résumé and the job interview process.
      http://www.Resumetemplates.org
    • The Texas Work Prep Learning Management System (LMS) designed and hosted by the Texas Workforce Commission. The Job Hunter’s Guide Course – This course will allow the student to gain knowledge and skills to attain employment. The course is approximately an hour and a half long. Students will receive a certificate upon completion of this course. Certificate can be printed and added to their professional portfolio.
      https://www.texasworkprep.com/texasworkprep.htm
    • Youth Service America
      Provides resources and funding for service learning. Students can register their projects.
      http://ysa.org

    YouTube:

    • Interviews Do’s and Don’ts-
      Uploaded by VaultVideo on May 4, 2007. Interview tips to land that job! Watch this video to learn how to ace your next job interview
      http://youtu.be/S1ucmfPOBV8

    Module I: Personal Characteristics for Success -Part 2 Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Students are to identify employment and entrepreneurial opportunities and preparation requirements in the areas of personal interest in all of the following areas except.____________.

    • a. consumer services
    • b. food science services
    • c. counseling and mental health service
    • d. effectiveness in personal care services

    2. Opportunities for leadership, qualities of leaders, types of leaders, and importance of teamwork are all sections of the _________________________ unit of the course scope and sequence.

    • a. Factors that affect clothing choices
    • b. Introduction to CTSOs
    • c. Decision-making process
    • d. Management

    3. When polling college recruiters,_____ cited image as the reason they reject qualified candidates. Proper dress/appearance may not be a reason for getting a job – however, improper dress/appearance is the most common reason candidates do not get a job.

    • a. 50%
    • b. 40%
    • c. 60%
    • d. 45%

    4. Thinking skills important to employers include:

    • a. Learning
    • b. Reasoning
    • c. Creative thinking
    • d. All of the above

    5. The most common résumé. It lists and highlights your work experience, education, and personal information.

    • a. Personal résumé
    • b. Chronological résumé
    • c. Employment record
    • d. Functional résumé
  • II. Consumer Services

    TEKS Addressed

    (2) The student demonstrates the skills necessary to enhance personal and career effectiveness in consumer services.

    • (A) apply the decision-making process in planning the allocation and use of finances
    • (B) employ technology to manage resources
    • (C) analyze consumer buying techniques that promote effective use of resources
    • (D) investigate sustainable techniques for managing resources
    • (E) describe rewards, demands, and future trends in consumer services careers

    Module Content

    Consumer Services is the second module of study in the Principles of Human Services course. This module contains five TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Basics of Budgeting
      • 1. Factors in saving
      • 2. Types of income
    • B. Impact of Technology on Consumers
      • 1. Debit and credit cards
      • 2. Online checking and management
    • C. Making Shopping Decisions
      • 1. The role of advertising
      • 2. Where and when to shop
    • D. Consumer Rights and Responsibilities
      • 1. Consumer laws
      • 2. The importance of warranties and return policies
      • 3. Writing a complaint letter
    • E. Careers available
      • 1. Entry level, technical, professional
      • 2. Direction of future trends

    Module 2 handouts

    —-

    A. Basics of Budgeting

    The basics of budgeting are skills that are important to understand. Budgeting is part of making a family successful as well as having employability skills.

    A budget is a tool to make certain that you balance your expenditures with your income to secure your financial future.

    When you create a budget, you are forecasting what you believe your future expenses and income will be. There are four steps in creating the budget:

    • establishing your net worth
    • establishing your income
    • identifying your expenses
    • considering the impact of taxes

    1. Factors in saving – is an area of budgeting that involves planning and goal setting. Students should apply the decision-making process in planning the allocation and use of finances.

    Your ultimate objective is to have a healthy financial life. This means:

    • living within your income
    • identify goals
    • prepare for emergencies
    • be financially independent

    Living within your income means that you write down all your expenses and if they are greater than your income, you figure out how to make adjustments. Identifying and prioritizing goals will help you to do this. You prepare for emergencies through a savings plan.
    One of the most important things to learn about money management is to learn (or get into the habit to) “Pay Yourself First”. This means you put a portion of your income to a savings before you start spending money. It is a good idea to get into the habit of saving 5%-10% of your income. You do not have to limit yourself to 10%. If you are living at home and do not have living expenses, you should try to save more. If you are paying your own living expenses, 5%-10% is a good goal. It is a good idea to divide this into short-term savings for things like vacations, down payments on cars as well as emergencies. Some money should go into long-term goals such as retirement or to meet educational goals. When you are young, it seems like retirement is a long way off; but if you start saving a little for retirement when you are young, the money has a long time to grow and you will have more money when you retire. You want to have money when you retire because you have more time and more opportunities to try new things.

    2. Types of income – Income can be earned from employment as well as from investments. Students should investigate opportunities for obtaining income from a variety of resources.

    Income includes:

    • money coming in from your job
    • allowance
    • gifts
    • interest earned on investments

    The time value of money refers to the relationship between the money, time, and rate of interest. When you invest or save money, you earn interest. This is money paid to you for the use of your money. If you save money over a long period of time, you earn money on the interest you have earned and we call that compounding interest. This is the key to making good long-term investments.

    Three common ways to save through banks or credit unions is savings accounts, money market accounts and certificates of deposit, commonly called CDs. Let’s talk about the advantages and disadvantages of each.

    • The savings account is often the first account a person has. Sometimes, parents set them up for children. The federal government guarantees the accounts up to $100,000.00 so these are considered low-risk. You can take the money out when needed without a penalty so they are considered a great liquid asset.
    • Money market accounts work like a savings account and usually pay a higher rate of interest than a savings account; but lower than a CD. They are also insured by the federal government. They require a larger minimum balance and you may be limited to how many times you can withdraw from the account without paying a penalty fee.
    • Certificates of deposits are like a bank’s version of a savings bond. You agree to keep your money on deposit for a specific length of time for a higher rate of interest. When you buy a CD, you are agreeing to let the bank use your money for a set period of time and in return, they pay you a higher rate of interest. You will pay a penalty if you cash them in early.

    B. Impact of Technology on Consumers

    Students should employ technology to manage resources by gaining an understanding of the following:

    1. Debit and credit cards

    What is a debit card?
    Debit cards are a way to pay for things. You get a debit card from your bank or credit union when you open a checking account. Sometimes a debit card is free to use. Sometimes you will pay a fee to use the card. Debit cards look like credit cards. But they do not work the same way. Credit cards use money that you borrow. Debit cards use money that is already in your checking account.

    Why would I use a debit card?

    • Debit cards let you buy things without carrying cash.
    • You can use your debit card in most stores to pay for something.
    • You just swipe the card and enter your PIN number on a key pad.
    • Debit cards take money out of your checking account immediately.
    • Debit cards let you get cash quickly.
    • You can use your debit card at an automated teller machine, or ATM, to get money from your checking account.
    • You also can get cash back when you use a debit card to buy something at a store.

    When you use credit, it usually means using a credit card. It also might mean that you get a loan. A loan is another way to use credit.
    Using credit means you borrow money to buy something.

    • You borrow money (with your credit card or loan).
    • You buy the thing you want.
    • You pay back that loan later – with interest.

    Interest is what you pay for using someone else’s money. You repay money to whoever gave you the credit card or loan.

    Credit cards and loans have different interest rates. Look for the “APR.” APR means annual percentage rate. It is how much interest you pay during a whole year. A lower interest rate means you pay less money. A higher interest rate means you pay more money. For example, a loan with a 2% interest rate costs less than a loan with an 18% interest rate.

    Banks and credit unions offer credit cards. They usually offer credit cards to people with a good credit history. Some stores offer credit cards. You can use a store credit card only in that store. Sometimes these cards are easier to get if you do not have a good credit history. Sometimes a store credit card is a good way to build your credit history.

    2. Online checking and management

    Once you have a job and start receiving weekly, bi-weekly or monthly paychecks, you have to decide how you are going to manage that money. You do not want to carry around large amounts of cash. That is not safe for you or your money. You don’t want to send large amounts of cash through the mail to pay bills. Using the services of a bank is a great way to keep your money safe and manage your money by tracking your deposits and spending.

    All of these institutions provide similar services. They are all depository institutions. They differ in terms of government regulations under which they operate. They take in people’s money, and loan it to other people at a higher rate of interest than the interest they pay back to the depositor. The interest earned by these institutions becomes the profit of the institutions and a means by which they pay their employees and expand their business.

    A commercial bank is a financial institution operated as a business. Shareholders, or owners, own the bank and hire managers to run it. You can deposit your money in savings, checking, or investment services. You can apply for and receive loans for various things, including auto, personal, mortgage, and business loans. They also provide investment services, such as savings accounts and certificates of deposits. You can invest in money market accounts. The money you deposit is loaned to another customer at a higher rate of interest and the bank earns the profit from interest charged to another customer.

    Originally, savings and loan associations focused on deposits people invested in savings and then this money was loaned to other people in the form of home mortgages. Today, most savings and loans offer the same services as other banks and credit unions so you can also have a checking account at a savings and loan association.

    A credit union provides services similar to a bank. Since it owned by members, they often offer better interest rates on money deposited into them. They also usually charge lower finance rates on loans to the employees of the corporation. Loan payments can be directly deducted from employees paychecks for the convenience of the employee. Employees can also frequently obtain loans on their “signature” or promise “to pay back” the loan thru deductions from their paycheck.

    This unit is an excellent time to have a guest speaker visit with the class. Many schools are associated with a local bank or credit union. Invite a representative of one of these financial institutions to share with your students the value and differences in debit and credit cards. They should also demonstrate how to manage finances using online checking and management tools.

    C. Making Shopping (Consumer) Decisions

    Students should learn how to make wise shopping decisions. They should explore the consequences of impulse buying and the benefits of using effective buying strategies.

    1. The role of advertising – The role of advertising for the consumer is to get them to purchase the marketed product. Wise consumers learn to evaluate the product and price before making a purchase. A consumer makes many financial decisions throughout their lifetime that affects their financial security. We are often driven by habits that affect our finances. For example, it has become popular for many people to stop and purchase coffee on their way to work when they could make coffee at home or even at work for a fraction of the cost. Sometimes people purchase clothing items, not because they need them, but simply because they are on sale. If they never wear that clothing item, that bargain was not really a bargain. They would have been better off purchasing something that cost a little more, but wore all the time or saving their money.

    2. Where and when to shop – Effectively purchasing products requires research and planning. Technology has changed the way that consumers purchase products. It is now easy for people to compare products and prices online. After researching a product, consumers can make a decision about the best time and location to shop.

    D. Consumer Rights and Responsibilities
    Students should analyze their rights and responsibilities as a consumer. They should investigate the following areas of concern:

    1. Consumer laws

    The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is the nation’s consumer protection agency. The FTC’s Bureau of Consumer Protection works for the consumer to prevent fraud, deception, and unfair business practices in the marketplace. The Bureau:

    • Enhances consumer confidence by enforcing federal laws that protect consumers.
    • Empowers consumers with free information to help them exercise their rights and spot and avoid fraud and deception.
    • Wants to hear from consumers who want to get information or file a complaint about fraud or identity theft.

    The FTC’s Bureau of Consumer Protection (BCP) stops unfair, deceptive or fraudulent practices in the marketplace. They conduct investigations, sue companies and people that violate the law, develop rules to ensure a vibrant marketplace, and educate consumers and businesses about their rights and responsibilities. They collect complaints about hundreds of issues from data security and deceptive advertising to identity theft and Do Not Call violations, and make them available to law enforcement agencies worldwide for followup. Their experienced and motivated staff is resourceful, using 21st century tools to anticipate – and respond to – changes in the marketplace.

    Seven divisions make up BCP:

    • Advertising Practices protects consumers by enforcing the nation’s truth-in-advertising laws, with particular emphasis on claims for food, over-the-counter drugs, dietary supplements, and alcohol, and on conduct related to high-tech products and the internet.
    • Consumer and Business Education plans, develops, and implements creative national campaigns in plain English and Spanish to alert consumers to their rights and to explain the science of compliance to industry.
    • Enforcement litigates civil contempt and civil penalty actions to enforce all FTC federal court injunctions and administrative orders that address consumer protection issues, including advertising and financial practices, data security, high-tech fraud, and telemarketing and other scams. The Division also coordinates FTC actions with criminal law enforcement agencies through its Criminal Liaison Unit; develops, reviews, and enforces a variety of consumer protection rules; and runs the Bureau’s Hispanic initiative, bankruptcy program, and collections shop.
    • Financial Practices protects consumers from unfair or deceptive practices in the financial services area, including mortgage and debt relief scams; harmful debt collection and payday lending practices; and deceptive claims related to motor vehicle sales, financing and leasing. DFP also leads the Commission’s efforts to promote stronger consumer protections in the mobile marketplace, including protections for mobile payments and measures to prevent mobile “cramming.”
    • Marketing Practices leads the Commission’s response to internet, telecommunications, and direct-mail fraud; deceptive spam; fraudulent business, investment, and work-at-home schemes; and violations of the Do Not Call and Robocall provisions of the Telemarketing Sales Rule.
    • Planning & Information collects and analyzes complaints about consumer fraud, identity theft, and the National Do Not Call Registry, and makes them available to law enforcement; helps distribute redress to consumers; and provides cutting-edge technological investigative and litigation support.
    • Privacy and Identity Protection protects consumers’ privacy; works to prevent identity theft and helps consumers whose identities have been stolen; and implements laws and regulations for the credit reporting industry, including the Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    2. The importance of warranties and return policies

    Generally, a warranty is a promise, as a manufacturer or seller, to stand behind your product. It is a statement about the integrity of your product and about your commitment to correct problems when your product fails.

    The law recognizes two basic kinds of warranties—implied warranties and express warranties.

    Implied Warranties

    Implied warranties are unspoken, unwritten promises, created by state law, that go from you, as a seller or merchant, to your customers. Implied warranties are based upon the common law principle of “fair value for money spent,” There are two types of implied warranties that occur in consumer product transactions. They are the implied warranty of merchantability and the implied warranty of fitness for a particular purpose.

    Express Warranties

    Express warranties, unlike implied warranties, are not “read into” your sales contracts by state law; rather, you explicitly offer these warranties to the customers in the course of a sales transaction. They are promises and statements that a business voluntarily makes about the product or about the commitment to remedy the defects and malfunctions that some customers may experience.

    Express warranties can take a variety of forms, ranging from advertising claims to formal certificates. An express warranty can be made either orally or in writing. While oral warranties are important, only written warranties on consumer products are covered by the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act.

    3. Writing a complaint letter

    The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) website offers practical information on a variety of consumer topics. The information is designed to help consumers avoid rip-offs and exercise their consumer rights. The FTC offers a variety of publications on specific topics that are prepared to educate consumers and to help them make well informed decisions. This government website is an excellent current resource for consumer education.
    The Federal Trade Commission, the nation’s consumer protection agency, collects complaints about companies, business practices, identity theft, and episodes of violence in the media.

    Why: Your complaints can help them detect patterns of wrong-doing, and lead to investigations and prosecutions. The FTC enters all complaints it receives into Consumer Sentinel, a secure online database that is used by thousands of civil and criminal law enforcement authorities worldwide. The FTC does not resolve individual consumer complaints.

    E. Careers Available

    Career Clusters: are groupings of occupations/career specialties used as an organizing tool for curriculum design and instruction. Occupations/career specialties are grouped into the Career Clusters based on the fact that they require a set of common knowledge and skills for career success. The knowledge and skills represented by Career Clusters prepare learners for a full range of occupations/career specialties, focusing on the holistic, polished blend of technical, academic and employability knowledge and skills. This approach enhances the more traditional approach to career and technical education in which instruction may focus on one or two occupations and emphasize only specific occupational skills.

    1. Entry level, technical, professional
    Employment opportunities in consumer services range from basic retailing, marketing, and resources management positions. Employment opportunities in this area are affected by the economy and current trends. This unit provides an excellent opportunity for students to research careers in the industry and current business trends. The Bureau of Labor and Statistics is an excellent resource to use during this unit. This government resource provides the current job outlook and salary information.

    On the Job Training

    • Account Collector
    • Bank Teller
    • Billing and Posting Clerk
    • Data Entry Clerk
    • Payroll and Timekeeping Clerk
    • Sales Consultant
    • Retail Salesperson
    • Inventory Clerk
    • Furnishings Sales Associate
    • Showroom Assistant
  • 2. Direction of future trends
    The future trends in consumer services are continuously changing. This section provides an opportunity for students to explore the service industry and learn about the advances being made in each service area. Current trends, future technology and product development will dictate the directions of this portion of the course. Each time this course is offered, new advancement will have been developed. Have students research and share the potential future trends in consumer services.

    Associate Degrees

    • Accounting
    • Apparel and Accessories Operations
    • Business
    • Business Administration and Management
    • Business Marketing
    • Financial Management and Services Management
    • Marketing Management and Research

    Career Options:

    • Accounting Clerk
    • Accounting Office Manager
    • Assistant Store Manager
    • Bookkeeper
    • Display Designer
    • Furnishings and Equipment Sales Associate
    • Merchandise Displayer
    • Procurement Clerk
    • Retail Salesperson
    • Sales Manager

    Bachelor Degrees

    • Accounting
    • Advertising
    • Banking Finance
    • Business Administration
    • Clothing and Textile Merchandising
    • Entrepreneurship
    • Family and Consumer Services
    • Fashion Merchandising Management
    • Financial Management
    • Financial Services
    • Home Furnishing Merchandising Management
    • Human Services and Consumer Sciences
    • Marketing
    • Merchandising
    • Personal Financial Planning
    • Public Relations

    Career Options:

    • Accountant
    • Assistant Buyer
    • Financial Consultant
    • Loan Counselor
    • Manufacturer’s Agent
    • Personal Financial Advisor
    • Sales Manager
    • Sales Representative
    • Sales Trainer
    • Securities/Investment Broker
      —-

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module 2 handouts

    • A Penny or $10,000.00
    • A Penny or $10,000.00 (Penny Key)
    • A Penny or $10,000.00 ($10,000.00 Key)
    • Balancing Your Check Register WARM UP Activity
    • Balancing Your Check Register WARM UP Activity Key
    • Budget Scenarios
    • Budget Worksheet
    • Compare and Contrast
    • Compare and Contrast Key
    • Connect the Dots: Careers in Personal Care Services
    • Consumer Services Career Wanted
    • Consumer Services Programs of Study from Achieve Texas
    • CTE Making the Difference Video Fact Sheet
    • Saving Fitness: A Guide To Your Money and Your Financial Future

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Have students research the Federal Trade Commission website and prepare a presentation on the site consumer categories.
    • Invite a bank representative to speak to the class about debit and credit card use as well as online account management.
    • Have students investigate three similar products to purchase, present their findings and defend their selection.
    • Future trends personal care services: Have the students collaboratively research future trends in personal care services and present their findings to the class. Have the class discuss the findings and predict the success of the future trends.
    • Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) has a national program called Financial Fitness. The goal of the program is for students to learn to manage their finances, differentiate between banking, investing and saving, and then share what they learned with their peers.
    • Question: Would you rather have $10,000 per day for 30 days or a penny that doubled in value every day for 30 days? Students will complete A Penny or $10,000.00 handout and work together in determining the amount at the end of 30 days. Allow the students to use the calculators on their cell phones (be sure to follow district guidelines on the use of cellular phones).
      Answer: Surprisingly, we should choose the doubling penny, because at the end of 30 days, we’d have about $5 million versus the $300,000 we’d have if we chose $10,000 per day! What makes this possible? Compound interest is often called the eighth wonder of the world, because it seems to possess magical powers, like turning a penny into $5 million dollars. The great part about compound interest is that it applies to money, and it helps us to achieve our financial goals, such as becoming a millionaire, retiring comfortably, or being financially independent. Remember what Benjamin Franklin said “A penny saved is a penny earned.”
    • As part of the warm up activities, have students write out “mock” deposit slips and checks or simulate using a debit card for deposits and withdrawals and keep a running balance in their journal.
    • Discuss how managing a checking account is an ongoing process and how it must be managed on a daily basis. Have the students work on Balancing Your Check Register WARM UP Activity on a daily basis.
    • Distribute the graphic organizer Compare and Contrast. In this activity, students will be comparing savings accounts, checking accounts, and investments. Allow students to use Internet websites and/or come up with their own ideas and then discuss as a large group.
    • Using “Saving and Investing” at http://moneymattersmakeitcount.com/saveinvest/Pages/default.aspx have students read through the information and play with the interactive tools to check their knowledge at:
      http://moneymattersmakeitcount.com/Pages/StepsSlips.aspx
    • Using websites such as http://www.themint.org/tweens/balance-your-checking-account.html to participate in interactive tools to learn more about tracking your checking account and balancing your checkbook.
    • Students will use graphic organizer Connect the Dots: Careers in Personal Care Services and allow the students to choose one of the occupations they may be interested in as a career.
    • Teacher should each print the source of information Saving Fitness: A Guide To Your Money and Your Financial Future. Have students pair off and trade documents then use the ”read, write, pair, share” strategy. First reading independently, then writing about what they have read and finally discussing in pairs their insight into the careers they have read about.
    • Conduct a survey of four adults which work in a consumer service career. Find out about their careers, training, education and work experiences. Compare and contrast each career.
    • Have all students order a FREE copy of Consumer Action Handbook to get the latest tips on credit, money, filing a complaint, and more!
      http://www.usa.gov/consumer-action-handbook/order-form.shtml
    • View lessons posted on the Statewide Instructional Resources website and create links to your digital binder.
    • Guest Speakers options include:
      • Better Business Bureaus in Texas
      • Identity Theft Resource Center
      • Consumer Protection Agencies
      • Customer Service manager
      • Financial advisers and planners
    • Develop a directory of government and private agencies that provide consumer protection and assistance to consumers. Distribute the directory at a local community event.
    • Introduce the Texas Work Prep Learning Management System. Direct students to the Texas Job Hunter’s Guide Course.
      https://www.texasworkprep.com/texasworkprep.htm
      Inform students that this is an interactive free assessment that will allow them to identify their job values, interests, aptitudes, and skills assessments as well as assist them in preparing a résumé and teaching them interview skill tips. Students must complete all six sections and successfully pass a short quiz to receive their printable certificate. Stress the importance of having this type of documentation in their professional portfolio.
    • Distribute a class set of handout CTE Making the Difference Video Fact Sheet. Students may read and discuss the information that was viewed on the video.
      Distribute Consumer Services Programs of Study from Achieve Texas and graphic organizer Consumer Services Career Wanted. Explain to students to choose a career they may be interested in. Allow them to document the career from the bottom level to the top. Clarify that any level attained is to be congratulated but to always be prepared for the top. Give examples.
      Distribute the Budget Scenarios. Have each student roll a dice to determine which scenario they will budget for. Using the Budget Worksheet handout have students create a budget for the scenario. Remind them to use pencil on the budget so they can erase and adjust as needed. We are looking for a balanced budget so their expenditures should not exceed their income.

    References and Resources

    Textbooks

    • Jackson, L., (2003). Careers In Focus. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Wilcox Company.
    • Kelly-Plate, J., & Eubanks, E., (2004). Today’s Teen. New York, NY: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.
    • Lowe, Ross. Consumer Education and Economics. 6th ed. N.p.: Glencoe/McGraw Hill, 2006. Print.
    • Madura, Jeff, Mike Casey, and Sherry J. Roberts. The Financial Plan. Personal Financial Literacy. Boston: Pearson, 2010. 23-29. Print.
    • Ryder/ Harder. (2004). Contemporary Living. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart- Wilcox Company.
    • Wehlage/Larson-Kennedy. (2001). Goals for Living. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Wilcox Company.

    Websites:

    • Federal Trade Commission
      The FTC’s Bureau of Consumer Protection works to help the Consumer to prevent fraud, deception, and unfair business practices in the marketplace.
      www.ftc.gov
    • Live Binders
      Provides an online location to store all course information, resources and links in a binder format
      www.livebinder.com
    • Mortgage Rates, Home Loans, Refinancing, Credit Cards, CD Rates with Personal Finance Advice.
      Information on all banking services including an interest calculator
      http://bankrate.com/
    • NEFE High School Financial Planning Program
      For over twenty-five years this award-winning, free, non-commercial financial education program has been provided to millions of students in thousands of schools and community organizations throughout the country.
      http://hsfpp.nefe.org/
    • Occupational Outlook Handbook
      The nation’s premier source for career information
      http://bls.gov/ooh/
    • The Texas Work Prep Learning Management System (LMS) designed and hosted by the Texas Workforce Commission. The Job Hunter’s Guide Course – This course will allow the student to gain knowledge and skills to attain employment. The course is approximately an hour and a half long. Students will receive a certificate upon completion of this course. Certificate can be printed and added to their professional portfolio.
      https://www.texasworkprep.com/texasworkprep.htm

    YouTube™

    • CTE: Making the Difference
      CTE is leading positive change in secondary, postsecondary and adult education, with innovative programs that are making a difference nationwide.
      http://vimeo.com/26926766
    • How to Set Your Money Goals
      Biz Kids host shows you how to set your money goals and make them real. He uses S.M.A.R.T approach. If you are ready to be successful check out entertaining site for teens with lots of useful information.
      http://youtu.be/VVlbCwG1YHI
    • How to Succeed in the Workplace
      Russ Mitchell and Rebecca Jarvis discuss ways to become a professional success with CBS News financial contributor Carmen Wong Ulrich.
      http://youtu.be/v4btmhXVXZo
    • Tips of How to Manage Your Money
      See and learn the financial wisdom of our elders become wiser on how to manage money wiser. Here are some great tips from Warren Buffet: American billionaire, investor, businessman, and philanthropist. Distributed by Tubemogul.
      http://youtu.be/Ktute59Tzv0

    Module II: Consumer Sciences Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Investigating sustainable techniques for managing resources addresses the importance of consumer __________ and ______________.

    • a. rights, advertising
    • b. rights, responsibilities
    • c. importance, policies
    • d. policies, advertising

    2. Analyzing consumer buying ______________ that promote effective use of resources includes knowing when and where to shop.

    • a. barriers
    • b. obstacles
    • c. techniques
    • d. flaws

    3. Technology is useful for managing resources. Which of the following is not a method of technologically managing resources?

    • a. credit cards
    • b. debit card
    • c. bank text notifications
    • d. using cash

    4. The consumer services module applies the decision-making process in planning the allocation and use of finances by addressing the _________________.

    • a. types of crises
    • b. community involvement
    • c. marketing and public relations
    • d. basics of budgeting

    5. The decision-making process should be used in planning the ____________ and ________ of finances.

    • a. allocation, division
    • b. division, use
    • c. use, care
    • d. allocation, use

  • III. Counseling and Mental Health

    TEKS Addressed

    (3) The student demonstrates the skills necessary to enhance personal and career effectiveness in counseling and mental health services.

    • (A) determine types of crises
    • (D) determine crises typical of various stages of the life cycle
    • (C) determine effects of crisis on individuals and families
    • (B) determine appropriate responses, management strategies, and technology available to meet individual and family needs
    • (E) identify the contributing factors and describe the impact of stress on individuals and relationships
    • (F) investigate causes, prevention, and treatment of domestic and relationship violence
    • (G) describe rewards, demands, and future trends in counseling and mental health services

    Module Content

    Counseling and Mental Health is the third module of study in the Principles of Human Services course. This module contains four TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Types of Crises
      • 1. Stages of the family life cycle
      • 2. Skills and resources for handling crisis
      • 3. Effects of various crises
    • B. Effective Management of Multiple Roles
      • 1. Healthy mental functioning
      • 2. Ways to cope with stress and depression
      • 3. Warning signs of depression
    • C. Types of Domestic Violence
      • 1. Events that can lead to violence
      • 2. Skills and resources to handle domestic violence
    • D. Careers Available
      • 1. Entry level, technical, professional
      • 2. Direction of future trends

    Module III Handouts

    —-
    A. Types of Crises
    Types of crises should be addressed in the counseling and mental health services module. Areas to be addressed during this module should include:

    1. Stages of the family life cycle

    Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg, and even William Shakespeare have written about the developmental stages individuals pass through as their lives move from birth to death. Jay Haley, in 1973, identified a model of similar stages for families. Each of Haley’s six stages involves different emotional and physical processes.
    The stages of the Family Life Cycle can be described as:

    • Leaving home
    • Getting married or committing to a couple relationship
    • Parenting the first child
    • Living with an adolescent—adolescent years
    • Launching the children—empty nest years
    • Retirement and old age

    The stages do not occur in exactly the same way in all families. Some families can be in two stages at one time. For example, the same family could be living with an adolescent and launching an older child. Remember, the family life stages are fluid, without rigid boundaries, and that they can encompass the emotional, intellectual, physical, and spiritual aspects of life.

    The stages of family life cycle can have an impact on the types and effects of crisis on the family.

    Types of Crises

    • Abuse of spouse and children
    • Change of family dynamics; blended family members
    • Death in the family
    • Demotion of job or position
    • Deployment of spouse or family member
    • Involvement or addiction of drugs or alcohol
    • Loss of home due to foreclosure/fire/eviction
    • Loss of job
    • Medical or mental health problems
    • Separation or divorce of parents
    • Teen pregnancy
    • Vehicle accident
    • Violent death or injury

    2. Skills and resources for handling crisis

    A family crisis usually has three distinct phases:

    • the event that precipitates the crisis
    • the period of disorganization
    • the reorganizing or recovery phase after the family reaches a low point

    After the crisis hits bottom, recovery can begin. A family’s crisis-meeting capabilities (resources and coping behaviors) represents its ability to prevent a stressor from creating severe disruption.

    Some ineffective and harmful strategies to solving family problems are:

    • denying or avoiding problems
    • not expressing one’s frustrations
    • keeping one’s feelings inside

    Factors associated with meeting a crisis creatively include:

    • a positive outlook
    • spiritual values
    • support groups
    • adaptability
    • informal social support

    A family crisis is a turning point that requires family members to change their patterns of thinking and acting.

    3. Effects of various crises

    Students should determine crises typical of various stages of the life cycle. Crises can happen at various stages of the family life cycle. We should possess the skills and resources needed for handling the crisis at hand as well as possess an understanding of the effects of various crises. This unit should provide students with resources to handle life situations as they occur.

    Today, there are many different family structures. There is no one best structure as long as the family members are happy and fulfilled individuals.
    The six common structures in society today are the:

    • two-parent
    • single parent
    • stepfamily
    • extended kinship
    • foster family
    • adoptive family structures

    The two-parent family is made up of a married couple and their biological children. One or both parents may work outside the home. This is also called a nuclear family. Activities and events center around the family. In 2009, 83 percent of children living in families maintained by two married parents had at least one parent who worked year round, full time. In contrast, 54 percent of children living in families maintained by a single father and 44 percent of children living in families maintained by a single mother had a parent who worked year round, full time.

    The single-parent family occurs as the result of divorce, separation, death of a spouse, or having children outside of marriage. In 2010, 66 percent of children ages 0–17 lived with two married parents, down from 77 percent in 1980.

    In 2010, 23 percent of children lived with only their mother, 3 percent lived with only their father, and 4 percent lived with neither of their parents. Being a single parent, the sole head of the household, can be stressful. Single parents must provide for the same needs and wants as all parents.

    B. Effective Management of Multiple Roles

    Effective management of multiple roles is a skill needed to balance responsibilities and obligations in life. This unit should address the following areas of concern related to effective management of multiple roles.

    1. Healthy mental functioning

    Mental health—the successful performance of mental function, resulting in productive activities, fulfilling relationships with other people, and the ability to adapt to change and to cope with adversity. From early childhood until late life, mental health is the springboard of thinking and communication skills, learning, emotional growth, resilience, and self-esteem.

    Most people travel through life without giving mental health a second thought. While making annual visits to a physician’s office for a check-up or to a dentist to maintain healthy teeth is routine, what can be done to maintain good mental health?

    Mental health depends on several factors, some of them beyond a person’s control. But there is a lot that can be done to remain mentally healthy.

    Self-esteem
    How people look at themselves has a lot to do with how they think, feel, and act. If a person’s self-image is positive, then he or she feels confident in the ability to achieve set goals and to deal with life’s occasional problems. There is satisfaction in achieving those goals, which helps to improve performance and to form healthy and lasting relationships with other people.

    Building positive self-esteem cannot be accomplished overnight, but can begin immediately.

    • Be honest by recognizing both strengths and faults.
    • Be willing to try to improve by believing that faults can be overcome and strengths can
      be developed.
    • Strive to make the most of abilities while avoiding the pressure brought on by not recognizing limitations.
    • Set goals. Avoid being compared with others.

    Stress
    Some stress in life is not only natural, but necessary. It helps the mind and body prepare for and meet challenges. Stress increases the heart rate and breathing, rushes adrenalin to the muscles, and enhances mental alertness. But too much stress can be harmful, especially if it remains after the challenge has subsided. It can lead to ulcers, heart disease, depression, and anxiety. Remaining mentally healthy requires learning to cope with stress.

    • Learn to avoid unnecessary stress by avoiding situations that cause it.
    • Organize available time to do what needs to be done.
    • Talk with other people and don’t keep problems and anger bottled up inside.
    • Learn to relax.

    Physical health
    The old saying, a healthy mind depends on a healthy body, is true. Feeling good about oneself is
    easier when physically fit.

    • Don’t abuse alcohol or other drugs.
    • Stop smoking.
    • Exercise regularly.
    • Eat healthy foods.
    • Get plenty of rest.
    • Control weight.

    Growing older
    Older people are more susceptible to situations that can lead to mental illness. These include loss
    of friends or loved ones, loss of income or livelihood and the independence that went with it, and
    loss of physical health and dignity. Some of these losses are unavoidable, but there are things that
    can be done to remain mentally healthy in the later years.

    • Set new goals.
    • Adapt to changes in your lifestyle, in society, and among friends.
    • Find something enjoyable to do and do it.
    • Don’t neglect physical health.
    • Make the necessary changes.
    • Be realistic and acknowledge that everyone grows old.

    Healthy mental functioning is accomplished differently for everyone. It is essentially finding a balance in life by practicing ways to cope with stress and depression. Warning signs generally appear when the balance of stress has become unbalanced. This unit is an introduction to balancing stress and depression and should be used for informative purposes only.

    2. Ways to cope with stress and depression

    Special problems such as divorce, family violence, or illness or death in the family, can strongly impact children. During very difficult family changes, children may have developmental regressions. Such behavior is not a selfish way to get attention. It may be a sign that the child is under great stress and needs helps from parents and caregivers in order to cope with the stress. Understanding how various factors may influence children helps the parents and caregivers know how best to relate to them.

    Refer to this website for information: “15 Ways to Help Your Kid through Crisis”
    http://www.kidspeace.org/uploadedFiles/15_Ways_parenting_008_0010_flier.pdf

    Mental Health Resources

    • Mental health specialists, such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, or mental health counselors
    • Health maintenance organizations
    • Community mental health centers
    • Hospital psychiatry departments and outpatient clinics
    • Mental health programs at universities or medical schools
    • State hospital outpatient clinics
    • Family services, social agencies, or clergy
    • Peer support groups
    • Private clinics and facilities
    • Employee assistance programs
    • Local medical and/or psychiatric societies
    • You can also check the phone book under “mental health,” “health,” “social services,” “hotlines,” or “physicians” for phone numbers and addresses. An emergency room doctor also can provide temporary help and can tell you where and how to get further help.

    To help your friend or relative

    • Offer emotional support, understanding, patience, and encouragement.
    • Talk to him or her, and listen carefully.
    • Never dismiss feelings, but point out realities and offer hope.
    • Never ignore comments about suicide, and report them to your loved one’s therapist or doctor.
    • Invite your loved one out for walks, outings and other activities. Keep trying if he or she declines, but don’t push him or her to take on too much too soon.
    • Provide assistance in getting to the doctor’s appointments.
    • Remind your loved one that with time and treatment, the depression will lift.

    3. Warning signs of depression

    People with depressive illnesses do not all experience the same symptoms. The severity, frequency, and duration of symptoms vary depending on the individual and his or her particular illness.
    Signs and symptoms include:

    • Persistent sad, anxious, or “empty” feelings
    • Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism
    • Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness
    • Irritability, restlessness
    • Loss of interest in activities or hobbies once pleasurable, including sex
    • Fatigue and decreased energy
    • Difficulty concentrating, remembering details, and making decisions
    • Insomnia, early-morning wakefulness, or excessive sleeping
    • Overeating, or appetite loss
    • Thoughts of suicide, suicide attempts
    • Aches or pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems that do not ease even with treatment.

    C. Types of Domestic Violence

    Domestic violence is an unfortunate part of society. It is preventable and can be managed by having an understanding of the following:

    1. Events that can lead to violence

    Stressor events do not have to lead to crisis situations; the key is how individuals and families respond to the situation.

    One theoretical view of how families respond to stress is the ABC-X Family Stress Model.

    • A = Stressor event
    • B = Family’s management strategies/coping skills
    • C = Family’s perception/definition of the situation
    • X = Family’s adaptation to the event

    According to the ABC-X Family Stress Model, how well a family responds to a stressor event (Examples: loss of employment, unplanned pregnancy, major illness of a spouse, forced early retirement) depends not only on the event, but also on the family coping strategies and perceptions of the event. Families that have difficulties functioning effectively before the onset of additional stressors or demands are said to be vulnerable. Resilient families draw upon family strengths such as emotional support, commitment, good communication, and problem-solving skills to respond to the event in a positive manner and avoid a crisis situation. Resilient families cope well in a time of crisis or adversity.

    2. Skills and resources to handle domestic violence

    This unit is an overview of how to prevent domestic or family violence. The first step to preventing family violence is to know the makeup of healthy domestic relationships. Once the criterion is established for a healthy relationship, it is then easier to determine what makes that relationship unhealthy. Family violence is often a result of a need for power and control in a relationship and is often related to stress and depression. This need may also result from a history of family violence or inappropriate gender-role messages. Conflict resolution skills are needed and ground rules for handling conflict need to be established in all families. Conflict will occur in all relationships. The answer to family success is to find a way to manage anger and resolves issues as they arise without violence.

    Society has the responsibility of protecting children and families against abuse and violence. According to a publication by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the educator has a vital role in identifying, reporting, and preventing child abuse and neglect. Over the last few decades, various organizations have developed programs directed at informing educators that they are a valuable resource. Child care providers and educators must become involved in preventing and responding to child abuse and neglect.

    These reasons are related to the following:

    • Community efforts
    • Educational opportunities
    • Legal concerns
    • Personal commitments
    • Professional responsibilities

    Additional information on this publication can be found at http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/educator/educator.pdf

    D. Careers Available

    1. Entry level, technical, professional

    Employment opportunities in counseling and mental health services range from educational opportunities, counseling, and service positions. Employment opportunities in this area can be limitless. The limits are established by the individual. This unit provides an excellent opportunity for students to research careers in the industry and current business trends. The Bureau of Labor and Statistics is an excellent resource to use during this unit. This government resource provides the current job outlook and salary information.

    Desirable traits for a psychiatrist or psychologist have some common ground; however, there are a number of the specialty psychologists that will have additional or special traits related to their specialty. For example, a child psychologist must be good with children.

    Common traits are:

    • relatively outgoing
    • get along well with a variety of individuals and groups
    • dedicated
    • persistent
    • empathetic
    • strong ethics
    • critical thinking skills
    • excellent communication skills
    • listening skills

    2. Direction of future trends

    The future trends in counseling and mental health services are continuously changing. This section provides an opportunity for students to explore the service industry and learn about the advances being made in each service area. Current trends, future technology and product development will dictate the directions of this portion of the course. Have students research and share the potential future trends in counseling and mental health care services.

    There are numerous and diverse career opportunities in the field of psychology. The first step is usually a four-year degree at a university with specific and related study courses. Many of these careers require graduate study (Master’s degree) and some will require a doctoral degree (Ph.D.). Graduate degree normally requires two years of study and a doctoral degree is approximately four to six years above that.

    • Psychiatrists are medical doctors who specialize in treatment of mental disorders
      4 years of college followed by 4 years of medical school, then an internship and residency
      Must be licensed by the state in which they live and practice
      Licensed to prescribe medications
    • Psychologists
      Master’s or Ph.D. in psychology depending on type of specialty
      cannot prescribe medications
      Subfields of Psychology – some listed below
      • Art Therapist
      • Clinical Psychologist
      • Criminal Psychologist
      • Counseling Psychologist
      • Developmental Psychologist
      • Educational Psychologist
      • Engineering Psychologist
      • Forensic Psychologist
      • Health Psychologist
      • Industrial/Organizational Psychologist
      • Music Therapist
      • Neuropsychologist
      • Pediatric Psychologist
      • Recreational Therapist
      • Rehabilitation Psychologist
      • School Psychologist
      • Social Psychologist
      • Sports Psychology

    3. Related Fields

    • Childlife Activity Specialist
      - Master’s
      - Generally work in hospitals or rehab facilities
      - Focus on emotional and developmental needs of sick or disabled children
      - Use play and other activities (art and games) to help children cope
    • Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC)
      - Master’s
      - Subfield of counseling psychology
      - Often work with students to provide career and college guidance
      - Help students with family and social problems
    • Social Worker
      - Master’s
      - Help people with social, vocational, financial, housing, and placement problems
      - Conduct individual, family, and group therapy
    • Psychiatric Nurse
      - Bachelor’s or Master’s degree
      - Nurses who are trained to work with patients who are mentally ill
      —-

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module III Handouts

    • Family Crisis Management Notes Teacher Key
    • Family Crisis Management Notes
    • Family Crisis Resources
    • Family Crisis Scenarios
    • Rubric for Written Report

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Distribute handout Family Crisis Resources. Students will complete handout as they research the resources. They may use phone books, or they can research it on the Internet.
      Students will develop a list of related family crisis resources available in the community. Students may use a phone book and internet to compile a list of hotlines, social services agencies and organizations, support groups, health care professionals, religious organizations and shelter.
    • In subgroups of three, distribute Family Crisis Scenarios, three scenarios per group. The students will identify the type of crisis, the effects of the crisis on the family, and resources available in your community. Students will write a written report to include all the information and will be presented during class.
    • Lead students to correlate the careers related to counseling and mental health.
    • Invite a counseling or mental health service professional to speak to the class.
    • Have students research ways to effectively manage stress and depression and present their research to the class.
    • Research careers in the area of counseling and mental health services and create digital presentations to present to the class.
    • Create a live binder or digital file for the course that includes all of your resources in one easily accessible location.
    • Develop a list of possible guest speakers.
    • Locate video clips that address the content of each unit or lesson using a district approved video website and create links to your digital binder.
    • Locate possible lesson plans for the units in this module.
    • View lessons posted on the Statewide Instructional Resources website and create links to your digital binder.

    References and Resources

    Textbooks

    • Jackson, L., (2003). Careers In Focus. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Wilcox Company.
    • Kelly-Plate, J., & Eubanks, E., (2004). Today’s Teen. New York, NY: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.
    • Ryder/ Harder. (2004). Contemporary Living. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart- Wilcox Company.
    • Wehlage/Larson-Kennedy. (2001). Goals for Living. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Wilcox Company.

    Websites

    • Live Binders
      Provides an online location to store all course information, resources and links in a binder format
      www.livebinder.com
    • Occupational Outlook Handbook
      The nation’s premier source for career information
      http://bls.gov/ooh/
    • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
      Helping Children and Youth Who Have Experienced Traumatic Events Childhood exposure to traumatic events is a major public health problem in the United States. Traumatic events can include witnessing or experiencing physical or sexual abuse, violence in families and communities, loss of a loved one, refugee and war experiences, living with a family member whose caregiving ability is impaired, and having a life-threatening injury or illness.
      http://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/podcasts-children-trauma-presentation.pdf
    • Texas Council on Family Violence
      TCFV has three main focuses: policy, support to service providers and prevention.
      www.tcfv.org
    • The Texas Work Prep Learning Management System (LMS) designed and hosted by the Texas Workforce Commission. The Job Hunter’s Guide Course – This course will allow the student to gain knowledge and skills to attain employment. The course is approximately an hour and a half long. Students will receive a certificate upon completion of this course. Certificate can be printed and added to their professional portfolio.
      https://www.texasworkprep.com/texasworkprep.htm

    YouTube™

    • Makers of Memories
      Has researched these domestic violence statistics to raise awareness and bring attention to the residual effects domestic violence has on children, kids, and mothers.
      http://youtu.be/3s2hu9Zon4s

    Module III: Counseling and Mental Health Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Which of the following is not a stage of the family life cycle that can involve crisis?

    • a. work
    • b. coupling
    • c. single adult
    • d. launching

    2. Which of the following is not a subsection of the Effective Management of Multiple Roles unit of the Counseling and Mental Health module?

    • a. Effects of various crises
    • b. Healthy mental functioning
    • c. Ways to cope with stress and depression
    • d. Warning signs of depression

    3. In the counseling and mental health unit, the student will investigate domestic violence by researching all of the following areas except _____________.

    • a. causes
    • b. prevention
    • c. personal experiences
    • d. treatment

    4. Student should be able to identify ____________, _____________, and future trends in counseling and mental health service after completing the counseling and mental health unit.

    • a. rewards, advantages
    • b. rewards, demands
    • c. demands, advantages
    • d. history, rewards

    5. At the end of the counseling and mental health unit, students should be able to identify contributing factors and describe the impact of stress on ___________ and relationships.

    • a. groups
    • b. employers
    • c. organizations
    • d. individuals

  • IV. Early Childhood Development

    TEKS Addressed

    (4) The student demonstrates the skills necessary to enhance personal and career effectiveness in early childhood development and services.

    • (A) identify the basic needs of children
    • (B) analyze the responsibilities of caregivers for promoting the safety and development of children
    • (C) evaluate developmentally appropriate guidance techniques for children
    • (D) investigate causes, prevention, and treatment of child abuse
    • (E) describe rewards, demands, and future trends in early childhood development and services

    Module Content

    Early Childhood Development is the fourth module of study in the Principles of Human Services course. This module contains seven TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Basic Needs of Children
      • 1. Physical needs
      • 2. Emotional needs
      • 3. Social needs
      • 4. Intellectual needs
    • B. Responsible Care Giving
      • 1. Characteristics of caregivers
      • 2. Responsibilities of caregivers
      • 3. Resources for caregivers
    • C. Parenting Styles
    • D. Developmentally Appropriate Guidance Techniques
    • E. Child Abuse
      • 1. Types of child abuse
      • 2. Events that can lead to child abuse
      • 3. Skills and resources available to address child abuse
    • F. Careers in Early Childhood Development and Services, including Entry Level, Technical, and Professional
    • G. Future Trends in Early Childhood Development and Services

    Module IV Handouts

    —-

    A. Basic Needs of Children

    Early childhood development is critical to the physical, emotional, social and intellectual development of a child’s life. Children learn with all of their senses by using their eyes, ears, mouth and hands to explore their new world. It is important to understand the aspects of growth during each stage to nurture healthy growth and development of the child. Most of the developmental milestones occur in a sequential order and transpire in specific time frames allowing assistance to be provided to children with special needs as considered necessary. In order to understand the impact of early childhood development on each individual, we should have an understanding of the different theorists affecting child development, such as Piaget, Erikson, Skinner, and Kohlberg.

    The basic needs of children are to be addressed during this unit and the activities should include the following:
    1. Physical needs
    Some of these changes occur in the entire body such as bones and muscles, internal organs and the brain. Other physical development changes include hormones and motor skills.

    2. Emotional needs Emotional feelings can be love, hate, happiness, anger, jealousy, and fear. Another part of emotional development is understanding how to express their emotions while learning how to control their responses to certain emotions. Emotions play a vital role in personality development. Children can learn how to express their emotions in a healthy manner through interactions with parents, siblings, caregivers and others.

    3. Social needs
    Children first learn about interacting and relating with other people by observing their parents. A child’s social development is greatly influenced by how much or how little contact they have with other people.

    4. Intellectual needs
    Intellectual development includes all of the brain’s activities and functions such as memory, perception, problem solving, decision-making and imagining.

    B. Responsible Care Giving

    1. Characteristics of caregivers – Child care providers should be responsible and well trained caregivers. Caregivers should be trained in first aid and CPR. Professional caregivers should complete a certification program and have a cleared criminal background check.

    Most often parents are the primary caregivers for their children. The child care profession provides secondary, or substitute, care. Secondary care, therefore can be seen as adding to the care that parents give their children. The child care profession includes secondary child caregivers and the services they offer. Center-based and home-based child care programs have the job of caring for children in the child care setting. The need for high quality, affordable early care and education has increased due to a growing number of working mothers, dual-earner families, and single-parent families. State and federal standards are set to protect children’s physical health and safety and to aid their physical, social, emotional, and cognitive development.

    2. Responsibilities of caregivers – Caregivers are responsible for providing a safe nurturing environment for children. They are responsible for protecting children from injury as well as for meeting the needs of the child. They are responsible for providing shelter, nutritional and educational needs of the children in their care.

    They have many roles and responsibilities. Caregivers must have excellent training and experience to provide the most adequate child care to children. A caregiver is also responsible for the safety and security of the children and the facility. They are also responsible for following the state’s laws and regulations pertaining to the operation of the child care center; provide an adequate educational program to develop the children’s physical, intellectual, social, and emotional needs. Discipline is appropriate and not causing harm to the children. The facility should be clean and the physical setting is inviting and homelike. The teachers and staff attend to the children and there is a good adult-child ratio. The parents feel welcomed and there is open communication between the parents and the caregivers.

    3. Resources for caregivers – The resources for caregivers are extensive. A simple internet search will reveal more resources than a caregiver could ever use. When sorting through information, it is best to rely on government websites and the sites that are linked to their information. Other information can also prove to be beneficial. Educational sites and nonprofit organizations tend to be sources that provide reliable resources.

    C. Parenting Styles

    The different parenting styles are distinctive and have evolved over time. The styles include authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Authoritative is strong in structure and rules. The authoritarian style of parenting involves a combination of rules and structure balanced with love and nurturing. The permissive style is a combination of love and nurturing without rules or structure.

    The term “guidance” means different things to different people. To some it means telling children what to do. To others it means punishment for inappropriate behavior. Guidance really involves ways of helping children learn to behave appropriately. Through guidance, children are taught to control their actions and to make decisions. Guidance combines support, encouragement, and setting limits. Guidance encourages appropriate behavior and helps stop problem behavior. Over a longer time period, it promotes the development of self-confidence and self-control. Guidance is needed to keep children safe and healthy. It also helps children to like themselves and to get along well with others. In deciding how to guide children, one must know how different developmental levels affect behavior. A caregiver should be able to analyze positive and problem behavior in children in order to identify guidance techniques which promote positive behavior.

    Understanding child development helps a caregiver guide behavior. Physical, emotional, social, and cognitive development influence guidance techniques that a caregiver can use. Knowing the sequence of physical development helps caregivers know which behaviors to expect at different stages. Child guidance is greatly affected by four types of social development:

    • Egocentrism- Children tend to see the world from their own viewpoint. Young children slowly learn to change their points of view.
    • Moral development- The process of learning “right” and “wrong” is called moral development. It is wise to teach young children the possible results of their behaviors.
    • Pro-socially behaviors- Cooperating, helping, respecting, comforting, and sharing are all pro-socially behaviors.
    • Self-concept- A child’s self-concept begins to develop in infancy. Developing a healthy self-concept is greatly influenced by how a person responds to a child.

    D. Developmentally Appropriate Guidance Techniques

    Developmentally appropriate child guidance techniques have a significant impact on the growth and development of children. Their environment should be a safe, comfortable, stable setting for learning and development. Children learn best in a secure atmosphere. Children should be provided an upbringing that provides the least restrictive learning environment for all children. Quality education professionals that work with children in their early childhood should establish relationships with children that create a desire for learning by all. If children struggle with learning during this period, their self-competence development will be affected.

    Promoting Positive Behavior

    Caregivers should actively promote positive behaviors, which improve the atmosphere and help prevent problems. Positive behaviors include prosocial skills, self-control, and getting along with others. Many direct guidance strategies used by caregivers help to promote positive behavior in children. Direct guidance is used when a caregiver works directly with a child. To promote positive behavior, a few general guidelines should be followed, which include observing children at all times, being consistent, modeling positive behavior, communicating at the child’s level, setting appropriate limits, and encouraging initiative, independence and responsibility.

    These are three different types of guidance techniques:

    • Redirecting- With redirection, children are led in a new activity related to their play at the time.
    • Encouraging use of words- Help children use words to share their wishes. For example, when Suzy reaches for a car that Joshua is using, the caregiver might say, “Suzy, ask Joshua, ‘May I play with the yellow car?’ “ If Joshua says, “No,” the caregiver can help Suzy choose another toy from the shelf.
    • Giving the child a choice- The caregiver can also distract a child from a conflict or from negative behavior by giving choices. Giving him or her two choices at a time makes the decision easier on the child and caregiver.
      Using any one of these positive guidance techniques can help deter abusive behavior by reducing the frustration.

    E. Child Abuse

    Refer to Child Abuse Prevention for lesson ideas.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/child-abuse-prevention/

    This unit is an overview of how to prevent child abuse. This unit should address the following three areas of concern related to child abuse:

    1. Types of child abuse

    Child abuse and neglect are serious problems in our country, and there are presently no signs of the problem getting any better. Over 3 million reports of child abuse are made every year in the United States, involving an estimated 6 million children. While physical injuries may or may not be immediately visible, abuse and neglect can have consequences for children, families, and society that last lifetimes, if not generations.

    Not all abused and neglected children will experience long-term consequences. The outcomes of individual cases vary widely and are affected by a combination of factors, including the following:

    • The child’s age and developmental status when the abuse or neglect occurred
    • The type of abuse (neglect, physical, sexual, etc.)
    • The frequency, duration, and severity of abuse
    • The relationship between the victim and his or her abuser (English et al., 2005; Chalk, Gibbons, & Scarupa, 2002)

    Prevent Child Abuse
    This link may be used as a reference for Child Abuse Awareness.
    http://www.preventchildabuse.org/

    2. Events that can lead to child abuse

    Special problems such as divorce, family violence, or illness or death in the family can strongly impact children. During very difficult family changes, children may have developmental regressions. Such behavior is not a selfish way to get attention. It may be a sign that the child is under great stress and needs helps from caregivers in order to cope with the stress. Understanding how various factors may influence children helps the caregiver know how best to relate to them. In a divorce, be aware of the legal terms of the divorce that impact child custody. Find out who is to pick a child up from the child care center. Do not hand children over to a person not authorized to take them.

    What are the behaviors that may lead to child abuse?
    Neglect may occur when parents cannot meet their child’s needs. This may be the result of unemployment, family illness, misappropriation of family funds, or lack of intelligence and education on how to properly care for children. According to Decker (2004), drug and alcohol abuse is present in 40 percent of reported neglect and abuse cases. Poverty and financial stress can also lead to child abuse. A parent that does not have coping skills or parenting skills can create parental stress that leads to child abuse. Other behaviors that may lead to child abuse are unwanted pregnancy, single- or teen-parenting, the parent having been abused as a child, lack of self-esteem, marriage problems, illness or a recent stressful event (death in the family, separation, or divorce).

    3. Skills and resources available to address child abuse
    The first step to preventing child abuse is to know the makeup of healthy family relationships. Once the criterion is established for a healthy relationship, it is then easier to determine what makes that relationship unhealthy. Family violence is often a result of a need for power and control in a relationship. This need may be a result from a history of family violence or inappropriate gender-role messages. Conflict resolution skills are needed and ground rules for handling conflict need to be established in all families. Conflict will occur in all relationships. The answer to family success is to find a way to manage anger and resolves issues as they arise without violence.

    Society has a responsibility in protecting children and families against abuse and violence. According to a publication by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the educator has a vital role in identifying, reporting, and preventing child abuse and neglect. Over the last few decades, various organizations have developed programs directed at informing educators that they are a valuable resource. Child care providers and educators must become involved in preventing and responding to child abuse and neglect. These reasons are related to:

    Child Protective Services Division of Texas is another organization available to assist families in crisis. The Child Protective Services Division investigates reports of abuse and neglect of children. It also:

    • Places children in adoptive homes
    • Places children in foster care
    • Provides services to children and families in their own homes
    • Provides services to help youth in foster care make the transition to adulthood

    For additional information and legal definitions of abuse and neglect, visit:
    http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Protection/About_Child_Protective_Services/

    F. Careers in Early Childhood Development and Services, including entry level, technical, and professional

    Employment opportunities in career in early childhood services range from educational opportunities, counseling, and service positions. Employment opportunities in this area can be limitless. The limits are established by the individual. This unit provides an excellent opportunity for students to research careers in the industry and current business trends. The Bureau of Labor and Statistics is an excellent resource to use during this unit. This government resource provides current the current job outlook and salary information.

    Short- and long-term career goals should align with opportunities based on interests and work values. Goal setting is necessary because it allows you to plan for your short-term future as well as your long-term future. When making career choices in the area of Child Development, you need to be a good manager of time, resources and goal setting. Match characteristics of the current or most recent occupation with similar occupations, and find specific information such as the fastest growing jobs, levels of education and training requirements, and average salaries. For a self-assessment, skills transferability, work exploration, career clusters and occupational information, refer to http://www.texascaresonline.com/wowmenu.asp

    G. Future Trends in Early Childhood Development and Services

    The future trends in early childhood development services are continuously changing. This section provides an opportunity for students to explore the service industry and learn about the advances being made in each service area. Current trends, future technology and product development will dictate the directions of this portion of the course. Each time this course is offered new advancement will have been developed. Have students research and share the potential future trends in early childhood development and services.

    According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment of childcare workers is expected to grow by 20 percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations. Parents will continue to need assistance during working hours to care for their children. Because the number of children requiring childcare is expected to grow, demand for childcare workers is expected to grow as well.

    In the past decade, early childhood education has become widely recognized as important for children’s development. Childcare workers often work alongside preschool teachers as assistants. This continued focus on the importance of early childhood education, in addition to increases in the number of children in this age group, will spur demand for preschool programs and thus for childcare workers. Workers with formal education should have the best job prospects. However, even those without formal education who are interested in the occupation should have little trouble finding employment due to the need to replace workers who leave the occupation.

    • Childcare workers must meet education and training requirements, which vary with state regulations. Some states require these workers to have a high school diploma, but many states do not have any education requirements.
    • Employers often prefer to hire workers with at least a high school diploma and, in some cases, some postsecondary education in early childhood education.
    • Beginning in 2013, workers in Head Start programs must at least be enrolled in a program in which they will earn an associate’s degree in early childhood education or a child development credential.
    • Many states require providers to complete some training before beginning work. Often, these requirements can be satisfied by having some college credits or by earning a degree in early childhood education.
    • States do not regulate educational requirements for nannies and babysitters. However, some employers may prefer to hire workers with at least some formal instruction in education or a related field, particularly when they will be hired as full-time nannies.
    • Some states and employers require childcare workers to have a nationally recognized certification. Most often, states require the Child Development Associate (CDA) certification offered by the Council for Professional Recognition. CDA certification includes coursework, experience in the field, and a high school diploma.
    • Some states recognize the Child Care Professional (CCP) designation offered by the National Child Care Association. Candidates for the CCP must have a high school diploma, experience in the field, and continuing education.
    • Some employers may require certifications in CPR and first aid.

    —-

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module IV Handouts

    • A Caregiver’s Responsibilities Spelling and Grammar Challenge
    • Child Abuse Prevention Diorama
    • Child Abuse Statistics
    • Child Maltreatment Data Sheet
    • Criteria for Selecting Child Care
    • Diet Plans
    • Homework Coupon Pass
    • Hotlines and Online Resources
    • Myths and Facts about Child Abuse and Neglect
    • Note Taking Template
    • Regulation of Certain Facilities, Homes and Agencies that Provide Child-Care Services
    • Responding to Child Abuse and Neglect
    • Rubric for Child Abuse and Neglect
    • Scavenger Hunt
    • Take 15
    • True or False Child Abuse Prevention
    • True or False Child Abuse Prevention (Key)

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Provide each student with a copy of Myths and Facts about Child Abuse and Neglect. This activity can be done individually or with a partner.
    • Conduct a classroom question and answer session making sure to cover each of the following objectives:
      • Analyze reasons for the high rate of child abuse
      • Describe the types of abuse and neglect
      • Determine warning signs for each type of abuse and neglect
      • Become aware of the risk factors for child abuse and neglect
      • Analyze ways of breaking the cycle of abuse
    • Develop a video educating others of the types and warning signs of abuse. Include positive ways to break the cycle of abuse.
    • Guest speakers may include a child daycare owner to speak on guidelines for reporting abuse, a local family or school counselor to speak about abuse and counseling services available for abuse victims, and/or local law enforcement officer to speak about abuse from a law enforcement perspective.
    • Allow students to brainstorm and determine 10 alternatives to lashing out at a child. Develop a list and post in classroom.
    • Have students develop an informational child abuse and neglect awareness flyer or tri-fold brochure. The flyers/brochures will be placed in the counselors’ offices and distributed to all faculty, staff, and students.
    • Become familiar with the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC).
      Distribute handout Regulation of Certain Facilities, Homes and Agencies that Provide Child-Care Services and Scavenger Hunt handout (see All Lesson Attachments tab). Students, in groups of four, will explore the regulations and conduct a scavenger hunt of information that can be found in that document. The first group to find all the information and complete the handout, will receive a Homework Pass Coupon. The students will look for the following information on child care policies and procedures in the following areas:
      • Training of Personnel
      • Screening Requirements
      • Parental Visitation
      • Required License
      • Notification of Family Violence Calls
      • Rules for Immunizations
      • Caregiver-To-Child Ratio
      • Background and Criminal History Checks Required
      • Carbon Monoxide Detectors
      • Caregivers Qualifications
      • Administering Medications
      • Minimum Training Standards
      • Playgrounds
    • Distribute Criteria for Selecting Child Care. Students will work collaboratively in teams of two to complete this activity.
      Scenario: You are a new parent of a two-month-old. You have to return to work and are seeking a child care facility for your child. Develop a criteria or checklist to evaluate the child care program. Write five points of concern in each area.
    • Conduct a classroom question and answer session making sure to cover each of the following objectives:
      • Analyze reasons for the high rate of child abuse.
      • Describe the types of abuse and neglect.
      • Determine warning signs for each type of abuse and neglect.
      • Become aware of the risk factors for child abuse and neglect.
      • Analyze ways of breaking the cycle of abuse.
    • Distribute handout Take 15. Taking 15 minutes to focus on your child in a positive way is a good strategy to deter child abuse. Individually, students are to list and describe ten ways a parent can interact with their child for 15 minutes and the benefits of the interaction. Then, write a summary sentence at the bottom of the page.
    • Show students “2013 Calendar Once Upon a Time-Parenting: The Beginning of a Great Story” at http://www.helpandhope.org/pdf/2013Calendar_English.pdf
      Discuss the importance of each month’s tips and advice for parents.
    • Distribute Hotlines and Online Resources for additional resources.

    References and Resources

    Textbooks

    • Jackson, L., (2003). Careers In Focus. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Wilcox Company.
    • Kelly-Plate, J., & Eubanks, E., (2004). Today’s Teen. New York, NY: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.
    • Ryder/ Harder. (2004). Contemporary Living. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart- Wilcox Company.
    • Wehlage/Larson-Kennedy. (2001). Goals for Living. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Wilcox Company.

    Websites

    • Child Abuse Awareness
      Founded in 1959 by Sara O’Meara and Yvonne Fedderson, Childhelp® is a leading national non-profit organization dedicated to helping victims of child abuse and neglect. Childhelp’s approach focuses on prevention, intervention and treatment.
      http://www.childhelp.org
    • Child Care
      ChildCare.gov is a comprehensive online resource designed to link parents, child care providers, researchers, policymakers and the general public with Federal Government sponsored child care and early learning information and resources both quickly and easily.
      http://www.usa.gov/Topics/Parents-Care.shtml
    • Prevent Child Abuse America
      Since 1972, Prevent Child Abuse America (PCA America) has led the way in building awareness, providing education and inspiring hope to everyone involved in the effort to prevent the abuse and neglect of our nation’s children.
      http://www.preventchildabuse.org/index.shtml
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services resources – National Child Abuse Prevention Month (April) information.
      Child Welfare Information Gateway connects child welfare and related professionals to comprehensive information and resources to help protect children and strengthen families.
      http://www.childwelfare.gov/

    YouTube™

    • Accreditation—Family Child Care
      When you go off to work or school you want to have the peace of mind that your little one is getting the highest quality care available.
      When searching for child care you will likely want to find a provider who has gone above and beyond the usual licensing process.
      http://youtu.be/2_wwfgAwZhY
    • Daycare at its BEST in Houston
      Child Care Daycare Preschool Services Houston TX. Nationally Acclaimed Curriculum, Internet Monitoring, Security is offered at this highly rated Cypress Texas childcare program.
      http://youtu.be/Qve3wBFkiZM
    • Help for Parents. Hope for Kids
      It’s not easy being a parent. But recognizing that you have room for improvement is the first step toward becoming a better parent. Here you will learn where to find the help you need to begin your journey toward becoming a healthier, happier family.
      http://www.helpandhope.org/videos.html

    Module IV: Early Childhood Development Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Most of the developmental milestones occur in a _____________ order and transpire in specific time frames allowing assistance to be provided to children with special needs as considered necessary.

    • a. direct
    • b. standard
    • c. sequential
    • d. non-sequential

    2. __________________ development includes all of the brain’s activities and functions such as memory,
    perception, problem solving, decision-making and imagining.

    • a. Physical
    • b. Intellectual
    • c. Emotional
    • d. Social

    3. The ____________ style of parenting involves a combination of rules and structure balanced with love and nurturing.

    • a. permissive
    • b. authoritative
    • c. authoritarian
    • d. persuasive

    4. A caregiver should be able to analyze _____________ and problem behavior in children in order to identify guidance techniques which promote positive behavior.

    • a. positive
    • b. probable
    • c. negative
    • d. immediate

    5. Child abuse and neglect are serious problems in our country, and there are presently no signs of the problem getting any better. Over ______ million reports of child abuse are made every year in the United States, involving an estimated 6 million children.

    • a. 4
    • b. 3
    • c. 3.5
    • d. 4.5

  • V. Family and Community Services

    house of community

    TEKS Addressed

    (5) The student demonstrates the skills necessary to enhance personal and career effectiveness in family and community services.

    • (A) identify the basic functions of the family, including roles and responsibilities
    • (C) analyze the multiple roles and responsibilities assumed by individuals within the family
    • (B) investigate societal, cultural, demographic and economic factors affecting the responsibilities of family members
    • (D) investigate community service opportunities
    • (F) explain the impact of nutrition on development, wellness, and productivity over the lifespan
    • (H) analyze dietary practices across the lifespan
    • (G) prepare nutritious snacks or meals that contribute to wellness and productivity through the lifespan
    • (E) describe rewards, demands, and future trends in family and community services

    Module Content

    The Family and Community Services is the fifth module of study in the Principles of Human Services course. This module contains seven TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Family functioning
      • 1. Basic functions of the family
      • 2. Roles and responsibilities of family members
      • 3. Factors that influence family responsibilities
    • B. Community involvement
      • 1. Importance
      • 2. Opportunities
    • C. Nutrition over the lifespan
      • 1. Dietary needs at different stages
      • 2. Relation to health, wellness and disease
      • 3. Food groups
      • 4. Factors that affect food choices
    • D. Food preparation and service
      • 1. Food safety and sanitation
      • 2. Measurements and equipment
      • 3. Basic food preparation
      • 4. Table setting and etiquette
    • E. Food labels and consumer purchasing
    • F. Careers in family and community services
    • G. Future trends in family and community services

    Module V Handouts

    A. Family functioning

    1. Basic functions of the family

    It is important to be able to define family because so many social and legal resources such as health insurance, life insurance, social security benefits, inheritance rights, and government subsidized housing and health care are based on family membership. Each person’s definition of family may differ because we base our definitions on our own personal experiences of family life. These definitions may differ from the U.S. Census Bureau’s definition of family as: “consisting of two or more people related by birth, marriage, or adoption residing in the same unit.”

    Each of us is born or adopted into our family of origin or family of orientation in which we are raised and socialized to follow the customs and traditions of the culture in which we live. When we marry and have children, we form the family of procreation. The nuclear family model which consists of a biological mother, a biological father, and their biological or adopted children comprises only 7% of families today. Contemporary families greatly differ from the traditional nuclear family model of the 1950s. Instead, there is a diversity of family types: single parent families, stepfamilies, cohabiting families, gay and lesbian families, childless couples, and grandparent-headed families. As of 2004, an increasing percentage of people (26.4%) are living alone, and 28.5% are child-free or have no children (post-child-rearing) in the home.

    In light of the changing demographics of marriage and family life, social scientists and popular media and press have been debating whether the modern family is “in decline” or “in the process of change” in order to adapt to contemporary society. Consider your own family life experiences and the changing forms of family composition and lifestyles to determine your view of whether the family is in the process of “breaking down” or just adapting to social change.

    2. Roles and responsibilities of family members

    Families take on many forms and shapes, and yet they perform some of the same basic functions from culture to culture. Individuals within the family provide the following:

    • Basic needs (such as food, clothing, and shelter)
    • Economic support
    • Education
    • Love and affection
    • Nurturance
    • Opportunities to have fun
    • Protection
    • Religious background

    Each individual in the family has certain roles. Your role as a son, daughter, sister, brother, niece, nephew, aunt, or uncle is a given role that you acquired when you were born into the family. When you marry, you will assume a chosen role as husband or wife. Roles are defined by age and responsibilities. Parents are usually responsible for providing food and shelter. As children get older and enter the workforce, these responsibilities might fall partly on their shoulders. In relationships, it is important to communicate the roles you will be sharing or expected to fulfill to meet the needs of the family.

    3. Factors that influence family responsibilities

    Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg, and even William Shakespeare have written about the developmental stages individuals pass through as their lives move from birth to death. Jay Haley, in 1973, identified a model of similar stages for families. Each of Haley’s six stages involves different emotional and physical processes and in turn influence family responsibilities.

    The stages of the Family Life Cycle can be described as:

    • Leaving home
    • Getting married or committing to a couple relationship
    • Parenting the first child
    • Living with an adolescent
    • Launching the children
    • Retirement and old age

    The stages do not occur in exactly the same way in all families. Some families can be in two stages at one time. For example, the same family could be living with an adolescent and launching an older child. Remember the family life stages are fluid, without rigid boundaries, and that they can encompass the emotional, intellectual, physical, and spiritual aspects of life.

    B. Community involvement

    1. Importance

    Perhaps the first and biggest benefit people get from volunteering is the satisfaction of incorporating service into their lives and making a difference in their community and country.

    The intangible benefits alone—such as pride, satisfaction, and accomplishment—are worthwhile reasons to serve. In addition, when we share our time and talents we:

    • Solve Problems
    • Strengthen Communities
    • Improve Lives
    • Connect to Others
    • Transform Our Own Lives

    Volunteering has long been a common ethic in the United States, with people each year giving their time without any expectation of compensation. While these volunteer activities may be performed with the core intention of helping others, there is also a common wisdom that those who give of themselves also receive. Researchers have attempted to measure the benefits that volunteers receive, including the positive feeling referred to as “helper’s high,” increased trust in others, and increased social and political participation. Over the past two decades we have seen a growing body of research that indicates volunteering provides individual health benefits in addition to social benefits. This research has established a strong relationship between volunteering and health: those who volunteer have lower mortality rates, greater functional ability, and lower rates of depression later in life than those who do not volunteer.

    2. Opportunities

    Volunteering is an activity that is available to everybody, regardless of age, economic status, or ability. Serve.gov is your online resource for not only finding volunteer opportunities in your community, but also creating your own. Use Serve.gov to help you do your part. America’s foundation will be built one community at a time –- and it starts with you.

    Tips on Becoming a Volunteer
    (adapted from materials compiled by the nonprofit coalition Independent Sector )

    1. Research the causes or issues that are important to you. Look for a group that deals with issues about which you feel strongly.
    2. Consider what you have to offer. If you enjoy outdoor work, or have a knack for teaching, you may want to look for a volunteer opportunity in which your special skills can be utilized. Similarly, you may want to think about your specific personality and how your organization skills or communication style might fit with different organizations or activities.
    3. Think outside the box! Many community groups that are looking for volunteers, like neighborhood watch programs, prisons, disaster relief organizations, youth organizations, intergenerational programs, and park services may not have occurred to you but could just be the perfect fit.
    4. There’s no need to wait to be asked. There are many ways to find organizations that are looking for volunteers. Ask your friends or colleagues about their own volunteering activities. The Internet has great online volunteer referral services, including http://www.volunteer.gov or try visiting your local volunteer center. These services can help you to find the right volunteer opportunity for you.

    C. Nutrition over the life span

    1. Dietary needs at different stages

    Nutritional needs change throughout the life cycle. Each life stage brings its own growth and nutritional needs and challenges. Meeting these demands promotes good health at each stage of the life cycle and builds a solid foundation for the future.

    • Pregnancy
    • Infants
    • Children
    • Teenagers
    • Adults
    • Seniors and older adults

    Pregnant Mothers

    • Nutrition is most important responsibility
    • Baby’s growth and development depend on nutrients from mother
    • Poor eating habits by the mother place the baby at risk
      The fetus depends on the mother for its nourishment. Maintaining good nutrition and health habits and getting proper medical care are the most important responsibilities of the pregnant mother.

    Infants

    • Grow and develop quickly in first year
    • Triple in weight
    • Brain and organs continue to develop
      A baby may grow 50 percent longer and triple in weight in the first year. A baby needs the right nourishment which may be mother’s milk or infant formula.

    Children

    • Need a regular meal schedule
    • Stomachs are small, energy levels high
    • Snacks to satisfy food needs
      Active, growing children need a regular meal schedule. Their stomachs are small and their energy levels are high so they need healthy snacks in between meals.

    Teenagers

    • Most rapid growth period
    • Dramatic physical changes
    • Fit healthful eating into busy schedules
    • Eat foods for nutrition when eating with friends
      Physical changes occur rapidly and nutritional needs increase. Iron and calcium are especially important for building muscle and bones.

    Adults

    • Want to remain independent
    • May need assistance in shopping and cooking
    • Can purchase convenience foods
    • Community may provide meal assistance
      Older adults want to stay independent for as long as possible but may need a little help. Adult bodies have stopped growing so energy needs are lower. Different adults have different food needs. Some may have health problems that require a special diet and limit foods they can eat.

    2. Relation to health, wellness, and disease

    Your food and physical activity choices each day affect your health – how you feel today, tomorrow, and in the future. Food has a powerful effect on health. Healthy food choices promote wellness. When you practice wellness, active steps are taken to stay in good health.

    Wellness

    • Good health
    • Positive well-being
    • Includes physical, mental, and emotional health
    • Reflected in attitude and behavior

    Nutrients

    • Give you energy
    • Build and repair body cells
    • Regulate body processes
    • Keep our body healthy. Includes:
      • Water
      • Vitamins
      • Water-soluble vitamins
      • Fat-soluble vitamins
      • Carbohydrates
      • Proteins
      • Minerals
      • Fats

    Recommended Dietary guidelines 2010

    • Build a healthy plate
    • Cut back on foods high in solid fats, added sugars, and salt
    • Eat the right amount of calories for you
    • Be physically active your way

    3. Food groups

    There are six lessons that follow the ChooseMyPlate food groups and nutrients:

    • ChooseMyPlate – Fruits and Water Soluble Vitamins
    • ChooseMyPlate – Vegetables and Fat Soluble Vitamins
    • ChooseMyPlate – Grains and Carbohydrates
    • ChooseMyPlate – Protein Foods and Trace Minerals
    • ChooseMyPlate – Dairy, Major Minerals, and Electrolytes
    • ChooseMyPlate – Oils and Fats

    These lessons may be taught individually in any sequence you prefer or may be taught as a whole.

    4. Factors that affect food choices

    Good nutrition effects:

    • Appearance – helps give you shiny hair, bright eyes, healthy nails and teeth, and smooth clear skin
    • Fitness – helps you stay energetic and alert throughout the day
    • Weight – helps you reach and maintain a healthy weight
    • Protection from Illness – helps your body defend against disease
    • Healing – helps the body build new cells, repair breaks and sprains, and heal after illness or surgery
    • Emotional Strength – helps your body and mind deal with stress
    • Future Health – helps you stay healthy as you grow older

    D. Food preparation and service

    1. Food safety and sanitation

    Food Safety

    Kitchens are the gathering place for many families. As parents are cooking, children are working on their homework, helping with the chores, and sharing their day. There are five main hazards that can occur in the kitchen.

    • Burns – prevent by keeping the kitchen clean. Deaths from fires and burns are the third leading cause of fatal home injury.
    • Cuts – prevent by handling and washing knives, graters, and other sharp-edged tools carefully.
    • Electrical shocks – prevent by handling cords, appliances, and chemicals carefully.
    • Falls – prevent by removing hazards that could cause slips and trips. Falls are the leading cause of non-fatal injuries for all children ages 0 to 19. Every day, approximately 8,000 children are treated in U.S. emergency rooms for fall-related injuries.
    • Poisoning – prevent by storing all household chemicals away from food and out of children’s reach. Every day, nearly 82 people die as a result of unintentional poisoning; another 1,941 are treated in emergency departments.

    Sanitation

    • Each year, 1 in 6 Americans (or 48 million people) gets sick from and 3,000 die of foodborne diseases.
    • Reducing foodborne illness by just 10% would keep 5 million Americans from getting sick each year.
    • The illness may be mild, lasting just a day or two, or even severe enough to require hospitalization. In some cases it can even result in death.

    Bacteria and Viruses

    Bacteria and viruses are the most common cause of food poisoning. The symptoms and severity of food poisoning vary, depending on which bacteria or virus has contaminated the food.
    Parasites
    Parasites are organisms that derive nourishment and protection from other living organisms known as hosts. In the United States, the most common foodborne parasites are protozoa, roundworms, and tapeworms.
    Mold, Toxins, and Contaminants
    Most food poisoning is caused by bacteria, viruses, and parasites rather than toxic substances in the food. But, some cases of food poisoning can be linked to either natural toxins or chemical toxins.
    Allergens
    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body’s immune system. Some foods, such as nuts, milk, eggs, or seafood, can cause allergic reactions in people with food allergies.

    2. Measurements and equipment

    Tools and Equipment
    A well-equipped kitchen has a variety of tools and cooking and serving equipment. You may have most of these or more. Allow your students to study what you have available.

    Tools can be divided into categories and can include:

    • Measuring Tools
      • dry measuring cups
      • liquid measuring cups
      • measuring spoons
      • measuring scale
    • Knives and cutting tools
    • Mixing, cooking, and baking tools
    • Clean up supplies

    3. Basic food preparation

    A recipe is a set of directions for making a food or beverage. A well-written recipe should have the following:

    • Recipe name
    • List of ingredients
    • Yield
    • Cooking method, temperature, and time
    • Equipment needed
    • Step-by-step directions
    • Nutrition analysis
      Recipes usually turn out best when you use each ingredient in exactly the right amount. Allow students to work with measuring dry and wet ingredients using the correct measuring cups and small amount ingredients using measuring spoons.

    As you are aware, there are many cooking terms for students to learn. Begin with the basic terms so students become familiar with the techniques required.

    Planning and preparation are a key to successful labs. Make sure to plan ahead by using:

    • grocery lists
    • lab plan sheets
    • well-written recipes

    4. Table setting and etiquette

    Basic Table Service

    A table should be set before people sit down to eat. Even a simple table setting can be special. Use the graphic organizer Basic Table Setting to teach the essential pieces of a cover.

    There are four types of table service:

    • Family Service – serving meals in which food is placed in serving dishes and passed around the table.
    • Plate Service – serving meals in which food is portioned out on individual plates in the kitchen and brought to the table.
    • Modified English Service – a more formal way of serving a meal for a small group as foods for the main course are brought to the table in serving dishes and are placed in front of the host, along with a stack of dinner plates. The host then serves the main course and vegetables on each dinner plate and passes the plate to the right to the person at the end of the table.
    • Buffet – a method of serving food in which people help themselves to food set out on a table.

    Etiquette

    The courtesy you show to others by using good manners when eating. It is an important part of serving and enjoying food.
    Knowing table etiquette can also be an asset in the working world as some job interviews and business meetings take place during a meal. View the How To videos as they include steps and tips and needed supplies.

    E. Food labels and consumer purchasing

    Understanding the Nutrition Facts Label has become an important link in maintaining our healthy lifestyles. The FDA regulates the information on food labels to make sure consumers have complete, useful, and accurate information about the foods they buy and eat.

    Nutrition Labeling and Education Act
    Requires all packaged foods to bear nutrition labeling and all health claims for foods to be consistent with terms defined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services. The law preempts state requirements about food standards, nutrition labeling, and health claims and, for the first time, authorizes some health claims for foods. The food ingredient panel, serving sizes, and terms such as “low fat” and “light” are standardized.

    Use the nutrition facts label to eat healthier

    • Check the serving size and number of servings.
      The Nutrition Facts Label information is based on ONE serving, but many packages contain more. Look at the serving size and how many servings you are actually consuming. If you double the servings you eat, you double the calories and nutrients, including the percentages of Daily Values (% DV). When you compare calories and nutrients between brands, check to see if the serving size is the same.
    • Calories count, so pay attention to the amount. This is where you’ll find the number of calories per serving and the calories from fat in each serving. Fat-free doesn’t mean calorie-free. Lower fat items may have as many calories as full-fat versions. If the label lists that 1 serving equals 3 cookies and 100 calories, and you eat 6 cookies, you’ve eaten 2 servings, or twice the number of calories and fat.
    • Look for foods that are rich in these nutrients.
      Use the label not only to limit fat and sodium, but also to increase nutrients that promote good health and may protect you from disease. Some Americans don’t get enough vitamins A and C, potassium, calcium, and iron, so choose the brand with the higher % DV for these nutrients. Get the most nutrition for your calories—compare the calories to the nutrients you would be getting to make a healthier food choice.
    • Know your fats and reduce sodium for your health.
      To help reduce your risk of heart disease, use the label to select foods that are lowest in saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol. Trans fat doesn’t have a % DV, but consume as little as possible because it increases your risk of heart disease. The % DV for total fat includes all different kinds of fats. To help lower blood cholesterol, replace saturated and trans fats with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats found in fish, nuts, and liquid vegetable oils. Limit sodium to help reduce your risk of high blood pressure.
    • Reach for healthy, wholesome carbohydrates.
      Fiber and sugars are types of carbohydrates. Healthy sources, like fruits, vegetables, beans, and whole grains, can reduce the risk of heart disease and improve digestive functioning. Whole grain foods can’t always be identified by color or name, such as multi-grain or wheat. Look for the “whole” grain listed first in the ingredient list, such as whole wheat, brown rice, or whole oats. There isn’t a % DV for sugar, but you can compare the sugar content in grams among products. Limit foods with added sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose, corn or maple syrup), which add calories but no other nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals. Make sure that added sugars are not one of the first few items in the ingredients list.
    • For protein, choose foods that are lower in fat.
      Most Americans get plenty of protein, but not always from the healthiest sources. When choosing a food for its protein content, such as meat, poultry, dry beans, milk and milk products, make choices that are lean, low-fat, or fat free. The % Daily Value is a key to a balanced diet.
    • The % DV is a general guide to help you link nutrients in a serving of food to their contribution to your total daily diet. It can help you determine if a food is high or low in a nutrient—5% or less is low, 20% or more is high. You can use the % DV to make dietary trade-offs with other foods throughout the day. The * is a reminder that the % DV is based on a 2,000-calorie diet. You may need more or less, but the % DV is still a helpful gauge.
  • F. Careers in family and community services

    Career Clusters: A groupings of occupations/career specialties used as an organizing tool for curriculum design and instruction. Occupations/career specialties are grouped into the Career Clusters based on the fact that they require a set of common knowledge and skills for career success. The Knowledge and Skills represented by Career Clusters prepare learners for a full range of occupations/career specialties, focusing on the holistic, polished blend of technical, academic and employability knowledge and skills. This approach enhances the more traditional approach to career and technical education in which instruction may focus on one or two occupations and emphasize only specific occupational skills.

    Careers in Human Services cluster under Family and Community Services:

    • Chief Executives
    • Family, and School Social Workers
    • Childcare Workers
    • City and Regional Planning Aides
    • Clergy
    • Counselors, All Other
    • Directors, Religious Activities and Education
    • Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs
    • Emergency Management Directors
    • Farm and Home Management Advisor
    • Healthcare Social Workers
    • Home Economics Teachers, Postsecondary
    • Legislators
    • Managers, All Other
    • Marriage and Family Therapists
    • Political Scientists
    • Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists
    • Protective Service Workers, All Other
    • Residential Advisors
    • Social and Community Service Managers
    • Social and Human Service Assistants
    • Sociologists
    • Social Science Research Assistants
    • Social Scientists and Related Workers, All
    • Social Work Teachers, Postsecondary
    • Social Workers, All Other

    G. Future trends in family and community services

    Job Outlook for Careers in Family and Community Services:

    • Employment of social and community service managers is expected to grow by 27 percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations. Growth is expected due to increases in the aging population, increases in demand for substance abuse treatment, and overall population growth.
    • Employment of health educators is expected to grow by 37 percent from 2010 to 2020, much faster than the average for all occupations. Growth will be driven by efforts to reduce healthcare costs by teaching people about healthy habits and behaviors.
    • Employment of mental health counselors is expected to grow by 36 percent from 2010 to 2020, much faster than the average for all occupations. Employment of marriage and family therapists is expected to grow by 41 percent from 2010 to 2020, much faster than the average for all occupations. Growth is expected as the overall population grows and as insurance companies increasingly provide for reimbursement of counselors and marriage and family therapists as a less costly alternative to psychiatrists and psychologists.
    • Employment of probation officers and correctional treatment specialists is expected to grow by 18 percent from 2010 to 2020, about as fast as average for all occupations. Continued growth in the demand for probation and parole services will lead to new openings for officers.
    • Employment of rehabilitation counselors is expected to grow by 28 percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations. Demand for rehabilitation counselors is expected to grow with the increase in the elderly population and with the continued rehabilitation needs of other groups, such as veterans and people with disabilities.
    • Employment of school and career counselors is expected to grow by 19 percent from 2010 to 2020, about as fast as the average for all occupations. The number of students attending schools at all levels is expected to increase during the projections decade, boosting demand for both school and career counselors.
    • Employment of social and human service assistants is expected to grow by 28 percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations. There should be good job prospects, as low pay and heavy workloads cause many workers to leave this occupation.
    • Employment of social workers is expected to grow by 25 percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations. Growth will be due to an increase in demand for health care and social services but will vary by specialty.
    • Employment of substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors is expected to grow by 27 percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations. Growth is expected as more people seek treatment for their addictions or other behaviors and drug offenders are increasingly sentenced to treatment rather than jail time.
    • Employment of sociologists is expected to grow 18 percent from 2010 to 2020, about as fast as the average for all occupations. However, jobseekers should face competition for most positions because of the relatively small size of the occupation.
    • Employment of postsecondary teachers is expected to grow by 17 percent from 2010 to 2020, about as fast as the average for all occupations. Growth is expected as enrollments at postsecondary institutions at all levels continue to rise.
    • Employment of political scientists is expected to grow 8 percent from 2010 to 2020, slower than the average for all occupations. Employment will increase in response to a growing interest in public policy and political issues. However, because the number of students graduating with degrees in political science is growing, candidates should face strong competition for most positions.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module V Handouts

    • Basic Functions of the Family
    • Basic Functions of the Family (Key)
    • Basic Table Setting
    • Basic Table Setting (Key)
    • Be a Healthy Role Model
    • Comparing and Contrasting Family Structures
    • Diet Plans
    • Eating Better on a Budget
    • Effects of Good Nutrition
    • Effects of Good Nutrition (Key)
    • Getting Started with MyPlate
    • Hand Washing Steps
    • Hand Washing Steps (Key)
    • Human Services Career Wanted
    • Inside the Package
    • Jigsaw Nutrition Puzzle
    • Kid Friendly Veggies and Fruits
    • Note Taking Template
    • Parts of a Recipe
    • PR Career Exploration Internet Activity
    • Rubric for Family Flyer
    • Rubric for Laboratory Experience – Nutrition Over the Life Span
    • Sample Menus 2000 Calories
    • Sanitation and Food Safety Rules
    • Teacher Instructions for Inside Outside Circles Activity
    • Today’s Families Note-Taking
    • Traditions – The Tie That Binds
    • Ups and Downs of Careers in Human Services
    • What Did You Learn Today?

    For additional handouts, visit:

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Distribute graphic organizer Hand Washing Steps. Allow students to complete the steps.
    • Demonstrate how to properly wash your hands and then have students practice this on their own. Encourage them to sing the Happy Birthday song twice or sing the ABC song as they wash their hands.
    • If available, the Glo Germ™ kit may be used at this time to reinforce the importance of hand washing. Follow directions on the product.
    • Demonstrate the difference between cleaning and sanitizing. Have a student wipe off a counter top or table with a dry towel. Ask students if the area is clean enough for food prep? Why or why not?
      Demonstrate making a simple sanitizing solution.
    • For Teachers only Sanitizing solution: Add 1 teaspoon regular household bleach to 1 quart (4 cups) of tap water in a large spray bottle. Sanitize counters, cutting boards, tables, and utensils. before and after use. Solution can be made in a large container and then poured carefully into smaller spray bottles.
    • How to Make a Bleach Sanitizing Solution
      eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_4867154_make-bleach-sanitizing-solution.html#ixzz24vmmL8Ik
    • Stress the importance of sanitation and it’s connection to preventing many foodborne illnesses.
      Discuss which areas of the lab are expected to be sanitized and whose job it is to sanitize these areas. Stress sanitizing areas BEFORE and AFTER food preparation, and setting tables.
    • Distribute handout Inside the Package. Assign the students to find a nutrition facts label from any food/snack/beverage they have consumed. Students should transfer the information to the handout in the correct sections and attach the empty package for verification.
    • Distribute graphic organizer Ups and Downs of Careers in Human Services. Allow students time to answer.
    • Distribute graphic organizer Human Services Career Wanted and explain to students to choose one of the Programs of Study Models they may be interested in as a career. Allow them to document the career from the bottom level to the top. Explain that any level attained is to be congratulated but to always be prepared for the top. Give examples.
    • Distribute several copies of the graphic organizer Diet Plans. Students will research from reliable internet sources, diet plans for their choice in each category:
      • life cycle
      • activity level
      • nutritional needs
      • portion control
      • food budget
      • therapeutic
    • Display a sample menu from the ChooseMyPlate website Sample Menus 2000 Calories
    • Distribute handouts Be a Healthy Role Model, Eat Better on a Budget, Kid Friendly Veggies and Fruits and Tips for Pregnant Moms and allow time for students to read the tips. These handouts may be placed in a personal cookbook or notebook.
    • Read handout Getting Started with MyPlate to become familiar with USDA’s ChooseMyPlate website.
    • Introduce students to the SuperTracker on ChooseMyPlate.gov
      http://www.choosemyplate.gov/supertracker-tools/supertracker.html .Allow students to navigate the website and explore the tools available.
      • Food-A-Pedia
        Look up nutrition info for over 8,000 foods and compare foods side-by-side.
      • Food Tracker
        Track the foods you eat and compare to your nutrition targets.
      • Physical Activity Tracker
        Enter your activities and track progress as you move.
      • My Weight Manager
        Get weight management guidance; enter your weight and track progress over time.
      • My Top 5 Goals
        Choose up to 5 personal goals; sign up for tips and support from your virtual coach.
      • My Reports
        Use reports to see how you are meeting goals and view your trends over time.
    • Students will work individually and design a poster comparing and evaluating the nutritional value of two fast food items/meals from their favorite establishments or convenience stores. Examples may include hamburger, fries, soft drink (icee), chicken nuggets, etc.
    • Students will research the nutritional facts for the particular items using the internet or available brochures from local fast food establishments and evaluate and determine the healthier choice. Empty packages or illustrations of food items may be attached to the poster. Student findings will be presented to the class. Students may also be encouraged to provide healthier alternatives to the fast food items/meals.
    • Invite a registered dietitian to speak to the class about reading the nutrition facts label and the dangers of too much fast food.
    • Have students investigate individuals, groups, or associations available in their community to help people with diabetes, eating disorders, or food allergies. Have students create a phone list of agencies and organizations that can be distributed to the school and local community.
    • Have students complete Effects of Good Nutrition and complete the circles with a description for each effect of good nutrition.
    • Distribute Breaking Down a Recipe handout. Prepare students to take notes while viewing the slide presentation for lesson Recipe for Success: Breaking Down a Standardized Recipe.

    References and Resources

    Textbooks

    • Jackson, L., (2003). Careers In Focus. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Wilcox Company.
    • Kelly-Plate, J., & Eubanks, E., (2004). Today’s Teen. New York, NY: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.
    • Ryder/ Harder. (2004). Contemporary Living. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart- Wilcox Company.
    • Wehlage/Larson-Kennedy. (2001). Goals for Living. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Wilcox Company.

    Websites

    • Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
      The world’s largest organization of food and nutrition professionals
      http://eatright.org
    • CTE – Learning that works for America Nationwide, Career Technical Education (CTE) programs are changing, evolving and innovating to better serve the country’s needs.
      http://www.careertech.org/
    • Finding Balance
      Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP)
      Running Time: (4:07) Release Date: 7/13/2009
      More than one third of U.S. adults are obese. Weight gain occurs when you consume more calories than your body uses. Reaching and maintaining a healthy weight will help you prevent and control many diseases and conditions. The key is FINDING A BALANCE in your lifestyle that includes healthy eating and regular physical activity.
      http://www.cdc.gov/CDCTV/FindingBalance/index.html
    • Make Your Calories Count
      Use the Nutrition Facts Label for Healthy Weight Management
      Make Your Calories Count is an interactive learning program that provides consumers with information to help plan a healthful diet while managing calorie intake. The exercises will help consumers use the food label to make decisions about which food choice is right for them. For simplicity, the program presents two nutrients that should be limited (saturated fat and sodium) and two nutrients that should be consumed in adequate amounts (fiber and calcium.)
      http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/videos/CFSAN/HWM/hwmintro.cfm
    • My Next Move
      An interactive tool for job seekers and students to learn more about their career options
      http://www.mynextmove.org/
    • O*NET OnLine Detailed descriptions of the world of work for use by job seekers, workforce development and HR professionals, students, researchers, and more!
      http://www.onetonline.org/
    • The Obesity Epidemic
      Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Running Time: (7:13) Release Date: 07/22/2011
      This video explains the many factors that have contributed to the obesity epidemic, and showcases several community initiatives taking place to prevent and reduce obesity. Obesity is a national epidemic and a major contributor to some of the leading causes of death in the U.S., including heart disease, stroke, diabetes and some types of cancer. We need to change our communities into places that strongly support healthy eating and active living.
      http://www.cdc.gov/CDCTV/ObesityEpidemic/index.html
    • Tips for a Safe and Healthy Life
      U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      http://www.cdc.gov/family/tips

    YouTube™

    • Introducing the New Food Icon: MyPlate
      The Department of Agriculture introduces the new food icon, MyPlate, to replace the MyPyramid image as the government’s primary food group symbol. An easy-to-understand visual cue to help consumers adopt healthy eating habits, MyPlate is consistent with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
      http://youtu.be/SEFmSk08LIE
    • SuperTracker – Getting Started: How to get My Plan
      USDA Food and Nutrition
      Learn how to get a plan using SuperTracker, an online tool where you can get a personalized nutrition and activity plan, track your foods and activities to see how they stack up, and get tips and support to help you make healthier choices.
      http://youtu.be/MukLDO5kGh8

    Module V: Family and Community Services Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. In light of the changing demographics of marriage and family life, social scientists and popular media and press have been debating whether the modern family is _____________ or “in the process of change” in order to adapt to contemporary society.

    • a. “stable”
    • b. “unstable”
    • c. “in decline”
    • d. “uprising”

    2. ________________ has long been a common ethic in the United States, with people each year giving their time without any expectation of compensation.

    • a. Internships
    • b. Community support
    • c. Community choices
    • d. Volunteering

    3. ___________ needs change throughout the life cycle. Each life stage brings its own growth and nutritional needs and challenges.

    • a. Family
    • b. Nutritional
    • c. Societal
    • d. Financial

    4. Requires all packaged foods to bear nutrition labeling and all health claims for foods to be consistent with terms defined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

    • a. Nutritional Labeling Act
    • b. Labeling Act of 2011
    • c. Nutrition Labeling and Education Act
    • d. Nutritional Labeling and Education Law

    5. Employment of school and career counselors is expected to grow by _________ percent from 2010 to 2020, about as fast as the average for all occupations. The number of students attending schools at all levels is expected to increase during the projected decade, boosting demand for both school and career counselors.

    • a. 18
    • b. 19
    • c. 29
    • d. 22

  • VI. Personal Care Services

    TEKS Addressed

    (6) The student demonstrates the skills necessary to enhance personal and career effectiveness in personal care services.

    • (A) explore new and emerging technologies that may affect personal care services
    • (B) investigate the specific state requirements for licensure in personal care services
    • (C) create records, including electronic, of client services to retrieve personal care client information
    • (D) examine different types of media to achieve maximum impact on targeted client populations
    • (E) describe rewards, demands and future trends in personal care services
    • (F) identify employment and entrepreneurial opportunities and preparation requirements in the areas of personal interests

    Module Content

    The Personal Care Services is the sixth module of study in the Principles of Human Services course. This module contains seven TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Life skills needed for success
      • 1. Communication skills
      • 2. Professional image
    • B. TDLR laws, rules, and regulations
    • C. Cosmetology career effectiveness
      • 1. Customer service
      • 2. Clerical development
      • 3. Front desk salon operator
      • 4. Bookkeeping strategies
      • 5. Salon management
    • D. Marketing and public relations
      • 1. Public speaking
      • 2. Salon demographic exploration
      • 3. Project; oral presentations
      • 4. Leadership projections
    • E. Salon fundamentals
    • F. Employment opportunities in personal care services
    • G. Future trends in personal care services

    Module VI Handouts

    A. Life skills needed for success

    1. Communication skills

    People and communication skills

    • 85% of your success
    • Personal image and hygiene
    • Goal setting
    • Reliability and punctuality
    • Communication
    • Sales capability

    Student assets include:

    • Aspiration – strong desire, longing, or aim; ambition
    • Teamwork – cooperative or coordinated effort on the part of a group of persons acting together as a team or in the interests of a common cause
    • Determination – the act of coming to a decision or of fixing or settling a purpose
    • Dedication – the state of being dedicated: Her dedication to cosmetology was so great that she had time for little else.

    2. Professional image

    Good health, fitness, and overall professional image are crucial to the cosmetology business. If students want to enjoy financial success in this field, they must look the part, act the part, and live the part. Remember, however, that the personal image (that which you wish to project while at home or enjoying free time) may not be the image required of you on the job. The professional image is the impression you project and the conduct you exhibit in the workplace.

    Maintaining a healthy body and mind are both critical for projecting the best possible image whether in your personal or your professional environment. There are some general guidelines that will help you do just that. The importance of your professional image can benefit the attainment of your success.

    B. TDLR laws, rules, and regulations

    TDLR Requirements
    Application – TDLR requirement: Student must complete the form and pay the required fee.
    Student permits – TDLR Law, Sec. 1602.266.
    The department shall require a student enrolled in a school of cosmetology in this state to hold a permit stating the student’s name and the name of the school. The permit shall be displayed in a reasonable manner at the school. The department shall issue a student permit to an applicant who submits an application to the department for a student permit accompanied by the required fee.

    Licensing requirements – 1500 total clock hours
    a. 1000 clock hours in the school
    b. 500 academic hours awarded upon graduation with completion of 1000 lab/class hours
    c. Required practical applications
    d. Master the written and practical state exam

    C. Cosmetology career effectiveness

    1. Customer service

    Customer and Personal Service — Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services. This includes customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for services, and evaluation of customer satisfaction.

    English Language — Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.

    Chemistry — Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.

    2. Clerical development

    Skills

    • Active Listening — giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times
    • Service Orientation — actively looking for ways to help people
    • Critical Thinking — using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems
    • Speaking — talking to others to convey information effectively
    • Active Learning — understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making
    • Judgment and Decision-Making — considering the relative costs and benefits of potential actions to choose the most appropriate one
    • Social Perceptiveness — being aware of others’ reactions and understanding why they react as they do
    • Complex Problem Solving — identifying complex problems and reviewing related information to develop and evaluate options and implement solutions
    • Coordination — adjusting actions in relation to others’ actions
    • Monitoring — monitoring/assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action

    Abilities

    • Arm-Hand Steadiness — the ability to keep your hand and arm steady while moving your arm or while holding your arm and hand in one position
    • Manual Dexterity — the ability to quickly move your hand, your hand together with your arm, or your two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects
    • Finger Dexterity — the ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects
    • Oral Comprehension — the ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences
    • Near Vision — the ability to see details at close range (within a few feet of the observer)
    • Oral Expression — the ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand
    • Originality — the ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem
    • Speech Recognition — the ability to identify and understand the speech of another person
    • Visualization — the ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged
    • Fluency of Ideas — the ability to come up with a number of ideas about a topic (the number of ideas is important, not their quality, correctness, or creativity)

    3. Front desk salon operator

    Work Context

    • Freedom to Make Decisions — How much decision making freedom, without supervision, does the job offer?
    • Structured versus Unstructured Work — To what extent is this job structured for the worker, rather than allowing the worker to determine tasks, priorities, and goals?
    • Face-to-Face Discussions — How often do you have to have face-to-face discussions with individuals or teams in this job?
    • Spend Time Standing — How much does this job require standing?
    • Spend Time Making Repetitive Motions — How much does this job require making repetitive motions?
    • Spend Time Using Your Hands to Handle, Control, or Feel Objects, Tools, or Controls — How much does this job require using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
    • Deal With External Customers — How important is it to work with external customers or the public in this job?
    • Exposed to Contaminants — How often does this job require working exposed to contaminants (such as pollutants, gases, dust or odors)?

    4. Bookkeeping strategies

    Financial Policies

    As part of the job description, a salon manager must adhere to the owner’s financial policies and ensure that all cosmetologists follow those guidelines. In some salons, a hairdresser pays a monthly fee for the salon space and in others she pays a portion of her sales. Depending on the financial structure of the salon, cosmetologists may be required to report tips. As the manager, you must keep financial records, make deposits, issue payroll, pay vendors and ensure salon invoices are paid. Accounting software can help you report and track all of this information.

    Inventory Management

    Product sales are a significant part of managing a beauty salon. To ensure that shampoos, conditioners, styling products and other cosmetics are available for customer purchase, you must keep inventory of your product lines. Inventory lets you know what products are most popular and what products need to be ordered and re-stocked. You also need products for in-store salon use, so it’s best to keep a separate inventory for those product demands. Computer software can also help with inventory reporting and assessment.

    5. Salon management

    Work Environment

    • Barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists work in salons or spas, and often stand for long periods.
    • Barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists held about 712,200 jobs in 2010. Nearly half were self-employed.

    Employment in the detailed occupations that make up barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists was distributed as follows:

    • Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists 627,700
    • Barbers 62,200
    • Shampooers 22,300
    • Barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists work mostly in a barbershop or salon, although some work in a spa, hotel, or resort. Some lease booth space in other people’s salons. Some manage salons or open their own after several years of experience.
    • Barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists usually work in pleasant surroundings with good lighting. Physical stamina is important, because they are on their feet for most of their shift. Prolonged exposure to some chemicals may cause irritation, so they might wear protective clothing, such as disposable gloves or aprons.

    Work Schedules

    Many barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists work part-time. However, some self-employed workers may have long hours. Work schedules often include evenings and weekends when barbershops and beauty salons are busiest. Those who are self-employed usually determine their own schedules.

    Licenses

    All states require barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists to be licensed. Qualifications for a license vary by state; but generally, a person must have a high school diploma or equivalent, be at least 16 years old, and have graduated from a state-licensed barber or cosmetology school. After graduating from a state-approved training program, students take a state licensing exam. The exam includes a written test and, in some cases, a practical test of styling skills or an oral exam.

    In many states, cosmetology training may be credited toward a barbering license, and vice versa, and a few states combine the two licenses. A fee is usually required to apply for a license, and periodic license renewals may be necessary.

    Some states have reciprocity agreements that allow licensed barbers and cosmetologists to get a license in another state without needing additional formal training, but such agreements are uncommon. Consequently, people who want to work in a particular state should review the laws of that state before entering a training program.

    D. Marketing and public relations

    Job Prospects

    Overall job opportunities for barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists are expected to be good. A large number of job openings will stem from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations, retire, or leave the occupations for other reasons. However, workers should expect stiff competition for jobs and clients at higher paying salons, of which there are relatively few and for which applicants must compete with a large pool of experienced hairdressers and cosmetologists.

    Because employment of shampooers is expected to decline, job opportunities should be somewhat limited, available only from the need to replace those who leave the occupation.

    1. Public speaking

    • Telephone — How often do you have telephone conversations in this job?
    • Contact With Others — How much does this job require the worker to be in contact with others (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) in order to perform it?

    2. Salon demographic exploration

    Job Outlook

    Overall employment of barbers, hairdressers, cosmetologists, and shampooers is expected to grow 14 percent from 2010 to 2020, as fast as the average for all occupations. Growth rates will vary by specialty.

    Employment of barbers is projected to grow 7 percent, slower than the average for all occupations. The need for barbers will stem primarily from an increasing population, which will lead to greater demand for basic hair-care services.

    Employment of hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists is projected to grow 16 percent, about as fast as the average for all occupations. Demand for hair coloring, hair straightening, and other advanced hair treatments has increased in recent years, a trend that is expected to continue over the coming decade.

    Employment of shampooers is projected to decline 9 percent as more barbers, hairdressers, and hairstylists perform shampooing services themselves.

    3. Project; oral presentations

    Customer-service skills: To help retain clients, barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists must be pleasant, friendly, and able to interact with customers.

    4. Leadership projections

    Important Qualities

    Creativity: Barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists must keep up with the latest trends and be able to try new hairstyles for their clients.

    Listening skills: Barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists should be good listeners. They must listen carefully to what the client wants to make sure the client is happy with the result.

    Stamina: Barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists must be able to stand on their feet for long periods of time. Manicurists sit for a long periods and work bent over.

    Time-management skills: Time management skills are important when scheduling appointments and providing services. For example, routine haircuts and trims do not require the precise timing of some other services, such as applying neutralizer after a permanent wave. Clients who receive timely hair care service are more likely to return.

    In addition, barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists must keep a neat personal appearance and must keep their work area clean and sanitary. This is necessary for the health and safety of their clients, as well as to make clients comfortable enough to want to return.

    A salon manager is responsible for hiring and supervising staff. When you interview job candidates, ask them to provide their cosmetology credentials and verify their work experience. It’s advisable to request a job-related reference to ensure there are no job-related concerns. As the staff supervisor, you must ensure that employees dress according to salon standards, conduct themselves professionally and follow salon rules. When these standards aren’t met, the responsibility falls on you to reprimand or fire the offending employee.

    E. Salon fundamentals

    Client Satisfaction

    One of the most important roles of a salon manager is to keep a strong client base and ensure customer satisfaction. As a salon manager, you must talk to clients with a friendly tone and engage them in conversation. If a client is disgruntled with a cosmetic service, address her with a polite and apologetic response, making every attempt to resolve the issue. Greet customers when they enter the salon, making eye contact and showing genuine interest in their beauty care needs.

    Salon Upkeep

    Customers notice if a salon is dirty, disorganized and in need of repair. Managers must ensure the facilities are well-maintained. As the manager, establish policies that require your cosmetologists to sweep up hair after every cut, organize their workspace and discard trash. Hire a professional cleaning staff to clean the floors, bathrooms, sink areas and mirrors on a regular basis. You can creatively design the waiting area so current reading materials and comfortable seating are available to your clients.

    F. Employment opportunities in personal care services

    Careers in human services vary greatly. They include careers in the healthcare field, retail and consumer services, personal care, government service and many specific areas. In the blue state government pages of your telephone book under Human Services you can locate contact information for companies and departments in your community. Many services include special populations such as aging services, child abuse, mental health, youth corrections, neglect services, crisis centers, service oriented clubs like the Lions, Rotary, Kiwanis, along with national service organizations such as the Volunteers of America, American Red Cross and many more.

    Access the resources for unpaid internship programs
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/resources/resources-for-practicum-in-human-services/

    A Career in Hairstyling: When students finish Cosmetology, take and pass the state exam; the opportunities are limitless.
    Barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists typically do the following:

    • Inspect hair, face, and scalp, to recommend treatment
    • Discuss hairstyle options
    • Wash, color, and condition hair
    • Cut or trim, dry, and style hair
    • Receive payments from clients
    • Clean and sanitize all tools and work areas

    Barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists focus on providing hair and beauty services to enhance clients’ appearance. Those who operate their own barbershops or salons have managerial duties that may include hiring, supervising, and firing workers, as well as keeping business and inventory records, ordering supplies, and arranging for advertising.

    Barbers cut, trim, shampoo, and style hair, mostly for male clients. They also may fit hairpieces and offer facial shaving. In every state, barbers are licensed to color, bleach, and highlight hair and to offer permanent-wave services. Common tools include combs, scissors, and clippers.

    Hairdressers, or hairstylists, offer a wide range of hair services, such as shampooing, cutting, coloring, and styling. They often advise clients, both male and female, on how to care for their hair at home. They also keep records of products and services provided to clients, such as hair color, shampoo, conditioner, and hair treatment used. Tools include hairbrushes, scissors, blow dryers, and curling irons.

    Cosmetologists provide scalp and facial treatments and makeup analysis. Some also clean and style wigs and hairpieces. A growing number actively sell skin care products.

    Shampooers wash and rinse customers’ hair so a hairstylist can cut and style it.

    • Haircolor specialist: Specializes in hair color and training other stylist
    • Texture specialist: Specializes in texture services such as chemical relaxers and perm waving, training other stylists
    • Haircutting specialist: Specializes in cutting hair and training other stylists, always continuing to learn
    • Salon trainer: Hired by a product chain or a large salon chain to work as a salon trainer
    • Distributor sales consultant: Hired by a distributor to perform training on products and techniques used in the salons you service
    • Cosmetology instructor: After working in the field, you may feel called to share your knowledge with others. You can do that by teaching in a cosmetology school
    • Salon management: Hired by large salon chain to manage the shop, order products, inventory, department head and run the business
    • Other Career Opportunities: Distributor, freelance makeup artist, hairstyling or nail tech for photo shoots, film, retail sales, medical esthetician

    G. Future trends in personal care services

    The field of cosmetology offers endless opportunities and a variety of career pathways to choose from. It is interesting to know that the industry grossed $59.4 billion in revenue in 2005. If you are willing to work hard, be dependable, ambitious, develop technical skill and personal characteristics, you can enjoy a “chunk” of this money. Knowing where this industry came from will help you develop into a successful professional in the future.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module VI Handouts

    • 90 Second Speech Topic
    • Chit Chat
    • Client Consultation Card
    • Connect the Dots Careers in Personal Care Services
    • Cosmetology Graphic Organizer
    • Handout Focus Sheet
    • Handout Speech Topic
    • KWL Graphic Organizer
    • Nail Salon Workers Guide
    • Rubric for Salon Advertisement Flyer
    • Slide Presentation Notes

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Distribute Chit Chat handout. As a class, discuss the chit chat topics.
    • Use of Focus Sheet as an English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Strategy.
    • Divide the students into groups. Have each group construct a collage depicting the cosmetology industry as it appears to them. Groups must include two to four words from the word wall and be prepared to present and explain the finished product. Provide each group with a poster board, markers, magazines, newspapers, and scissors. If you have access to a computer lab, allow students to create an electronic collage poster project: http://www.glogster.com.
    • Instruct students to interview one or more stylists in the community and ask three to five questions about their chosen career.
    • Invite stylists and salon owners as guest speakers.
    • Use Handout Speech Topic. the students will select on topic – The century that interests me the most”and “A cosmetology professional is . . .”
    • Use Cosmetology Graphic Organizer as a note-taking tool.
    • Students will complete KWL Graphic Organizer to determine their knowledge on the subject matter. Know, Want to Know, Learned chart can be used to activate prior knowledge before reading or learning about a topic. The final column can be filled end during lesson closure.
    • Communication activity – 90 second speech topics. Students will use 90 Second Speech Topic handout to determine topics.

    References and Resources

    Textbooks

    • lpert, Arlene, and Milady Publishing Company. Miladys Standard Cosmetology 2004. Milady Pub Corp, 2002.

    Websites

    YouTube™

    • How to Create a Professional Image
      The Palm Beach State College Career Centers are committed to educating and assisting students in developing, evaluating and implementing career plans!
      http://youtu.be/hP0dqUWg8vc

    Module VI: Personal Care Services Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Licensing requirements – 1500 total clock hours include the following:

    • a. 1000 clock hours in the school
    • b. 500 academic hours awarded upon graduation with completion of 1000 lab/class hours
    • c. Required practical applications and master the written and practical state exam
    • d. All of the above

    2. ___________________ are important when scheduling appointments and providing services. For example, routine haircuts and trims do not require the precise timing of some other services, such as applying neutralizer after a permanent wave.

    • a. Management skills
    • b. Client skills
    • c. Time management skills
    • d. Master skills

    3. As the manager, establish _____________ that require your cosmetologists to sweep up hair after every cut, organize their workspace and discard trash.

    • a. a schedule
    • b. policies
    • c. rules
    • d. demands

    4. Specializes in cutting hair and training other stylists, always continuing to learn.

    • a. Salon trainer
    • b. Texture specialist
    • c. Haircutting specialist
    • d. Barber

    5. Barbers, hairdressers, and cosmetologists must be able to stand on their feet for long periods of time is called ___________.

    • a. specialist
    • b. standards
    • c. stability
    • d. stamina

  • Quiz

    Principles of Human Services Online Course

    Progress:

    1. TEKS stands for ______________.

    2. CTE stands for_______________.

    3. Learning to manage conflict is difficult, because _________ often control our reactions during conflict.

    4. Students are to identify employment and entrepreneurial opportunities and preparation requirements in the areas of personal interest in all of the following areas except ____________.

    5. Opportunities for leadership, qualities of leaders, types of leaders, and importance of teamwork are all sections of the _________________________ unit of the course scope and sequence.

    6. Investigating sustainable techniques for managing resources addresses the importance of consumer __________ and ______________.

    7. Analyzing consumer buying ______________ that promote effective use of resources includes knowing when and where to shop.

    8. Technology is useful for managing resources. Which of the following is not a method of technologically managing resources?

    9. The consumer services module applies the decision-making process in planning the allocation and use of finances by addressing the _________________.

    10. The decision-making process should be used in planning the ____________ and ________ of finances.

    11. Which of the following is not a type or stage of the family life cycle?

    12. Mental health - the successful performance of mental function, is resulting in ________________.

    13. A family crisis usually has which distinct phases?

    14. A child psychologist must be good with children. Some common traits are _________________.

    15. Understanding how various __________ may influence children helps the parents and caregivers know how best to relate to them.

    16. The basic needs of children do not include which of the following?

    17. Analyzing the responsibilities of caregivers should not include which of the following?

    18. With depression, the __________, frequency, and duration of symptoms vary depending on the individual and his or her particular illness.

    19. When polling college recruiters, _____ cited image as the reason they reject qualified candidates. Proper dress/appearance may not be a reason for getting a job - however, improper dress/appearance is the most common reason candidates do not get a job.

    20. Responsible decision-making is not consistent with which of the following?

    21. The student demonstrates the skills necessary to enhance personal and career ______________ in family and community services.

    22. It is important to establish long-term and short-term goals that are_______________.

    23. Thinking skills important to employers include:

    24. Each life stage brings its own growth and nutritional needs and challenges.

    25. Maintaining good nutrition and health habits and getting proper medical care are the most important responsibilities of the pregnant mother.

    26. The most common résumé. It lists and highlights your work experience, education, and personal information.

    27. Maintaining a healthy body and mind are both critical for projecting the best possible ____________ whether in your personal or your professional environment.

    28. The personal care services module has students investigate TDLR laws, rules and regulations based on which of the following student expectations.

    29. Most of the developmental milestones occur in a _____________ order and transpire in specific time frames allowing assistance to be provided to children with special needs as considered necessary.

    30. Students will examine different types of media to achieve maximum impact on targeted client ___________________.

    31. __________________ development includes all of the brain’s activities and functions such as memory, perception, problem solving, decision-making and imagining.

    32. The ____________ style of parenting involves a combination of rules and structure balanced with love and nurturing.

    33. A caregiver should be able to analyze _____________ and problem behavior in children in order to identify guidance techniques which promote positive behavior.

    34. In preparing to apply for a job, students should demonstrate how to prepare a résumé and how to successfully complete a job application.

    35. Child abuse and neglect are serious problems in our country, and there are presently no signs of the problem getting any better. Over ______ million reports of child abuse are made every year in the United States, involving an estimated 6 million children.

    36. In light of the changing demographics of marriage and family life, social scientists and popular media and press have been debating whether the modern family is _____________ or “in the process of change” in order to adapt to contemporary society.

    37. ________________ has long been a common ethic in the United States, with people each year giving their time without any expectation of compensation.

    38. ___________ needs change throughout the life cycle. Each life stage brings its own growth and nutritional needs and challenges.

    39. Requires all packaged foods to bear nutrition labeling and all health claims for foods to be consistent with terms defined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

    40. Employment of school and career counselors is expected to grow by _________ percent from 2010 to 2020, about as fast as the average for all occupations. The number of students attending schools at all levels is expected to increase during the projected decade, boosting demand for both school and career counselors.

    41. The nuclear family model which consists of a biological mother, a biological father, and their biological or adopted children comprises only _____ of families today.

    42. The intangible benefits alone - such as ____________, __________, and ____________ - are worthwhile reasons to serve as a volunteer.

    43. A baby may grow _____ percent longer and triple in weight in the first year. A baby needs the right nourishment which may be mother’s milk or infant formula.

    44. Nutrients help keep your body healthy by:

    45. Each year, ________ Americans (or 48 million people) gets sick from and 3,000 die of foodborne diseases.

    46. The Knowledge and Skills represented by Career Clusters prepare learners for a full range of occupations/career specialties, focusing on the holistic, polished blend of technical, academic and employability knowledge and skills.

    47. _______________ – cooperative or coordinated effort on the part of a group of persons acting together as a team or in the interests of a common cause.

    48. Licensing requirements – 1500 total clock hours include the following:

    49. ______________ specializes in texture services such as chemical relaxers and perm waving, training other stylists.

    50. The field of cosmetology offers endless opportunities and a variety of ________________ to choose from. It is interesting to know that the industry grossed $59.4 billion in revenue in 2005.

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