Interpersonal Studies Online Course

  • Interpersonal Studies Online Course Introduction

    This self-paced professional development course will provide you with a thorough overview of the TEKS for the Interpersonal Studies course (one-half to one credit). The suggested scope and sequence for this course is divided into twelve modules. Each module will be explored and you will be provided with resources, references, suggested teaching strategies, and a brief assessment.

    Students will identify this course as part of a Career and Technical Education (CTE) program of study, understand that CTE in Texas is organized around 16 career clusters and 79 career pathways, and that Interpersonal Studies is one of 12 courses in the Human Services career cluster that equips students with:

    • core academic skills
    • employability skills
    • job specific technical skills

    Interpersonal Studies is a class designed to give students an overview of family studies and human development to enhance personal development, foster quality relationships, promote wellness of family members, manage multiple adult roles and pursue careers related to counseling and mental health services.

    Important
    This online course consists of an introduction and twelve modules. Carefully read all course content to become familiar with the TEKS, student expectations, published lessons, and suggested activities. Names of handouts, graphic organizers, slide presentations appear in bold letters. Refer to attachments at the end of each module for additional information. 12 pre-assessment multiple choice statements can be found at the end of the Introduction. Each module ends with five multiple choice statements.

    After completing the course you will be required to complete a 50 question quiz and submit your name and email address. You will receive a certificate of completion at that address.

    The certificates for the successful completion of the online courses are NOT automatically computer generated and are reviewed individually. Certificates will be generated Monday through Friday between the hours of 8:00am and 5:00pm.
    For questions, contact: sfacte@gmail.com

    As approved by the Texas Education Agency, a passing score of 80 is required to receive a certificate equalling six (6) Continuing Professional Education (CPE) credits.

    Refer to the Introductory Lesson: Interpersonal Studies for an introduction to Career and Technical Education, Career Clusters™, coherent sequence of courses, and programs of study.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/introductory-lesson-interpersonal-studies/

    Interpersonal Studies Pre-Assessment Questions:

    1. Factors which affect personal identity, personality, and self-esteem are________________.

    • a. physical, emotional, intellectual, and social development
    • b. personal interests and surrounding environments
    • c. family, culture, and friends
    • d. all of the above
  • 2. Which of the following is true about personality?

    • a. It is essential in the development of the self and occurs within the context of family interactions.
    • b. It can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations.
    • c. It is shaped by many different aspects.
    • d. It can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her intelligence, monetary means, and behaviors in various situations.

    3. Factors associated with meeting a crisis creatively are which of the following?

    • a. a positive outlook
    • b. spiritual values
    • c. support groups, adaptability, and informal social support
    • d. all of the above

    4. During very difficult family changes, children may have developmental regressions. The reason for this is_________.

    • a. because he/she is selfish, and it is a way to get attention
    • b. parents are too busy addressing the crisis situation
    • c. the child is under great stress and needs help from parents and caregivers in order to cope with the stress or crisis
    • d. a and c

    5. ___________ is a concept of personality; for it to grow, we need to have self-worth, which is sought from embracing challenges that result in the showing of success.

    • a. self-worth
    • b. self-esteem
    • c. self-righteousness
    • d. self-dignity

    6. What is the decision-making process?

    • a. the mental processes (cognitive) resulting in the selection of a course of action among several alternatives
    • b. the mental processes (intellectual) resulting in the selection of a course of action among several alternatives
    • c. the mental processes (emotional) resulting in the selection of a course of action among several alternatives
    • d. the mental processes (cognitive) resulting in the selection of a course of action among two alternatives

    7. Making good decisions regarding your health can be affected by:

    • a. decline in deaths from coronary heart disease and stroke have resulted from risk-factor modification, such as smoking cessation and blood pressure control coupled with improved access to early detection and better treatment
    • b. over the years vaccines have prevented countless cases of infectious diseases and saved literally millions of lives
    • c. healthier mothers and babies have resulted from better hygiene and nutrition, availability of antibiotics, greater access to health care, and technologic advances in maternal and neonatal medicine
    • d. all of the above

    8. Why are the stages of life, such as infancy, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, middle life, and late life important?

    • a. they foster the abilities to develop healthy relationships
    • b. they are important for examining and measuring growth
    • c. they determine factors beneficial to marital success
    • d. none of the above

    9. What does oral communication require?

    • a. the use of body language only
    • b. the background skills of presenting, audience awareness, critical listening and body language
    • c. the background investigation of public speaking
    • d. audience awareness only

    10. What is self-disclosure?

    • a. disclosing one’s financial, mental, and medical issues to your partner
    • b. feeling free to talk about one’s deepest concerns and feelings in a serious relationship
    • c. a sign of trust
    • d. b and c

    11. Which of the following are career descriptions for substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors?

    • a. they work in a wide variety of settings, such as mental health centers, prisons, and private practice
    • b. most work full time
    • c. educational requirements range from a high school diploma to a master’s degree, depending on the setting, type of work, state regulations, and level of responsibility
    • d. all of the above

    12. Total employment is expected to increase by ____ million jobs from 2010 to 2020, with 88 percent of detailed occupations projected to experience employment growth.

    • a. 16.5
    • b. 20.5
    • c. 24.5
    • d. 18.5

  • I. Personal Development and II. Decision Making

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student evaluates factors related to personal development.

    • (A) investigate factors that affect personal identity, personality and self-esteem
    • (B) analyze how the family influences the development of personal identity and self-esteem of all family members, including those with special needs
    • (C) propose strategies that promote physical, emotional, intellectual and social development
  • Module Content

    Personal Development is the first unit of study in the Interpersonal Studies course. This section contains three TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Personal Growth
    • B. Self Concept
    • C. Character Traits

    Module I Handouts

    Personal Growth

    A person’s identity is shaped by many different aspects:

    • family
    • culture
    • friends
    • personal interests
    • surrounding environments

    Some factors may have more of an influence than others and some may not have any influence at all.
    As a person grows up in a family, he or she is influenced by many aspects of his or her life.

    Family and culture may influence a person’s sense of:

    • responsibilities
    • ethics
    • morals
    • taste in music
    • humor
    • sports
    • many other aspects of life

    Friends and surrounding environments may influence a person’s taste in:

    • clothing
    • music
    • speech
    • social activities

    Personal interests are what truly set individuals apart.
    Your personal identity is shaped by both environment and heredity.
    In the past there has been more emphasis on one or the other, but today we assume that certain characteristics, for example, intelligence and social adaptability, are shaped both by the quality of your genes and parental influence.
    Your personal identity is like a flower that will blossom most beautifully with the best natural characteristic and the right soil.

    Personality can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person in various situations that uniquely influences his or her:

    • cognitions
    • motivations
    • behaviors

    The word “personality” originates from the Latin persona, which means mask. Significantly, in the theater of the ancient Latin-speaking world, the mask was not used as a plot device to disguise the identity of a character, but rather was a convention employed to represent or typify that character.

    Read more about this subject in:

    Self Concept

    Self-esteem is a term used in psychology to reflect a person’s overall evaluation or appraisal of his or her own worth.

    Self-esteem encompasses beliefs and emotions such as:

    • triumph
    • despair
    • pride
    • shame

    A person’s self-esteem may be reflected in their behavior, such as:

    • assertiveness
    • shyness
    • confidence
    • caution

    Self-esteem can apply specifically to a particular dimension (for example, “I believe I am a good writer, and feel proud of that in particular”) or have global extent (for example, “I believe I am a good person, and feel proud of myself in general.”)
    Self esteem is a concept of personality; for it to grow, we need to have self worth, which is sought from embracing challenges that result in the showing of success.
    Many early theories suggested that self-esteem is a basic human need or motivation.

    American psychologist Abraham Maslow, for example, included self-esteem in his hierarchy of needs. He described two different forms of esteem:

    • the need for respect from others
    • the need for self-respect, or inner self-esteem

    Respect from others entails:

    • recognition
    • acceptance
    • status
    • appreciation

    These were believed to be more fragile and easily lost than inner self-esteem. According to Maslow, without the fulfillment of the self-esteem need, individuals will be driven to seek it and unable to grow and obtain self-actualization.

    “One of the most important social contexts for the development and expression of self-esteem is the family. For children, the family is the most important context because its major function is the socialization and care of children. The family is the first primary group that we experience—the place where some of our most important identities take shape (e.g., male/female, boy/girl, son/daughter, and sister/brother). Assessments of role performances based on these identities become early sources of self-esteem. Mead’s (1934) discussion of the early stages of role-taking and role-playing, processes essential in the development of the self, occur within the context of family interactions. Parents typically serve as mentors and as significant others for children. The intimate, extensive, and relatively enduring relationships characteristic of the family as a primary group make it an important context for the self-esteem of children as well as adults.”

    Source: Self-Esteem – Family Interaction And Self-esteem
    http://family.jrank.org/pages/1476/Self-Esteem-Family-Interaction-Self-Esteem.html

    Character Traits

    You learn from the actions around you, which shape your character or personality, due to the people you are with or would like to be. Also, your brain develops at an early age to defer what you comprehend and remember from experience, social interaction, and mental memorization.

    Your character traits are defined by your inner traits or moral qualities such as:

    • dependability
    • integrity
    • motivation
    • responsibility
    • self-discipline
    • sense of mercy and justice

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Module I Handouts

    • 3-2-1 Lesson Closure
    • ABC’s of Positive Identity and Self-Esteem
    • Article STOP and JOT – Interpersonal Studies
    • Building Family Strengths Positive Identity and Self-Esteem Notes
    • Erik Eriksons Psychological Stages (Key)
    • Erik Eriksons Psychological Stages
    • Focus Sheet for Building Family Strengths Positive Identity and Self-Esteem
    • Four Corner Vocabulary
    • Personality Maturity
    • Your Road to Self-Identity

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Write a paper analyzing your view of factors related to personal development. Include how your self confidence and character traits have influenced your personality development.
    • Evaluate several periodicals involving personality, self esteem and character traits. For each story, propose strategies that promote physical, emotional, intellectual, and social development.
    • Choose a character trait that you would like to improve. Develop a plan of action which would help you improve that trait.
    • Survey students on how to build a strong character and strong self-esteem. Enter the data in the computer, and develop a chart with the results. Write a paragraph stating the conclusions of your survey.
    • Prepare a song, musical, poem, spatial, or kinesthetic presentation that describes how to have positive self-esteem and strong character traits.
    • Have students use a graphic organizer Personal Maturity to determine how personal maturity in physical, social, emotional, and intellectual areas can help you succeed in family relationships at home.
    • Assign the students Article STOP and JOT. Students will STOP after reading EACH paragraph and JOT down its main idea or key points. This strategy will allow students to gather and process their finding and thoughts prior to writing a summary. Modeling the strategy prior use to is recommended.
    • The Four Corner Vocabulary activity (see below) is a great instructional strategy for English Language Learners to help introduce new vocabulary words.

    References and Resources

    Textbooks:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child Development Early Stages Through Age 12. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Decker, C. (2004). Children: The Early Years. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Johnson, L. (2004). Strengthening Family & Self. (3rd ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Ryder, V., & Decker, C. (2010). Parents and Their Children. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Sasse, C. (2004). Families Today. (4th ed.). Peoria: McGraw Hill.

    Websites:

    • National Association for Self-Esteem
      The purpose of the organization is to fully integrate self-esteem into the fabric of American society so that every individual, no matter what their age or background, experiences personal worth and happiness.
      http://www.self-esteem-nase.org/
    • Body Image and Self-Esteem
      Read an article with topics which include: Why Are Self-Esteem and Body Image Important? What Influences a Person’s Self-Esteem? Healthy Self-Esteem, Tips for Improving Body Image and Where Can I Go if I Need Help?
      http://kidshealth.org/teen/food_fitness/problems/body_image.html
    • Self-Esteem – Family Interaction and Self-Esteem
      One of the most important social contexts for the development and expression of self-esteem is the family. For children, the family is the most important context because its major function is the socialization and care of children.
      Read more: Self-Esteem – Family Interaction And Self-esteem – Single Parent, Definition, Development, Children, and Parents –
      http://family.jrank.org/pages/1476/Self-Esteem-Family-Interaction-Self-Esteem.html

    YouTube™:

    • Building Confidence and Self Esteem in Young Girls PSA video
      The Dove Self-Esteem Fund
      Young girls talk about body image and self esteem. Dove’s message: Things won’t change until we change them.
      http://youtu.be/IWzbIVwGd1E

    Interpersonal Studies Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Factors which affect personal identify, personality, and self esteem are________________.

    • a. physical, emotional, intellectual, and social development
    • b. personal interests and surrounding environments
    • c. family, culture, and friends
    • d. all of the above

    2. Factors that tend to help shape a person’s identity are________________.

    • a. family and culture
    • b. ethics and morals
    • c. tastes in music, humor, and sports
    • d. all of the above

    3. Which of the following is true about personality?

    • a. it is essential in the development of the self and occurs within the context of family interactions
    • b. it can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations
    • c. it is shaped by many different aspects
    • d. it can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her intelligence, monetary means, and behaviors in various situations.

    4. Your character traits are defined by your inner traits or moral qualities such as______________.

    • a. self-discipline and dependability
    • b. self-righteousness
    • c. integrity and motivation
    • d. a and c

    5. ___________ is a concept of personality; for it to grow, we need to have self-worth, which is sought from embracing challenges that result in the showing of success.

    • a. self-worth
    • b. self-esteem
    • c. self-righteousness
    • d. self-dignity

    TEKS Addressed

    (2) The student determines short-term and long-term implications of personal decisions.

    • (A) summarize the decision-making process
    • (B) discuss consequences and responsibilities of decisions
    • (C) evaluate the effect of decisions on health, well-being, family, interpersonal relationships, employment, and society as a whole

    Module Content

    Decision Making is the second unit of study in the Interpersonal Studies course. This section contains three TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Personal Priorities
    • B. Making Decisions
    • C. Decisions Affecting Your Health

    Module 2 handouts

    Personal Priorities

    Decision making can be regarded as the mental processes (cognitive process) resulting in the selection of a course of action among several alternatives. Every decision-making process produces a final choice. The output can be an action or an opinion of choice.

    Human performance in decision-making terms has been the subject of active research from several perspectives. From a psychological perspective, it is necessary to examine individual decisions in the context of a set of needs and preferences an individual has and values he or she seeks.
    From a cognitive perspective, the decision-making process must be regarded as a continuous process integrated in the interaction with the environment.
    From a normative perspective, the analysis of individual decisions is concerned with the logic of decision making and rationality and the invariant choice to which it leads.

    Some of the decision-making techniques people use in everyday life include the following:

    • Acquiescing to a person in authority or an “expert”—or— just following orders
    • Choosing the alternative with the highest probability-weighted utility for each alternative
    • Flipping a coin, cutting a deck of playing cards, and other random or coincidence methods (also known as flipism)
    • Listing the advantages and disadvantages of each option, popularized by Plato and Benjamin Franklin
    • Satisfying, or accepting the first option that seems like it might achieve the desired result

    Making Decisions

    Using the Decision-Making Process This step-by-step method will help you think when you need to make a decision. Using this process will help you make decisions and solve problems.

    • Identify the decision to be made.
      • What is the issue at hand that needs to be dealt with?
    • Identify the alternatives.
      • List all possible alternatives. At least two choices need to exist before a decision can be made.
    • Consider each alternative.
      • Think through each alternative. How does it relate to your goals, values, priorities and resources? Think about how each alternative will affect you and others, both now and in the future. Think about the consequences of each alternative.
    • Choose the best alternative.
      • Make the best decision according to your goals, values, priorities and resources.
    • Carry out the decision.
      • This step requires action. How will you carry out or implement your decision?
    • Evaluate the decision.
      • Ask yourself several questions to evaluate the outcome of your decision. Did you think of every alternative to this issue? What kind of impact did your decision have on you, your family, friends and job? How did it affect your goals, values, priorities and resources?

    Every day, each of us makes hundreds of decisions. Many of these are made unconsciously: what to wear, how to drive, words to use in conversations, as well as many other seemingly little unimportant choices. Other decisions can have a significant impact on our day, such as relationships, career, life, and ultimate outcomes that will be created as a result of these choices. There are also all of the major choices we make that we consciously rationalize. In the end, every choice has an outcome, or consequence. Remember these rules when making decisions:

    • Remember that your choices are yours and yours alone.
    • No one else is responsible for your outcomes.
    • Decisions made without clear thinking will tend to create poor outcomes.
    • Listen to your inner self, intuition, or gut when choosing.
    • Listen to your body, emotions, or feelings when deciding.
    • Be careful of casually overriding these inner messages.
    • Outcomes that seem negative may have longer-term positive results.
    • You can’t avoid consequences.
    • Consequences are neutral when it comes to feelings, attitudes or perceptions.
    • To see yourself as a victim is to wish that your circumstances continue.

    Decisions Affecting Your Health

    Public health is credited with adding 25 years to the life expectancy of people in the United States in this century. Yet, ask the average person what public health is, and his or her reply might be limited to, “Healthcare for low-income families.” The CDC’s Ten Great Public Health Achievements in the 20th Century was created to remind us of how far we’ve come, how we got here, and exactly what public health is—the active protection of our nation’s health and safety, credible information to enhance health decisions, and partnerships with local minorities and organizations to promote good health. The following are examples of how good decisions lead to better health:

    Vaccination—Disease prevention is key to public health. It is always better to prevent a disease than to treat it. Vaccines can protect both the recipients and those with whom they come in contact.

    Vaccines are responsible for the control of many infectious diseases that were once common in this country and around the world, including:

    • polio
    • measles
    • diphtheria
    • pertussis (whooping cough)
    • rubella (German measles)
    • mumps
    • tetanus,
    • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)

    Vaccine eradicated smallpox, one of the most devastating diseases in history. Over the years, vaccines have prevented countless cases of infectious diseases and saved literally millions of lives.

    Motor-vehicle safety—Improvements in motor-vehicle safety have resulted from engineering efforts to make both vehicles and highways safer as well as successful efforts to change personal behavior, such as increased use of safety belts, child safety seats, and motorcycle helmets and decreased drinking and driving. These efforts have contributed to large reductions in motor-vehicle-related deaths

    Safer workplaces—Severe injuries and deaths have decreased since 1980 related to:

    • mining
    • manufacturing
    • construction
    • transportation

    Safer workplaces have resulted in a reduction of approximately 40% in the rate of fatal occupational injuries.

    Control of infectious diseases—Control of infectious diseases has resulted from clean water and improved sanitation. Infections such as typhoid and cholera transmitted by contaminated water, a major cause of illness and death early in the 20th century, have been reduced dramatically by improved sanitation. In addition, the discovery of antimicrobial therapy has been critical to successful public health efforts to control infections such as tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

    Decline in deaths from coronary heart disease and stroke—Decline in deaths from coronary heart disease and stroke have resulted from risk-factor modification, such as smoking cessation and blood pressure control coupled with improved access to early detection and better treatment. Since 1972, death rates for coronary heart disease have decreased by 51 percent.

    Safer and healthier foods—Since 1900, safer and healthier foods have resulted from decreases in microbial contamination and increases in nutritional content. Identifying essential micronutrients and establishing food-fortification programs have almost eliminated major nutritional deficiency diseases such as rickets, goiter, and pellagra in the United States.

    Healthier mothers and babies—Healthier mothers and babies have resulted from better hygiene and nutrition, availability of antibiotics, greater access to health care, and technologic advances in maternal and neonatal medicine. Since 1900, infant mortality has decreased 90%, and maternal mortality has decreased 99%.

    Family planning—Access to family planning and contraceptive services has altered social and economic roles of women. Family planning has provided health benefits such as smaller family size and longer interval between the birth of children, increased opportunities for preconceptional counseling and screening; fewer infant, child, and maternal deaths, and the use of barrier contraceptives to prevent pregnancy and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and other STDs.

    Fluoridation of drinking water—Fluoridation of drinking water began in 1945 and in 1999 reaches an estimated 144 million persons in the United States. Fluoridation safely and inexpensively benefits both children and adults by effectively preventing tooth decay, regardless of socioeconomic status or access to care. Fluoridation has played an important role in the reductions of tooth decay in children (40%-70%) and tooth loss in adults (40%-60%).

    Recognition of tobacco use as a health hazard—Recognition of tobacco use as a health hazard and subsequent public health anti-smoking campaigns have resulted in changes in social norms to prevent initiation of tobacco use, promote cessation of use, and reduce exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Since the 1964 Surgeon General’s report on the health risks of smoking, the prevalence of smoking among adults has decreased, and millions of smoking-related deaths have been prevented.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Module 2 handouts

    • Goal Setting Outline
    • KWL Chart Goal Setting
    • Rubric for Oral Presentation

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Child Guidance lesson Setting and Achieving Goals What are short-term goals and long-term goals? Goal setting is necessary because it allows you to plan for your short-term future as well as your long-term future.
      http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/setting-and-achieving-goals/
    • Identify a decision you have made recently. It can be in the area of school, work, or home. List the steps you used to make the decision. Compare and contrast your decision-making process to the six-step process. What would the results be if you had used the six-step process? Better or worse? Please explain your answer.
    • Write a paragraph describing your personal priorities. Why are they a priority, and how do they relate to your decision-making process?
    • Write ten scenarios depicting a problem in decision-making and the results of making poor decisions. Share your scenarios with classmates. Analyze each other’s scenarios and write a paragraph identifying the steps people can take to improve the results of their decision-making.

    References and Resources

    Textbooks:

    • Johnson, L. (2004). Strengthening Family & Self. (3rd ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Ryder, V., & Decker, C. (2010). Parents and Their Children. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Sasse, C. (2004). Families Today. (4th ed.). Peoria: McGraw Hill.

    Websites:

    • How to Make Decisions
      Some of your decisions will be so routine that you make them without giving them much thought. But difficult or challenging decisions demand more consideration.
      http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_00.htm
    • Decision-Making Techniques
      Decision making is an essential leadership skill. If you can learn how to make timely, well-considered decisions, then you can lead your team to well-deserved success.
      http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_TED.htm
    • The National Association of Child Care Professionals
      The nation’s leader among associations serving child care owners, directors, and administrators. The organization’s goal is to improve, enhance and strengthen the credibility of the people who lead the child care industry by providing membership services and benefits.
      http://www.naccp.org/

    Interpersonal Studies Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. What is the decision-making process?

    • a. the mental processes (cognitive) resulting in the selection of a course of action among several alternatives
    • b. the mental processes (intellectual) resulting in the selection of a course of action among several alternatives
    • c. the mental processes (emotional) resulting in the selection of a course of action among several alternatives
    • d. the mental processes (cognitive) resulting in the selection of a course of action among two alternatives

    2. What are the consequences of using the decision-making process?

    • a. making abrupt decisions
    • b. making educated guesses of problem situations
    • c. making decisions and solving problems
    • d. making tempered decisions

    3. In using the decision-making process, identifying the alternative is________.

    • a. identifying the issue at hand that needs to be dealt with
    • b. listing all possible alternatives
    • c. making the best decision according to your goals, values, priorities, and resources
    • d. all of the above

    4. Some rules to remember when making decisions are:

    • a. decisions made without clear thinking will tend to create poor outcomes
    • b. listen to your inner self, intuition or gut when choosing
    • c. listen to your body, emotions or feelings when deciding
    • d. all of the above

    5. Which of the following is evidence that making good health care decisions is beneficial?

    • a. decline in deaths from coronary heart disease and stroke have resulted from risk-factor modification, such as smoking cessation and blood pressure control coupled with improved access to early detection and better treatment
    • b. over the years vaccines have prevented countless cases of infectious diseases and saved literally millions of lives
    • c. healthier mothers and babies have resulted from better hygiene and nutrition, availability of antibiotics, greater access to health care, and technological advances in maternal and neonatal medicine
    • d. all of the above

  • III. Transition Into Adulthood

    (3) The student analyzes considerations related to the transition to independent adulthood.

    • (A) analyze adjustments related to achieving independence
    • (B) explore responsibilities of living as an independent adult
  • Module Content

    Transition Into Adulthood is the third unit of study in the Interpersonal Studies course. This section contains two TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Adult Lifestyle Options
    • B. Lifestyle Consequences

    People Then and Now

    Adult Lifestyle Options

    Each person passes through several life stages:

    • infancy
    • childhood
    • adolescence
    • young adulthood
    • middle life
    • late life

    Like development, the stages of life are unrelated. Each stage builds on the ones before it with its own:

    • possibilities
    • traits
    • responsibilities
    • problems

    How successful you are in managing each stage provides a solid base for the next stage. The stages are important for examining and measuring growth. Responsibilities change as you move along the life path.

    An adult is expected to:

    • accept and adopt socially responsible behavior
    • develop mature relationships
    • prepare for and acquire a career
    • prepare for marriage and a family

    An adult’s lifestyle can have many options. Independence is the most critical stage of the family life cycle. In young adulthood, people begin to separate emotionally from the family. During this stage, people strive to become fully able to support themselves emotionally, physically, socially, and financially. They begin to develop unique qualities and characteristics that define their individual identity.

    Intimacy is a vital skill to develop while fostering the independence of young adulthood. Intimacy is the ability to develop and maintain close relationships that can endure hard times and other challenges.

    An intimate relationship includes the following:

    • attachment
    • commitment
    • compatibility
    • dependence on another person who is not in your family
    • shared emotion in a relationship
    • similarity

    An adult must also learn who they are outside of their identity within the family. How an adult has the ability to develop an intimate relationship depends on how successful they were at developing their individual identity earlier in life.

    Exploring interests and career goals is part of developing independence. To live successfully away from the family, one must develop financial and emotional independence.

    People also begin to be responsible for their own health in this stage, including the following:

    • nutritional
    • physical
    • medical needs

    Developing healthy habits at this time—such as good nutrition, regular exercise, and safe sex practices—is important for lifelong health and happiness.

    Becoming an adult can also mean learning new aspects of independence throughout one’s lifetime. Even when adults move on to another stage of life, such as coupling, they continue to learn independence within the context of that stage.

    The independence stage involves the following:

    • Learning to see yourself as a separate person in relation to your original family—parents, siblings, and extended family members.
    • Developing intimate peer relationships outside the family.
    • Establishing yourself in your work or career.

    Other important qualities which can be developed during this phase include the following:

    • identity, or who you are in the world
    • initiative
    • morals
    • trust
    • work ethic

    Lifestyle Consequences

    Throughout adult life, you will have times of stability and times of change. During stable periods, the life structure stays the same. In times of change, the life structure shifts. Changes can be major or minor.
    Will you take on a new role or leave an old one behind? Will you build a new relationship or end an old one? Will you move near or far? What causes the life structure to change? Both external and internal influences have impact. Externally, a new job or a health problem could cause change. Internally, feelings of dissatisfaction or interest could cause a person to make changes.

    Changes gives adults opportunities for growth. Through change, they move on to the next life task. By handling each task as it comes, adults prepare themselves for the task ahead and lifestyle consequences. The choices we make in handling each task and changes will be the result of consequences. People often look back on their lives and wish they could have made better choices because those they have made have resulted perhaps in bad health due to poor eating habits, lack of medical attention, abuse of drugs or alcohol, or having a high stress level.

    The consequences of poor health habits may include the following:

    • Addiction to drugs or alcohol
    • Cancer
    • Cardiovascular disease
    • Diabetes
    • Hypertension obesity
    • Life expectancy rate
    • Poor or inadequate relationships with family, friends and co-workers.
    • Subpar work performance

    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services HHS HealthBeat showed today’s teens’ poor health habits might cost them years of life. A study found this in data on about 5,500 teens. Donald Lloyd-Jones of Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago examined risk factors for heart disease. Many teens had risk factors such as high blood sugar, low physical activity, and smoking habits. Their eating patterns were high in sodium and sugar-sweetened beverages and low in fruits, vegetables, fiber, and lean protein. Lloyd-Jones says teens are losing the health they were born with: `We know that we tend to gain weight as we age through adulthood, so we are already seeing that our teens are off to a very poor start.’’ The study presented at an American Heart Association meeting was supported by the National Institutes of Health.

    Additional websites and resources to help make healthy choices and as the result have positive p(tight). consequences:

    • Alcohol – Frequently Asked Questions (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
      Read about drinking levels, excessive alcohol use, drinking problems, and more.
      http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs.htm
    • Drinking and Alcohol
      Make a Difference: Talk to Your Child about Alcohol (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism)
      Get tips on talking to your child or teen about alcohol, how to host a teen party, how to help your child resist peer pressure to drink, warnings signs of a drinking problem, and an action checklist.
      http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/MakeADiff_HTML/makediff.htm
    • Injury & Accident Prevention
      Injury, Violence & Safety (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
      Read about preventing injury and violence, how to stay safe at home, school and work, safety on-the-go, and safety at play.
      http://www.cdc.gov/InjuryViolenceSafety/
    • Learn about causes, risks, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.
      Healthy Weight – It’s not a diet, it’s a lifestyle! (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Read about balancing calories, preventing weight gain, losing weight, healthy eating, physical activity, and get tips for parents to help prevent childhood obesity.
      http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/index.html
    • Safety & Prevention (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, CDC)
      Explore an alphabetical list of workplace safety topics with links leading to in-depth information.
      http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/safety.html
    • Secondhand Smoke: What It Means to You (PDF – 11.6MB) (The Surgeon General)
      Learn why secondhand smoke is so harmful and what you can do to prevent exposure to this kind of smoke.
      http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/index.html
    • Smoking and Tobacco (National Cancer Institute, NIH)
      Get accurate information and professional assistance to help you stop smoking and stay quit.
      http://www.Smokefree.gov
    • Smoking and Tobacco Use (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
      Watch podcasts and learn about the health effects of smoking and secondhand smoke.
      http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/
    • Weight Loss & Obesity
      What are Overweight and Obesity?en español (National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, NIH)
      http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/obe/

    Lesson Plans

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Module 1 handouts

    • Article STOP and JOT
    • Four Corner Vocabulary
    • Personality Maturity graphic organizer

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Compare and contrast life choices and consequences from 1960 to today using handout People: Then and Now
    • Help students make connections between our everyday lives and the consequences of our choices, an important step to helping them live healthier lifestyles. Challenge yourself and your students to adopt one or two of the suggestions that were mentioned during the class.
    • Talk with students about what types of foods are healthy and how they know they are healthy. (And how they know other foods are unhealthy.) Discuss things like ingredients, the way the food is prepared, and what you can add to the food like salad dressing or cheese.
    • Have the students create a class mural of healthy food. Encourage them to consider food they might not normally think was healthy. Have them look at how it is prepared and what condiments have been added to it.
    • Create two murals—one that has foods that are always healthy and one that has foods that can be healthy depending on how they are prepared. Students can then add notes to the pictures stating how they should be prepared in order to be considered healthy.
    • Talk to adult family members about the consequences of choices and regrets the person has. How can this relate to the student?
    • Research the life of a historical figure whose life deviated from the typical pattern of development. Examples include Abraham Lincoln, Ronald Reagan, or Mozart.
    • Develop a timeline of events/consequences/choices which have occurred in students’ lives so far. Project what they would like to see in their future.
    • Research a topic (such as poor eating habits, lack of medical attention, abuse of drugs or alcohol, or having a high stress level) to determine how it affects the body, diseases associated to it, medical costs, effect on family and friends.
    • Have students complete a ticket out with at least one idea of a healthy snack they might try when they get home.

    References and Resources

    Textbooks:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child Development Early Stages Through Age 12. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Decker, C. (2004). Children: The Early Years. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Johnson, L. (2004). Strengthening Family & Self. (3rd ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Ryder, V., & Decker, C. (2010). Parents and Their Children. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Sasse, C. (2004). Families Today. (4th ed.). Peoria: McGraw Hill.

    Websites:

    • Administration for Children and Families (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services This government agency has information on parenting and childcare, including adoption and foster care. ACF addresses issues of child abuse and neglect, child support, and children with special needs. The website also has information on building healthy marriages to provide a strong and stable environment for raising children.
      http://www.acf.hhs.gov
    • American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy The American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT)
      AAMFT is the association for marriage and family therapy professionals. The website provides resources for the public, including a therapist locator, consumer updates on family health topics, and information about therapy.
      http://www.aamft.org
    • Texas Heart Institute
      Heart disease risk factors for children and teenagers.
      http://www.texasheart.org/HIC/Topics/HSmart/children_risk_factors.cfm
    • Healthy Children
      This American Academy of Pediatrics website has information for parents about childhood issues, from before the child is born to young adulthood. You’ll find information on child growth and development, immunizations, safety, health issues, behavior, and much more.
      http://www.healthychildren.org

    YouTube™:

    • Plan for Healthy Eating and Better Health Through Nutrition
      Learn tips for starting and keeping a healthy diet that will make you feel younger and stay healthy. For more information on how to stay healthy, feel younger and age more gracefully, visit www.TryProleva.com
      http://youtu.be/gD1tiqBMBeQ

    Interpersonal Studies Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. What are some adjustments which are related to achieving independence?

    • a. learning to see yourself as a separate person in relation to your original family—parents, siblings, and extended family members.
    • b. developing intimate peer relationships outside the family
    • c. establishing yourself in your work or career
    • d. all of the above

    2. What are some of the responsibilities of living as an independent adult?

    • a. becoming responsible for their own health
    • b. becoming responsible for one’s nutritional, physical, and medical needs
    • c. developing healthy habits, such as good nutrition, regular exercise, and safe sex practices
    • d. all of the above

    3. Why are the stages of life, such as infancy, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, middle life, and late life, important?

    • a. they foster the abilities to develop healthy relationships
    • b. they are important for examining and measuring growth
    • c. they determine factors beneficial to marital success
    • d. none of the above

    4. An intimate relationship includes which of the following?

    • a. commitment
    • b. being a hindrance
    • c. shared emotion
    • d. a and c

    5. According to a study performed on about 5,500 teens and presented at an American Heart Association meeting, which of the following was true?

    • a. teens are losing the health they were born with
    • b. teens’ eating patterns were high in sodium and sugar-sweetened beverages and low in fruits, vegetables, fiber, and lean protein
    • c. teens are healthier than their parents were at their age.
    • d. a and b

  • IV. Relationship Development and the Family and V. Relationship Development Beyond the Family

    Relationship Development and the Family

    (4) The student analyzes the family’s role in relationship development.

    • (A) examine the development of relationships
    • (B) investigate the family’s role in fostering the abilities of its members to develop healthy relationships
    • (C) analyze effects of cultural patterns on family relationships

    Module Content

    Relationship Development is the fourth unit of study in the Interpersonal Studies course. This section contains three TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Developing Relationships
    • B. Friendship Dating Patterns
    • C. Communicating Socially

    Module IV Handouts

    Developing Relationships
    A relationship is normally viewed as a connection between two individuals, such as a romantic or intimate relationship or a parent-child relationship. The first place a person learns about building relationships is through their family. Whether a person lives with his/her mom, dad, grandparents, brothers, sisters, aunts, uncles, or whomever, the family should be a source of love and comfort for them. Individuals can also have relationships with groups of people, such as the relation between a pastor and his congregation, an uncle and a family, or a mayor and a town.
    Finally, groups or even nations may have relations with each other, though this is a much broader domain than that covered under the topic of interpersonal relationships. Relationships also can include friendships, such as relationships involving individuals.

    Relationships take place in a great variety of contexts, such as:

    • family
    • friends
    • marriage
    • associates
    • work
    • clubs
    • neighborhoods
    • churches

    They may be regulated by:

    • law
    • custom
    • mutual agreement

    They are the basis of social groups and society as a whole.

    Interpersonal relationships are dynamic systems that change continuously during their existence.

    Like living organisms, relationships have:

    • a beginning
    • a lifespan
    • an end

    They tend to grow and improve gradually, as people get to know each other and become closer emotionally, or they gradually deteriorate as people drift apart, move on with their lives, and form new relationships with others. Although humans are fundamentally social creatures, interpersonal relationships are not always healthy. Examples of unhealthy relationships include abusive relationships and codependence. That doesn’t mean there won’t be conflict, though! Remember: relationships take time and energy to make them healthy.

    Friendship Dating Patterns

    Dating helps young people learn about interpersonal relationships and prepare for adulthood and marriage. Today’s teen dating patterns are less structured and more informal. There is more emphasis on groups of people than on couples.

    Dating is part of growing up and varies among:

    • generations
    • regions of the country
    • cultures

    Many relationships follow a pattern that starts with informal group dating and ends with engagement. Dating encourages good peer relationships and helps people learn to evaluate personalities. With experience, a person soon learns about those personality traits which appeal to them and which ones do not. Dating experiences help prepare you for the next step, which means you are more likely to be a more successful marriage partner.

    Communicating Socially

    These relationships usually involve some level of interdependence.

    People in a relationship tend to:

    • influence each other
    • share their thoughts
    • share their feelings
    • engage in activities together

    Because of this interdependence, most things that change or impact one member of the relationship will have some level of impact on the other.
    Relationships develop step by step. Communication, over time, allows the opportunity to learn more and more about each other. A person can also learn more about themselves and the reactions to the other person. During a serious relationship, people feel free to talk about their deepest concerns and feelings. This is called self-disclosure, which is a sign of trust.
    A relationship must have good communication to grow. Communication allows the couple to recognize the differences they have from one another and share common goals and values.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Module IV Handouts

    • 3-2-1 Strategies for Building Healthy Family Relationships
    • Article STOP and JOT Interpersonal Studies
    • Building Additional Relationships
    • Four Corner Vocabulary Activity
    • KWL Chart – Relationships
    • Notes – Building Healthy Family Relationships
    • Traits of Healthy Family Relationships
    • What My Family Means To Me

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Complete KWL Chart- Relationships. Before reading, consider what you already know about the content to be read. Also consider what you want to know. After reading, write what you have learned.
    • Have students complete a ticket out, which is a half sheet of paper that students are required to fill out in order to leave class. It gives the teacher an idea of how well the students grasped the concept learned in class that day.
    • Develop a comic strip about relationships! Writing the script helps you know how many panels you need. The number of panels you need depends on what you want to say! Drawing a rough draft of the whole comic strip by sketching in stick figures will help you know what should go in each panel. Redraw the comic strip on the final paper, but do it very lightly so you can erase. Lightly draw in the balloons around the words so you’ll know how much space you’ll need. Once everything is lightly sketched how you want it, go back and make the marks dark so you can see them.
    • Create a questionnaire to ask family and friends about their relationships. Present findings to class for extra credit.
    • Divide students into groups of 3 or 4 for a ‘talk show’. One student will be the ‘host’ of the show and the other 2 or 3 will be guests. They will pretend that they are on a talk show. The ‘host’ of the show will ask one student about the different types of relationships, another student about the friendships and dating, and the third student about qualities of a good friend. Let them be creative and figure out how to present the information to a ‘television’ audience.
    • Research dating patterns in various countries. Students of different ethnic backgrounds can be asked to discuss their culture’s dating patterns.
    • Develop a checklist of ways to promote friendship through communication.
    • Utilize The Four Corner Vocabulary Activity, a great instructional strategy for English Language Learners. A variation of this activity is to have students document the information, using one index card per word, and create their own Personal Dictionary. The left-hand corner of each index card can be hole punched, and the deck can be held together with an over-sized notebook ring.
    • Use the Article STOP and JOT (see below). Students will STOP after reading EACH paragraph and JOT down its main idea or key points. This strategy will allow students to gather and process their finding and thoughts prior to writing a summary. Modeling the strategy prior to use is recommended.

    References and Resources

    Textbooks:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child Development Early Stages Through Age 12. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Decker, C. (2004). Children: The Early Years. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Johnson, L. (2004). Strengthening Family & Self. (3rd ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Ryder, V., & Decker, C. (2010). Parents and Their Children. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Sasse, C. (2004). Families Today. (4th ed.). Peoria: McGraw Hill.

    Websites:

    • Girls’ Health
      This website was created in 2002 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ (HHS) Office on Women’s Health (OWH) to help girls (ages 10 to 16) learn about health, growing up, and issues they may face. Girlshealth.gov promotes healthy and positive behaviors in girls, giving them reliable and useful health information in a fun, easy-to-understand way. The website also provides information to parents and educators to help them teach girls about healthy living.
      http://www.girlshealth.gov/

    YouTube™:

    • Family Relationships
      One of the important ways to establish and maintain a great relationship is the ability to forgive and forget the little things. We are all human so there can be many little things that occur. In reality though, true big issues or problems happen very rarely.
      http://youtu.be/9i2lLck7UgI

    Interpersonal Studies Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. What is the family’s role in the development of relationships?

    • a. it provides a venue for socializing
    • b. it helps develop patterns of dating
    • c. the first place a person learns about building relationships is through his or her family
    • d. none of the above

    2. Why is dating important?

    • a. develops a mutual understanding between two people
    • b. it helps you share your thoughts and fears
    • c. it helps you become possessive of your dating partner
    • d. it helps young people learn about interpersonal relationships

    3. Good communication is vital to a good relationship because _________.

    • a. it allows you to share your thoughts and feelings
    • b. it allows the opportunity to learn more and more about each other
    • c. it allows a couple to recognize the differences they have with one another and to share common goals and values
    • d. all of the above

    4. What is self-disclosure?

    • a. disclosing your financial, mental, and medical issues to your partner
    • b. feeling free to talk about your deepest concerns and feelings
    • c. a sign of trust
    • d. b and c

    5. What is a relationship?

    • a. being forced into sexual intimacy
    • b. a connection between two individuals, such as a romantic or intimate relationship or a parent-child relationship
    • c. developing a healthy self-concept and learning to deal with your strengths and weaknesses
    • d. b and c

    Relationship Development Beyond the Family

    (5) The student analyzes relationship development outside the family.

    • (A) explore ways to promote positive friendships
    • (B) assess the influence of peers on the individual
    • (C) determine appropriate responses to authority figures
    • (D) propose ways to promote an appreciation of diversity

    Module Content

    Relationship Development Beyond the Family is the fifth unit of study in the Interpersonal Studies course. This section contains four TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Friends
    • B. Peers
    • C. Community and World
    • D. Society

    Module 5 handouts


    Friends

    Friendships are an important part of life. A friendship can provide a network which connects you to what is happening around you. What are the benefits of having friends? A friend can provide emotional support and help you meet your needs and reach your personal goals. A friend can also expand your knowledge, ideas, and perspectives.

    Qualities of a friendship include:

    • loyalty
    • trustworthiness
    • good communication
    • humor
    • common interests
    • support

    Relationships are a very special and important part of life to teens. That’s why a fight with a close friend can hurt so much. Healthy relationships are fun and make you feel good about yourself.

    A healthy relationship can be with anyone in your life:

    • family
    • friends
    • people you date

    Relationships take time and care to make them healthy. Teens’ relationships are a special part of their life and will teach them good lessons about who they are.

    Peers

    The influence of a peer group can be the strongest in a young person’s life. The family will continue to be a strong influence but peers emerge as a strong impact on how a person develops during the adolescent years. Peers are able to share many experiences together that contribute to the development of self-esteem and personality.

    Peers can also provide:

    • strength
    • encouragement
    • reinforcement
    • empathy
    • social acceptance

    As an adolescent, the need to be accepted socially can make a person vulnerable to peer pressure because most people want to be accepted and valued by their peers.

    A good, healthy peer relationship includes the following:

    • building good self-esteem
    • communication and sharing
    • negotiation and compromise skills/techniques
    • trust and respect

    The following are characteristics of a healthy relationship:

    • Feeling content with the other person; the ability to be yourself.
    • Feeling safe and secure around the other person; an environment that is non-threatening and non-violent.
    • Level of trustworthiness with secrets, belongings, and money.
    • Mutual respect of each other’s feelings, thoughts, dreams.
    • Positive feelings about yourself when you are with that person.

    Community and World

    Adolescents are influenced by:

    • family
    • peers
    • religion
    • schools
    • the media
    • community
    • world events

    The world is constantly changing in the areas of social and economic trends. One of the absolute changes has been the shift from being an industrial society to an informative society. Today’s American teens live in a world enveloped by communications technologies; the Internet and cell phones have become a central force that fuels the rhythm of daily life.
    According to Pew Research Center (2013), 58% of cell owners used their phones for recommendations, reviews, or price comparisons in a physical store this holiday shopping season. Young adults and smartphone owners lead the way.

    Teens’ use of the Internet has intensified and broadened partly due to:

    • social networks
    • online game-playing
    • one-stop places for news and updates
    • health information
    • assistance with school work
    • online shopping

    With the invention of the smartphone, adolescents can keep in contact with friends, family, and school functions.

    Society

    Societal changes in the family structure have strengthened the influential benefits of peers. As family ties are afflicted, peer influence becomes stronger.
    According to Childstats.gov- “AMERICA’S CHILDREN: KEY NATIONAL INDICATORS OF WELL-BEING, 2011”, among children living with two parents, 91 percent lived with both of their biological or adoptive parents, and 9 percent lived with a biological or adoptive parent and a stepparent. About 70 percent of children in stepparent families lived with their biological mother and stepfather. The majority of children living with one parent lived with their single mother. Some single parents had cohabiting partners. Twenty percent of children living with single fathers and 10 percent of children living with single mothers also lived with their parent’s cohabiting partner. The well-being of young people can be affected by aspects of their behavior and social environments. Teens may feel emotionally abandoned by their parents and may turn to peers for support. Sometimes adolescents are unable to make good decisions or do not have parental guidance, which can lead to sexual abuse, violence, and thoughts of suicide.

    Here are some important phone numbers to share with the students:

    • Texas Adult and Child Abuse Hotline from Department of Family and Protective Services
      1-800-252-5400
    • National Sexual Assault Hotline
      1-800-656-HOPE (1-800-656-4673)
    • National Domestic Violence Hotline
      1-800-799-SAFE (1-800-799-7233)
    • ChildHelp USA National Child Abuse Hotline
      1-800-4-A-CHILD (1-800-422-4663)
    • National Suicide Prevention Hotline
      1-800-273-TALK (8255)
    • National Teen Dating Abuse Helpline
      1-866-331-9474

    These hotlines are free, private, and open 24 hours a day.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Module 5 handouts

    • Facts and Feelings about Friendships
    • Quickwrite
    • Friendship Circle
    • Rubric for Article

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Interpersonal Studies lesson Why Can’t We Be Friends? Friends are an important part of our lives. How do we keep our friendships thriving and developing? How do our friendships affect other relationships? We can choose to develop positive, supportive friendships or negative, destructive relationships. Learning to distinguish between the two can help shape us into the people we want to become. In this lesson we will be learning about relationship development.
      http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/why-cant-we-be-friends/
    • Begin a class discussion with your students by asking five of the following questions:
      • Can you relate to these props and how does it influence what you do with your friends?
      • Where is a good place to be with your friends? Where do you meet, and what do you have in common?
      • What quality do you admire the most about your friends? How does that quality influence your friendship?
      • What behavior of others hurts you most? When you have upset someone by your actions, what do you try to do?
      • What do you consider to be your good and bad qualities?
      • What qualities help you to have good relationships with others?
      • What was your best friendship? Are you still friends with him or her? What life lessons did you learn from this relationship?
      • Do you tell your best friend everything?
      • Do you have a close group of friends?
      • What do you usually do together?
      • Is it easy for you to make friends?
        Allow time to share their answers.
    • Discuss the common quote/American Proverb “Birds of a feather flock together” with students and whether or not they agree with this sentiment.
    • View this YouTube video:
      You’ve Got a Friend in Me—Toy Story (Actual Clips)
      The song You’ve Got a Friend in Me from the movie Toy Story. Instead of being the scene from the movie, this great video is made up of a lot of different clips from the movie.
      https://youtu.be/nMN4JZ8crVY
    • Distribute graphic organizer Facts and Feelings about Friendships and have students complete the four facts about friendship. Discuss the results, and then have the class discuss and record four feelings in response to these facts.
    • Have students write a newspaper article about how to build positive friendships. They will present the article during the lesson closure and will be assessed by Rubric for Article. Students will use the online Newspaper Clip Generator to publish their article. Students can volunteer to share their newspaper article. After they read their articles, ask students their opinions on how their friendships have been positive and dynamic.
      http://www.fodey.com/generators/newspaper/snippet.asp
    • Distribute the Quickwrite and have students complete it to identify various types of activities they enjoy participating in. They will then identify friends that they enjoy participating in these activities with. Allow students time to fill out the chart.
    • Distribute the Friendship Circle and have students complete it to appraise their current friendships. They will use the diagram to reflect on how their friendships influence their lives.
    • Display or distribute the referenced article from “NebGuide- Friendships, Peer Influence and Peer Pressure During the Teen Years”, allowing time for students to read the fourth bullet under the section “Facts about peer friendships” to themselves. Encourage students to connect reading to their life experiences or prior knowledge.
    • Interview family members about their childhood friends. What made their friendship special and meaningful? Are they still friends to this date? Why or why not?
    • Research songs which have a theme of friends or friendship.
    • Create a survey and interview family members that had (a) close friend(s) during childhood. Include specific activities, social events and personal influences of the friendship.

    References and Resources

    Textbooks:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child Development Early Stages Through Age 12. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Decker, C. (2004). Children: The Early Years. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Johnson, L. (2004). Strengthening Family & Self. (3rd ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Ryder, V., & Decker, C. (2010). Parents and Their Children. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Sasse, C. (2004). Families Today. (4th., pp.). Peoria: McGraw Hill.

    Websites:

    YouTube™:

    • What Do You Think Makes A Relationship?
      It’s hard to have a healthy relationship when you’re not sure what one looks like! Relationships tend to be stronger when both people share things like common goals and interests, but what else do you think needs to be part of a relationship? Check out what some teens have to say about what makes up a healthy relationship.
      http://youtu.be/bsH7gE_bVWM
    • You’ve Got a Friend in Me—Toy Story (Actual Clips)
      The song You’ve Got a Friend in Me from the movie Toy Story. Instead of being the scene from the movie, this great video is made up of a lot of different clips from the movie.
      https://youtu.be/nMN4JZ8crVY

    Interpersonal Studies Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Why is it important to promote positive friendships outside the family?

    • a. it is hard to communicate with family members
    • b. a friend can provide emotional support and help you meet your needs and reach your personal goals
    • c. a friend can also expand your knowledge, ideas, and perspectives
    • d. b and c

    2. What influences do peers have on an individual?

    • a. they contribute to the development of self-esteem
    • b. they can provide strength
    • c. they can provide encouragement, reinforcement, empathy, and social acceptance
    • d. all of the above

    3. A good healthy peer relationship includes:

    • a. communication, sharing, trust, and respect
    • b. the threat of violence and abuse
    • c. building good self-esteem and negotiation and compromise skills/techniques
    • d. a and c

    4. Characteristics of a healthy relationship include the following:

    • a. positive feelings about yourself when you are with that person and mutual respect of each other’s feelings, thoughts, dreams
    • b. lack of trustworthiness with secrets, belongings, and money
    • c. not feeling content with the other person
    • d. not feeling safe and secure around the other person

    5. The world is constantly changing in the areas of social and economic trends. One of the absolute changes has been the shift from being an ________society to an __________ society.

    • a. informative/industrial
    • b. industrial/informative
    • c. impulsive/inaccessible
    • d. immortal/imperative

  • VI. Marital Success and VII. Dynamic Family Life Cycle

    Marital Success

    (6) The student determines factors related to marital success.

    • (A) discuss functions and roles of dating
    • (B) analyze components of a successful marriage
    • (C) examine communication skills and behaviors that strengthen marriage

    Module Content

    Marital Success is the sixth unit of study in the Interpersonal Studies course. This section contains three TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Engagement and Marriage
    • B. Components of a Successful Marriage
    • C. Problem Solving and Communication

    Module VI Handouts

    Engagement and Marriage

    What is an engagement? It is the end to courtship and the beginning of plans to be married. It is a couple’s sign of intentions to marry.

    An engagement serves three purposes:

    • to announce to the respected families and friends of a couple’s intentions to marry
    • to test their relationship by evaluating their compatibility
    • to give the couple time to plan the wedding, where they will live, finances, and their future as husband and wife

    The period of engagement allows the couple to seriously think about their future together. Communication is very important during the engagement period.

    Things that should be discussed are:

    • Career goals
    • Family courtesies
    • Friendships
    • Future living arrangements
    • Issue of children
    • Money management
    • Personal habits
    • Personal priorities and goals
    • Religion preferences

    Components of a Successful Marriage

    No matter how hard we try to be different from our own families, we will repeat many of their behaviors throughout our marriage. It is important for couples to discuss with each other how their families behave in different circumstances and explore reasons why. Couples then need to talk about how they would like to handle things in their own relationship. This will most likely involve a lot of compromise and will be something that couples will work on throughout their marriage. Part of having a meaningful and enjoyable marriage is having an awareness of each other’s family culture. From there, couples can develop their very own unique way of communicating that incorporates positive aspects from both families and hopefully filters out unwanted patterns.
    Psychologists Nathaniel Branden and Robert Sternberg have developed some rules for nurturing a loving relationship.

    These rules include the following:

    • Express your love verbally.
    • Be physically affectionate.
    • Express your appreciation and admiration.
    • Express your love materially.
    • Make time to be alone together.
    • Do not take your relationship for granted.

    Problem Solving and Communication

    There is a saying that goes “We cannot help but communicate.” Even if our intent is to say nothing and to provide no feedback to another person/s, we are constantly communicating non-verbally through our facial expressions, eye contact, and body language. When the verbal messages we send our not congruent with our body language, the listener may be unclear as to the meaning of the spoken words. In other words, message sent is often a message not received because our words do not match our body language; we are sending a mixed message.

    The term positive affect is used in regard to communication and couple satisfaction. It is interesting to note that showing signs of affection, verbally and non-verbally, is important throughout marriage and enhances marital satisfaction. The research findings of Gottman and Levenson (2000) indicate that the absence of positive affect—not the presence of negative affect—was highly predictive of later divorce.

    Good listening is fundamental to a satisfying relationship. Some examples of principles and techniques of effective communication are the attitude of listening, avoiding interruption and criticism, discovering how things look from your partner’s point of view, and listening sympathetically. Active listening involves paying close attention to what the other person is saying and is coupled with giving feedback.

    Good communication fosters couple satisfaction and is an important component of family cohesion (emotional bonding of family members). Some characteristics of strong families include an appreciation for one another, positive communication, a high degree of commitment, a spiritual orientation, and how family members can foster positive feelings for other family members.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Module VI Handouts

    • A Strong Structure for a Strong Marriage
    • Communication Activity
    • Communication Problems
    • Components of a Successful Marriage
    • Healthy Relationships Station Activities (Teacher Instructions)
    • Healthy Relationships Station Activities
    • Marriage Statistics
    • Notes: Road to Healthy Relationships
    • Notes: Road to Healthy Relationships (Key)
    • People Who Got Married and Divorced in the Past 12 Months by State 2009
    • Purpose and Types of Dating Notes
    • Purpose and Types of Dating Notes (Key)
    • Scavenger Hunt: Marriage and Divorce
    • Scavenger Hunt: Marriage and Divorce (Key)

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Complete table with factors which contribute to make the structure of a marriage strong and stable using handout A Strong Structure for a Strong Marriage
    • Perform the requested task as you hear the oral instructions. This exercise requires listening to and following directions. Communication Activity
    • Write in detail, an incident when you experienced a communication problem at home, work, in a relationship, or at school. In the three effect boxes, what were the effects of not communicating well? Communication Problems
    • Complete graphic organizer with components of a successful marriage. Explain the importance of each component— Components of a Successful Marriage
    • Discuss concerns about engagement and marriage. Students can write questions and discuss them as a group
    • Discuss what “Finding Mr./Mrs. Right” means.
    • Have students develop a checklist of important items to discuss during the engagement period and rate the items as very important, important, somewhat important, or not important at all. Then have them give a justification for each rating.
    • Conduct Internet research using key words such as “engagement” or “wedding customs” to compile information on these topics. Compare and contrast various cultures.
    • Research the marriage laws in the state of Texas regarding parental consent for marriage under age 18.
    • Interview parents and family about their engagement period which lead up to marriage. Develop questions to ask during the interview.
    • Discuss what a healthy marriage looks like and the benefits of a healthy marriage.

    References and Resources:

    Textbooks:

    • Johnson, L. (2004). Strengthening Family & Self. (3rd ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Ryder, V., & Decker, C. (2010). Parents and Their Children. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Sasse, C. (2004). Families Today. (4th ed.). Peoria: McGraw Hill.

    Websites:

    YouTube™:

    • Man Proposes to Girlfriend at Times Square in New York City
      John managed to get his special message on the MTV Billboard in Times Square right before he got down on one knee to pop the question. This is a beautiful proposal. Enjoy!
      http://youtu.be/zuNSfuc1_cs

    Interpersonal Studies Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. An engagement serves which purpose?

    • a. to announce to the respected families and friends of a couple’s intentions to marry
    • b. to give the couple time to plan the wedding, where they will live, finances and their future as husband and wife
    • c. to test their relationship by evaluating their compatibility
    • d. all of the above

    2. The period of engagement allows the couple to seriously think about their future together. Communication is very important during the engagement period. Things that should be discussed are __________.

    • a. personal priorities and goals
    • b. workplace skills
    • c. personal habits, money management, and family courtesies
    • d. a and c

    3. Some rules for nurturing a loving relationship include the following:

    • a. being physically affectionate
    • b. expressing your appreciation and admiration
    • c. expressing your love materially
    • d. all of the above

    4. As far as communication goes, showing signs of affection, verbally and non-verbally, is important throughout marriage and enhances marital satisfaction.

    • a. true
    • b. false
    • c. never
    • d. sometimes

    5. Good communication fosters couple satisfaction and is an important component of family ___________(emotional bonding of family members).

    • a. consistency
    • b. cohesion
    • c. collaboration
    • d. commitment

    Dynamic Family Life Cycle

    (7) The student determines methods that promote an effective family unit.

    • (A) describe diverse family structures
    • (B) identify the function of individuals within the family
    • (C) compare functions of families in various cultures
    • (D) predict the effects of societal, demographic, and economic trends on individuals and the family
    • (E) determine procedures for meeting individual and family needs through resource management.
    • (F) explain how technology influences family functions and relationships
    • (G) determine the impact of effective family functioning on community and society

    (8) The student determines how changes occurring throughout the family life cycle impact individuals and families.

    • (A) describe the stages of the family life cycle
    • (B) examine roles and responsibilities of individuals and family members throughout the family life cycle
    • (C) analyze financial considerations related to the family life cycle
    • (D) predict the effects of technological advances on families throughout the family life cycle
    • (E) formulate a plan for effective management of technology on families through the family life cycle

    Module Content

    Dynamic Family Life Cycle is the seventh unit of study in the Interpersonal Studies course. This section contains six TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Family Life Today
    • B. Changing Family Dynamics
    • C. Family Functions in Varying Cultures
    • D. Characteristics of Strong Families
    • E. The Family Life Cycle
    • F. Family Structures

    Module VII Handouts

    Family Life Today

    It is important to be able to define family because so many social and legal resources such as health insurance, life insurance, social security benefits, inheritance rights, and government subsidized housing and health care are based on family membership. Each person’s definition of family may differ because we base our definitions on our own personal experiences of family life. These definitions may differ from the U.S. Census Bureau’s definition of family as: “consisting of two or more people related by birth, marriage, or adoption residing in the same unit.”

    Each of us is born or adopted into our family of origin or family of orientation in which we are raised and socialized to follow the customs and traditions of the culture in which we live. When we marry and have children, we form the family of procreation. The nuclear family model which consists of a biological mother, a biological father, and their biological or adopted children comprises only 7% of families today. Contemporary families greatly differ from the traditional nuclear family model of the 1950s. Instead, there is a diversity of family types: single parent families, stepfamilies, cohabiting families, gay and lesbian families, childless couples, and grandparent-headed families. As of 2004, an increasing percentage of people (26.4%) are living alone, and 28.5% are child-free or have no children (post-child-rearing) in the home.

    In light of the changing demographics of marriage and family life, social scientists and popular media and press have been debating whether the modern family is “in decline” or “in the process of change” in order to adapt to contemporary society. Consider your own family life experiences and the changing forms of family composition and lifestyles to determine your view of whether the family is in the process of “breaking down” or just adapting to social change.

    Changing Family Dynamics

    Families take on many forms and shapes, and yet they perform some the of the same basic functions from culture to culture. Individuals within the family provide the following:

    • Basic needs (such as food, clothing, and shelter)
    • Economic support
    • Education
    • Love and affection
    • Nurturance
    • Opportunities to have fun
    • Protection
    • Religious background

    Each individual in the family has certain roles. Your role as a son, daughter, sister, brother, niece, nephew, aunt, or uncle is a given role that you acquired when you were born into the family. When you marry, you will assume a chosen role as husband or wife. Roles are defined by age and responsibilities. Parents are usually responsible for providing food and shelter. As children get older and enter the workforce, these responsibilities might fall partly on their shoulders. In relationships, it is important to communicate the roles you will be sharing or expected to fulfill to meet the needs of the family.

    Family Functions in Varying Cultures

    The United States has been referred to as a “land of immigrants” and “the melting pot” of cultural diversity. In fact, the United States is becoming more diverse, and minorities now comprise almost one third of the population. Race is considered to be a social construction reflecting how Americans think about it, rather than biologically distinct groups. In this sense there is only one race: the human race. Ethnicity has no biological implications but refers to culture: language, customs, and history.

    Various ethnic groups exist, such as:

    • African-American families
    • Latino families
    • Asian-American families
    • Pacific Islander families
    • Native-American families
    • Multicultural families
    • White (Non-Hispanic) families.

    White families have also been referred to as Euro-Americans.

    It is worth noting that 12 percent of the U. S. population is foreign born. This diverse group tends to be poorer, younger, and more likely to be in the workforce than the general population. Much of America’s diversity is a result of immigration, and approximately one million immigrants enter the United States each year. Immigrants may be single or married adults who migrate with their spouses or children or have plans to bring them to America. The majority of legal immigrants enter the United States through family sponsorship. Immigrants who maintain close contact with relatives in the country of origin and the United States are referred to as transnational families. A difference in legal status among family members is referred to as binational families, in which one spouse may be a legal residence and the other not. Children born in the United States are automatically citizens but their parents may or may not have legal status and may face deportation.

    Characteristics of Strong Families

    The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics examined family time together using data from the 2003–2010 American Time Use Survey and the Bureau of Labor Statistics data on state-level unemployment rates. Couple time together is U-shaped, while fathers spend more time engaging in enriching childcare activities without a spouse present as the unemployment rate rises. Patterns are similar for dual-earner couples, but appear concentrated among demographic groups most affected by recessions. We also find that mothers are less likely to work standard hours and more likely to work on weekends as employment crises deepen, which is consistent with both sets of results for family time together. On average, fathers—many of whom have lost their jobs or face reduced working time—spend additional time engaging their children alone in enriching childcare activities as the local unemployment rate increases. In addition to having time available to spend together, individuals also must choose to share that leisure time. If periods of high unemployment lead to higher stress levels for the unemployed (Krueger and Mueller, 2010; Krueger and Mueller, 2012), then family members may avoid spending time together due to increased conflict.

    The Family Life Cycle

    Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg, and even William Shakespeare have written about the developmental stages individuals pass through as their lives move from birth to death. Jay Haley, in 1973, identified a model of similar stages for families. Each of Haley’s six stages involves different emotional and physical processes.

    The stages of the Family Life Cycle can be described as:

    • Leaving home
    • Getting married or committing to a couple relationship
    • Parenting the first child
    • Living with an adolescent
    • Launching the children
    • Retirement and old age

    The stages do not occur in exactly the same way in all families. Some families can be in two stages at one time. For example, the same family could be living with an adolescent and launching an older child. Remember the family life stages are fluid, without rigid boundaries, and that they can encompass the emotional, intellectual, physical, and spiritual aspects of life.

    Family Structures

    Today, there are many different family structures. There is no one best structure as long as the family members are happy and fulfilled individuals.

    The six common structures in society today are the:

    • two-parent
    • single parent
    • stepfamily
    • extended kinship
    • foster family
    • adoptive family structures

    The two-parent family is made up of a married couple and their biological children. One or both parents may work outside the home. This is also called a nuclear family. Activities and events center around the family. In 2009, 83 percent of children living in families maintained by two married parents had at least one parent who worked year round, full time. In contrast, 54 percent of children living in families maintained by a single father and 44 percent of children living in families maintained by a single mother had a parent who worked year round, full time.

    The single-parent family occurs as the result of divorce, separation, death of a spouse, or having children outside of marriage. In 2010, 66 percent of children ages 0–17 lived with two married parents, down from 77 percent in 1980.
    In 2010, 23 percent of children lived with only their mothers, 3 percent lived with only their fathers, and 4 percent lived with neither of their parents. Being a single parent, the sole head of the household, can be stressful. Single parents must provide the same needs and wants as all parents.

    The stepfamily occurs when either or both spouses have been married before and have one or more children from the previous marriage. Relationships in stepfamilies can be rewarding and challenging. When families have been combined, it may bring financial tensions to the family. Space, time, and energy resources must be allocated with thought and consideration. Each family has to be dedicated and positive in making the new family system work.

    The extended kinship family occurs when several generations of a family live together. It can be a mixture of grandparents, parents, children, aunts, uncles, and cousins in the same household. In many foreign countries, extended kinship families are very common. There are advantages of this type of family, including interaction between family members of all age groups. This can be an opportunity to educate and appreciate each other. Sometimes aging parents are the focus of this type of family. Middle-age has taken on a new image in recent years, partly due to finances. Some sociologists have labeled today’s middle-aged couples as the “sandwich generation.” The couple is often “sandwiched” between caring for their own children and their aging parents.

    Foster parents try to make their home loving, caring, and inviting to foster children. They are reimbursed only for the child’s expenses. The challenges lie in the type of child that may be in their homes. Some children are often abused, neglected, angry, frightened, and resentful of their situation. Adjustments must be made for both parties involved.

    The adoptive family chooses to adopt and raise a child. The child is legally theirs, and adoption can be just as fulfilling as having a biological child. Most couples prefer to adopt a newborn; however, children of all ages can be adopted.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Module VII Handouts

    • Components of a Strong Family Unit Graphic Organizer
    • Components of a Strong Family Unit Project
    • Double-Entry Journal Notes
    • Family Roles Tree
    • Family Scavenger Hunt
    • Filmstrip Sequencing Activity
    • Financial Decisions and Priorities Throughout the Family Life Cycle
    • Financial Decisions Scenarios
    • Hotlines and Online Resources
    • KWL Chart Family Dynamics
    • Lesson Closure
    • Meeting the Needs of the Family and Beyond
    • Note Taking Financial Obligations and Opportunities Throughout the Family Life Cycle
    • Note Taking Financial Obligations and Opportunities Throughout the Family Life Cycle (Key)
    • Resources and Support Services
    • Rubric for Storytelling
    • The Stages of the Family Life Cycle
    • What Did You Learn Today
    • What is Your Role

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas:

    • Discuss what the word “family” means to the students. Use http://www.tagxedo.com/ to develop a word cloud of the terms and adjectives.
    • Interview grandparents to gain an insight to how families and relationships have changed.
    • Search the Internet to analyze different family structures in other countries. Compare and contrast with families in the United States.
    • Bring pictures from home and share your family structure with the class.
    • Compile a list titled “What Makes a Family Strong” and ask students to correlate the list to their own family. How is it different? How is it similar?
    • Ask students to watch television to identify the different family structures as a homework assignment. Cite examples of different types from TV shows, movies, literature, or history. For each type, list the positive and negative characteristics of each type of family structure.
    • Research the latest statistics on effects of societal, demographic, and economic trends on individuals and the family.
    • Research the process of adopting a child in the United States. Compare findings to adopting a child from another country.
    • Complete graphic organizer Stages of the Family Life Cycle.

    References and Resources:

    Textbooks:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child Development Early Stages Through Age 12. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Decker, C. (2004). Children: The Early Years. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Johnson, L. (2004). Strengthening Family & Self. (3rd ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Ryder, V., & Decker, C. (2010). Parents and Their Children. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Sasse, C. (2004). Families Today. (4th ed.). Peoria: McGraw Hill.

    Websites:

    • Bureau of Labor Statistics
      What Effects do Macroeconomic Conditions Have on Families’ Time Together?
      http://www.bls.gov/ore/pdf/ec120030.pdf
    • Forum on Child and Family Statistics
      The Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, or the Forum, is a working group of Federal agencies that collect, analyze, and report data on issues related to children and families. The Forum has partners from 22 Federal agencies as well as partners in private research organizations.
      http://www.childstats.gov/index.asp
    • Maternal and Child Health
      The Federal Title V Maternal and Child Health program has provided a foundation for ensuring the health of the nation’s mothers, women, children, and youth, including children and youth with special health care needs, and their families.
      http://mchb.hrsa.gov

    Interpersonal Studies Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. What are the stages of the family life cycle?

    • a. leaving home and getting married or committing to a couple relationship
    • b. parenting the first child and living with an adolescent
    • c. launching the children and retirement and old age
    • d. all of the above

    2. A two-parent family, or nuclear family, consists of __________.

    • a. a married couple with their biological children
    • b. one or both parents working outside the home
    • c. a married couple with their stepchildren
    • d. a and b

    3. Which is true of an extended kinship family?

    • a. Several generations of a family live together.
    • b. A mixture of grandparents, parents, children, aunts, uncles, and cousins in the same household.
    • c. They are very common in many foreign countries.
    • d. all of the above

    4. Which is true of foster parents?

    • a. They try to make their home loving, caring, and inviting to the foster children.
    • b. They are reimbursed only for the child’s expenses.
    • c. No adjustments must be made for both parties involved.
    • d. a and b

    5. The following facts about being a single parent are true except for one:

    • a. In 2010, 23 percent of children lived with only their mothers.
    • b. Three percent of children lived with only their fathers, and 4 percent lived with neither of their parents.
    • c. Being a single parent, the sole head of the household, is stressful.
    • d. Single parents must provide the same needs and wants as all parents.

  • VIII. Analyzing Family Crises and IX. Stress Management

    Analyzing Family Crises

    (9) The student analyzes types of needs and crises experienced by individuals and families.

    • (A) categorize types of crises and their effect on individuals and families
    • (B) determine strategies for prevention and management of individual and family problems and crises
    • (C) identify resources and support systems that provide assistance to families in crisis
    • (D) assess management strategies and technology available to meet special needs of family members
    • (E) summarize laws and public policies related to the family

    Module Content

    Analyzing Family Crisis is the eighth unit of study in the Interpersonal Studies course. This section contains four TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Dealing with Family Crises
    • B. Resources to Help Withstand Family Crises
    • C. Coping with Crises
    • D. Types of Crises

    Module VIII Handouts

    Dealing with Family Crises

    A family crisis usually has three distinct phases:

    • the event that precipitates the crisis
    • the period of disorganization
    • the reorganizing or recovery phase after the family reaches a low point

    After the crisis hits bottom, recovery can begin. A family’s crisis-meeting capabilities (resources and coping behaviors) represents its ability to prevent a stressor from creating severe disruption.

    Some ineffective and harmful strategies to solving family problems are:

    • denying or avoiding problems
    • not expressing one’s frustrations
    • keeping one’s feelings inside

    Factors associated with meeting a crisis creatively include:

    • a positive outlook
    • spiritual values
    • support groups
    • adaptability
    • informal social support

    A family crisis is a turning point that requires family members to change their patterns of thinking and acting.

    Stressor events do not have to lead to crisis situations; the key is how individuals and families respond to the situation.

    One theoretical view of how families respond to stress is the ABC-X Family Stress Model.

    • A = Stressor event
    • B = Family’s management strategies/coping skills
    • C = Family’s perception/definition of the situation
    • X = Family’s adaptation to the event

    According to the ABC-X Family Stress Model, how well a family responds to a stressor event (Examples: loss of employment, unplanned pregnancy, major illness of a spouse, forced early retirement) depends not only on the event, but also on the family coping strategies and perceptions of the event. Families that have difficulties functioning effectively before the onset of additional stressors or demands are said to be vulnerable. Resilient families draw upon family strengths such as emotional support, commitment, good communication, and problem-solving skills to respond to the event in a positive manner and avoid a crisis situation. Resilient families cope well in a time of crisis or adversity.

    Resources to Help Withstand Family Crises

    Society has the responsibility of protecting children and families against abuse and violence. According to a publication by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the educator has a vital role in identifying, reporting, and preventing child abuse and neglect. Over the last few decades, various organizations have developed programs directed at informing educators that they are a valuable resource. Child care providers and educators must become involved in preventing and responding to child abuse and neglect.

    These reasons are related to the following:

    • Community efforts
    • Educational opportunities
    • Legal concerns
    • Personal commitments
    • Professional responsibilities

    Additional information on this publication can be found at http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/educator/educator.pdf

    Child Protective Services Division of Texas is another organization available to assist families in crisis. The Child Protective Services Division investigates reports of abuse and neglect of children.

    It also aids in the following:

    • Placing children in adoptive homes.
    • Placing children in foster care.
    • Providing services to children and families in their own homes;
    • Providing services to help youth in foster care make the transition to adulthood.

    For additional information and legal definitions of abuse and neglect, visit
    http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Protection/About_Child_Protective_Services/

    Coping with Crises

    Special problems such as divorce, family violence, or illness or death in the family, can strongly impact children. During very difficult family changes, children may have developmental regressions. Such behavior is not a selfish way to get attention. It may be a sign that the child is under great stress and needs helps from parents and caregivers in order to cope with the stress. Understanding how various factors may influence children helps the parents and caregivers know how best to relate to them.

    Refer to this website for information: “15 Ways to Help Your Kid through Crisis”
    http://www.kidspeace.org/uploadedFiles/15_Ways_parenting_008_0010_flier.pdf

    Types of Crises

    • Abuse of spouse and children
    • Change of family dynamics; blended family members
    • Death in the family
    • Demotion of job or position
    • Deployment of spouse or family member
    • Involvement or addiction of drugs or alcohol
    • Loss of home due to foreclosure/fire/eviction
    • Loss of job
    • Medical or mental health problems
    • Separation or divorce of parents
    • Teen pregnancy
    • Vehicle accident
    • Violent death or injury

    How do these events affect families, individuals, or a student in the classroom?

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Module VIII Handouts

    • Careers in Counseling and Mental Health
    • Crisis and Family Note-Taking
    • Crisis Support Services
    • Dating Matters
    • Dealing with a Crisis Brochure
    • FAMILY CODE
    • Family Crisis
    • Family Crisis Resources
    • Family Crisis Scenarios
    • Hotlines and Online Resources
    • Rubric for Article Family Crisis
    • Rubric for Brochure and Presentation

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas:

    • Have students form a circle as class begins. Students will read the scenarios and propose strategies to respond to the different types of family crisis through questions and answers. As students share responses, lead a class discussion on effective strategies to response to different types of family crises.
    • Discuss how a family crisis can have a correlation with child abuse. Share child abuse facts with the students. Allow for discussion and questions.
      http://visual.ly/get-facts-child-abuse
    • Have students develop a list of related family crisis resources available in the community. Students may use a phone book and internet to compile a list of hotlines, social services agencies and organizations, support groups, health care professionals, religious organizations and shelter.
    • Lead students to correlate the careers related to counseling and mental health.
    • Have students view Salma Hayek Pinault in a PSA for the National Domestic Violence Hotline
      http://youtu.be/HT-_BrshWsQ
    • Have students write a newspaper article about how to differentiate between the types of family crises and ways to meet the needs of families. The article will also include effects of crisis on individuals and families. They will present the article during lesson closure and will be assessed by Rubric for Article. Students will use the online Newspaper Clip Generator to publish their article.
      http://www.fodey.com/generators/newspaper/snippet.asp
    • After they read their articles, ask students their opinions on what skills are necessary to enhance personal and career effectiveness in counseling and mental health services.
    • Students will each write a one page personal reflection on what they learned from this lesson and how they plan to use the information now and in the future.
    • Have students each print a source of information about a counseling and mental health career, pair off, and trade documents, and then use the ”read, write, pair, share” strategy. They will first read independently, then write about what they have read, and finally discuss in pairs their insight into the careers they have read about.
    • Encourage students to “visualize” as they read. Many students are visual learners and will benefit from making sketches or diagrams on scrap paper as they read. Providing students with graphic organizers to help them organize their thoughts is also helpful.
    • Develop a pamphlet with a list of resources available in your community which provides help for families in crisis. Share the pamphlet with the school counselors in the school district. Translate the pamphlet for the Spanish speaking community members. You can also make these available to a local rehabilitation shelter.
    • Invite a panel of professionals from various social services agencies and organizations to discuss their services and careers.
    • Interview the school counselor to determine how the school district provides help for families in crisis.

    References and Resources:

    Textbooks:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child Development Early Stages Through Age 12. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Decker, C. (2004). Children: The Early Years. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Johnson, L. (2004). Strengthening Family & Self. (3rd ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Ryder, V., & Decker, C. (2010). Parents and Their Children. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Sasse, C. (2004). Families Today. (4th ed.). Peoria: McGraw Hill.

    Websites:

    • Helping Children and Youth Who Have Experienced Traumatic Events
      Childhood exposure to traumatic events is a major public health problem in the United States. Traumatic events can include witnessing or experiencing physical or sexual abuse, violence in families and communities, loss of a loved one, refugee and war experiences, living with a family member whose caregiving ability is impaired, and having a life-threatening injury or illness.
      http://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/tips-talking-to-children-after-traumatic-event.pdf
    • KidsPeace
      15 Ways to Help Your Kid through Crisis
      http://www.kidspeace.org/uploadedFiles/15_Ways_parenting_008_0010_flier.pdf
    • Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect
      Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children from risk of abuse, and strengthening families. Includes information on supporting families, protective factors, public awareness, community activities, positive parenting, prevention programs, and more.
      http://www.childwelfare.gov/preventing/
    • Teen Central
      What’s it like being a teenager today? Who knows better than other teens? Learn more how Teen Central enables you to find the help you are looking for, as well as enabling you to help others in need.
      http://www.teencentral.net/
    • Tips for Helping Students Recovering from Traumatic Events
      U.S. Department of Education. The devastation accompanying the recent hurricanes along the Gulf Coast has underscored the crucial role of recovery planning in schools and communities affected by natural disasters. Although the focus is on natural disasters, these tips may apply to other traumas students may experience.
      http://www2.ed.gov/parents/academic/help/recovering/recovering.pdf

    YouTube™:

    • Salma Hayek Pinault in a PSA for the National Domestic Violence Hotline
      Academy Award Nominee Salma Hayek has proven herself as a prolific actress, producer, and director, in both film and television. Noted for her acting career, Hayek has also dedicated much of her time to social activism and the prevention of domestic violence. Salma is the Honorary Chair of The Hotline’s 15th Anniversary Committee and on the NDVH Celebrity Board.
      http://youtu.be/HT-_BrshWsQ

    Interpersonal Studies Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Types of crisis-producing events include __________.

    • a. abuse of spouse and children and change of family dynamics
    • b. new neighbors in the neighborhood and the high cost of food
    • c. vehicle accident and violent death or injury
    • d. a and c

    2. A distinct phase of a family crisis is_________.

    • a. the event that precipitates the crisis
    • b. the period of disorganization
    • c. the reorganizing or recovery phase after the family reaches a low point.
    • d. all of the above

    3. Factors associated with meeting a crisis creatively include __________.

    • a. a positive outlook
    • b. lack of spiritual values
    • c. support groups; adaptability, and informal social support.
    • d. a and c

    4. ________________ families cope well in a time of crisis or adversity.

    • a. Responsible
    • b. Resilient
    • c. Resourceful
    • d. Reasonable

    5. During very difficult family changes, children may have developmental regressions. The reason for this is _________.

    • a. because he/she is selfish, and it is a way to get attention
    • b. parents are too busy addressing the crisis situation
    • c. the child is under great stress and needs helps from parents and caregivers in order to cope with the stress or crisis
    • d. a and c

    Stress Management

    (10) The student determines stress-management techniques effective for individuals and families.

    • (A) describe the impact of stress on individuals and relationships
    • (B) identify factors contributing to stress
    • (C) practice creative techniques for managing stress
    • (D) implement positive strategies for dealing with change

    Module Content

    Stress Management is the ninth unit of study in the Interpersonal Studies course. This section contains four TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Coping with Stress
    • B. Health and Wellness Resources
    • C. Preventative Health Practices
    • D. Other Aspects of Health

    Module 9 handouts (1)

    Coping with Stress

    There is stress in our lives every day. What types of things cause stress in your life? How we manage stress and keep our minds and bodies healthy throughout our life span will determine how we age. Knowledge and application of positive stress management skills and techniques are beneficial in all Human Services/Counseling and Mental Health career fields. Everyday people are confronted by situations that provoke stress in daily life. “I am stressed out” is a common lament by individuals who feel physically and/or emotionally overloaded. Stress affects individuals, couples, and families. How stress is perceived and how adjustments are made are important factors in whether or not a stressful situation or event becomes a crisis.

    Regardless of whether stress is due to positive or negative factors, stress affects the body as well as one’s emotional state. High blood pressure, ulcers, chronic headaches, and irritability are the body’s responses to prolonged stress. This association between psyche (mind) and soma (body) is illustrated by the saying, “A feeling repressed is physically expressed.”

    Chronic stress can lead to emotional overload and result in depression and have a negative impact on a couple’s relationship. Chronic stress can adversely affect the body and compromise physical health.

    To be healthy in mind and body and to have healthy relationships, individuals need to learn to deal with stress in a positive way and to have “management tools” in order to handle crisis situations (death of a family member, a hurricane or tornado, loss of a job) when they occur.

    Too much stress in a short period of time is referred to as stress pileup and leads to distress. An example of stress pileup is getting a divorce, moving to a new location, having difficulty finding a job, and the family car needing major repairs all occurring within a few months of each other. Stressor overload may also be series of big or small problems that build on one another so quickly that the family cannot deal with them effectively. In general, it is less difficult to cope with stressors when they are expected, last a short period of time, and gradually improve over time.

    Health and Wellness Resources

    Here’s the good news: Not all stress is negative; in fact, the word eustress means good stress. Stress is a process, not a state, and eustress can be the process of adjusting to the birth of a baby, planning a wedding, or adjusting to a new work role, to name a few examples.

    Stress can be caused by a situation or even a thought that makes a person frustrated, anxious, or angry. Stress is normal and, in small quantities, good. It can be motivational and help one be more productive. However, too much stress can lead to poor health or psychological illnesses like depression. For more information on what stress is and what causes stress, visit the ABC News/Health OnCall+ Stress Center.

    Stress can come from two sources:

    • external
    • internal

    External factors contributing to stress include the following:

    • Being too busy
    • Children and family
    • Financial problems
    • Major events such as planning a wedding, death of a family member, or divorce
    • Major life changes
    • Relationship difficulties
    • Smaller events at work or home that pile up, such as
      • having to work overtime
      • having an ill child at home
      • financial strain
      • car or major appliance that needs to be repaired
      • arguing with a partner
    • Work

    Internal factors contributing to stress include:

    • Inability to accept uncertainty
    • Lack of assertiveness
    • Perfectionism
    • Pessimism, or negative self-talk
    • Unrealistic expectations

    Source: http://www.reducestressnow.org/

    Preventative Health Practices

    Physical stress management techniques include:

    • Contracting/relaxing
    • Massage
    • Physical activity and aerobic exercise
    • Stretching

    Mental/emotional stress-management techniques include:

    • Active listening
    • Assertiveness training
    • Breathing
    • Guided imagery
    • Physical activity and aerobic exercise
    • Primal scream
    • Talking to a friend
    • Time management

    Review the four R’s of coping with stress:

    • rethink
    • relax
    • release
    • reduce

    Review the three A’s of coping with stress

    • abolish
    • avoid
    • alter

    Other Aspects of Health

    Your health is influenced by your heredity, lifestyle, and food choices.

    Good nutrition helps the following:

    • Appearance – You’ll have shiny hair, bright eyes, healthy nails and teeth, and smooth, clear skin.
    • Fitness – You’ll stay energetic and alert throughout the day.
    • Weight – You’ll reach and maintain a healthy weight.
    • Protection from illness – Your body will defend you against disease.
    • Healing – Your body will build new cells, repair breaks and sprains, and heal after illness or surgery.
    • Emotional strength – Your body and mind will deal with stress.
    • Future health – You’ll stay healthy as you grow older.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Module 9 handouts (1)

    • Balloon Exercise
    • KWL Chart – Stress
    • Rubric 50 Ways to Positively Manage Stress
    • Guest Speaker Summary Sheet
    • 50 Ways to Positively Manage Stress

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas:

    • Counseling and Mental Health lesson Just Chill, Don’t Stress Out! There is stress in our lives every day. What types of things cause stress in your life? How we manage stress and keep our minds and bodies healthy throughout our life span will determine how we age. Knowledge and application of positive stress management skills and techniques are beneficial in all Human Services/Counseling and Mental Health career fields.
      http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/just-chill-dont-stress-out/
    • Hand each student a balloon as he or she walks in. Instruct students to not blow up the balloon until given further instructions. Use instructions on Balloon Exercise handout to guide this activity.
    • Locate the song, “Pressure” by Billy Joel or other song related to stress. Play the song and ask students to listen/think about the words. Ask them how this song is similar to the pressure and stress they may experience in their life.
    • Distribute graphic organizer KWL Chart-Stress and have students fill out the chart. Ask students to write down what they know about handling stress in a positive way.
    • Divide students into subgroups of four and distribute one poster board to each group. Inform the groups that they are to look through magazines, draw pictures or search the internet for pictures that show people experiencing stress or in a stressful situation. The pictures will be drawn or glued to the poster board. Under each picture, the students will write an explanation of how the person or event can be turned into a positive situation. Students will present their posters to the class. Posters will be placed around the classroom.
    • Have students create a booklet or brochure depicting 50 Ways to Positively Manage Stress. Distribute Rubric 50 Ways to Positively Manage Stress. Review all rubric components so that students understand how their project will be assessed.
    • Students will be expected to make an oral presentation on their product.
    • Incorporate current events by having students explore articles about stress (positive and negative effects) in newspapers, magazines, or Internet sources that are current and relevant.
    • Have students create a PowerPoint presentation to show the effects of stress on the body and what can happen to the body over a period of time: 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, or 20 years.
    • Invite the school nurse to talk to the students about stress and how to stay healthy and productively cope with stress. Have students complete the Guest Speaker Summary Sheet.
    • Have students develop a public service announcement for military families on how to deal with the stress of having a loved one in Afghanistan or other country, as well as how to deal with deployments and family homecomings.
    • Have students take a brochure made in independent practice and distribute them to the guidance office at their school.

    References and Resources:

    Textbooks:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child Development Early Stages Through Age 12. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Decker, C. (2004). Children: The Early Years. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Johnson, L. (2004). Strengthening Family & Self. (3rd ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Ryder, V., & Decker, C. (2010). Parents and Their Children. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Sasse, C. (2004). Families Today. (4th ed.). Peoria: McGraw Hill.

    Websites:

    YouTube™:

    • “Pressure” by Billy Joel or other song related to stress.

    Interpersonal Studies Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Stress affects the body as well as one’s emotional state by causing ________.

    • a. high blood pressure
    • b. ulcers and chronic headaches
    • c. irritability
    • d. all of the above

    2. __________ is/are beneficial in all Human Services/Counseling and Mental Health career fields.

    • a. Knowledge and application of positive stress management skills
    • b. Techniques for dealing with stress
    • c. Ability to change people’s attitudes
    • d. a and b

    3. Stress is normal and, in small quantities, good. It can be motivational and help you be more productive.

    • a. true
    • b. false
    • c. never
    • d. none of the above

    4. External factors contributing to stress include __________.

    • a. major life changes and work
    • b. relationship difficulties and financial problems
    • c. being too busy and children/family
    • d. all of the above

    5. Some mental/emotional stress-management techniques include __________.

    • a. active listening and time management
    • b. keeping quiet and reserved
    • c. being assertive
    • d. talking to yourself

  • X. Careers in Counseling and Mental Health Services

    (11) The student determines opportunities and preparation requirements for careers in counseling and mental health services.

    • (A) determine employment and entrepreneurial opportunities and preparation requirements for careers in the field of counseling and mental health services
    • (B) determine how interests, abilities, and personal priorities affect career choice
    • (C) propose short-term and long-term career goals

    (12) The student exhibits employability skills.

    • (D) determine ethical practices in the workplace

    Module Content

    Careers in Counseling and Mental Health Services is the tenth unit of study in the Interpersonal Studies course. This section contains three TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Decisions Concerning Your Future Career
    • B. Deciding on a Career
    • C. Decisions About Your Education

    Module X Handouts

    Decisions Concerning Your Future Career

    There are many career options in the area of Counseling and Mental Health:

    • School counselors help students develop social skills and succeed in school. Career counselors assist people with the process of making career decisions by helping them choose a career or educational program.
    • Substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors advise people who have alcoholism or other types of addiction, eating disorders, or other behavioral problems. They provide treatment and support to help clients recover from addiction or modify problem behaviors.
    • Psychologists study mental processes and human behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how people and other animals relate to one another and the environment.
    • Mental health counselors and marriage and family therapists help people manage or overcome mental and emotional disorders and problems with their family and relationships. They listen to clients and ask questions to help them understand their problems and develop strategies to improve their lives.
    • Rehabilitation counselors help people with emotional and physical disabilities live independently. They help their clients overcome personal, social, and professional effects of disabilities as they relate to employment or independent living.
    • Social and community service managers coordinate and supervise social service programs and community organizations. They direct and lead staff who provide services to the public.
    • Social and human service assistants help people get through difficult times or get additional support. They provide assistance to other workers, such as social workers, and help clients find benefits or community services.
    • Direct-service social workers help people solve and cope with problems in their everyday lives; clinical social workers diagnose and treat mental, behavioral, and emotional issues.

    Deciding on a Career

    • School counselors work in public and private schools. Career counselors work in colleges, government career centers, and private practice. Both types of counselors generally work full time. All school counselors must be credentialed, which most often requires a master’s degree. Those who work in private practice generally must be licensed.
    • Substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors work in a wide variety of settings, such as mental health centers, prisons, and private practice. Most work full time. Educational requirements range from a high school diploma to a master’s degree, depending on the setting, type of work, state regulations, and level of responsibility.
    • Some psychologists work independently, doing research or working only with patients or clients. Others work as part of a healthcare team, collaborating with physicians, social workers, and others to treat illness and promote overall wellness. Those in private practice have their own offices and set their own schedules, often working evenings and weekends. Psychologists need a master’s, specialist, or doctoral degree in psychology. Practicing psychologists also need a license or certification.
    • Mental health counselors and marriage and family therapists work in a variety of settings, such as private practice and mental health centers. Most work full time. All states require both mental health counselors and marriage and family therapists to have a master’s degree and a license to practice.
    • Rehabilitation counselors work in a variety of settings, such as schools, prisons, independent-living facilities, rehabilitation agencies, and private practice. Most work full time. Most often, rehabilitation counselors must have a master’s degree in rehabilitation counseling. Some positions require certification or a license.
    • Social and community service managers work for nonprofit organizations, private for-profit social service agencies, and government agencies. Most work full time. Social and community service managers need at least a bachelor’s degree and some work experience. However, many employers prefer candidates who have a master’s degree.
    • Social and human service assistants work for nonprofit organizations, for-profit social service agencies, and state and local governments. They generally work full time, and some work nights and weekends. The minimum requirement is a high school diploma or equivalent, but some employers prefer to hire workers who have additional education or experience. Without additional education, advancement opportunities are limited.
    • Social workers work in a variety of settings, including mental health clinics, schools, hospitals, and private practices. They generally work full time and may need to work evenings and weekends. A bachelor’s degree is required for most direct-service social work positions, but some positions and settings require a master’s degree. Clinical social workers must have a master’s degree. Licensure for social workers varies by state. Clinical social workers must be licensed.

    Decisions About Your Education

    • Employment of school and career counselors is expected to grow by 19 percent from 2010 to 2020, about as fast as the average for all occupations. The number of students attending schools at all levels is expected to increase during the projections decade, boosting demand for both school and career counselors.
    • Employment of substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors is expected to grow by 27 percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations. Growth is expected as more people seek treatment for their addictions or other behaviors and drug offenders are increasingly sentenced to treatment rather than jail time.
    • Employment of psychologists is expected to grow 22 percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations. Job prospects should be best for those who have a doctoral degree in an applied specialty and those with a specialist or doctoral degree in school psychology.
    • Employment of mental health counselors is expected to grow by 36 percent from 2010 to 2020, much faster than the average for all occupations. Employment of marriage and family therapists is expected to grow by 41 percent from 2010 to 2020, much faster than the average for all occupations. Growth is expected as the overall population grows and as insurance companies increasingly provide for reimbursement of counselors and marriage and family therapists as a less costly alternative to psychiatrists and psychologists.
    • Employment of rehabilitation counselors is expected to grow by 28 percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations. Demand for rehabilitation counselors is expected to grow with the increase in the elderly population and with the continued rehabilitation needs of other groups, such as veterans and people with disabilities.
    • Employment of social and community service managers is expected to grow by 27 percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations. Growth is expected due to increases in the aging population, increases in demand for substance abuse treatment, and overall population growth.
    • Employment of social and human service assistants is expected to grow by 28 percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations. There should be good job prospects, as low pay and heavy workloads cause many workers to leave this occupation.
    • Employment of social workers is expected to grow by 25 percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations. Growth will be due to an increase in demand for health care and social services but will vary by specialty.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Module X Handouts

    • 3-2-1 Strategies for Job Success
    • Careers in Counseling and Mental Health
    • Employee Rights Poster
    • How to Set Career Goals
    • Interests/Abilities in Counseling and Mental Health
    • Networking in the Field
    • Notetaking: A Look at Workplace Ethics
    • Think Ink Pair Share Ethics and Work Skills
    • What Makes a Good Employee
    • Workplace Ethics

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas:

    • Have students complete Careers in Counseling and Mental Health
    • Students will complete the graphic organizer How to Set Career Goals
    • To help students determine their abilities and interests in the field of Counseling and Mental Health, the students will complete Interests/Abilities in Counseling and Mental Health
    • Students will understand the importance of networking by completing Networking in the Field
    • Interpersonal Studies lesson End of Course Project Options will give the teacher and student options for completing the course.

    References and Resources:

    Textbooks:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child Development Early Stages Through Age 12. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Decker, C. (2004). Children: The Early Years. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Johnson, L. (2004). Strengthening Family & Self. (3rd ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Ryder, V., & Decker, C. (2010). Parents and Their Children. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Sasse, C. (2004). Families Today. (4th ed.). Peoria: McGraw Hill.

    Websites:

    YouTube™:

    • Careers in Psychology, Counseling and Social Work
      Are you thinking about a career in psychology, social work, or counseling? Would you like to know more about the differences between the areas? Join us for an opportunity to meet professionals in these fields, learn if one of these is the career for you, and make sure you are on the right path.
      http://youtu.be/6iskVuzXL2c

    Interpersonal Studies Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Which of the following are career descriptions for substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors?

    • a. They work in a wide variety of settings, such as mental health centers, prisons, and private practice.
    • b. Most work full time.
    • c. Educational requirements range from a high school diploma to a master’s degree, depending on the setting, type of work, state regulations, and level of responsibility.
    • d. all of the above

    2. Which of the following are career descriptions for mental health counselors and marriage and family therapists?

    • a. They work in a wide variety of settings, such as mental health centers, prisons, and private practice.
    • b. They work in a variety of settings, such as private practice and mental health centers.
    • c. States require both counselors and marriage therapists to have a master’s degree and a license to practice.
    • d. b and c

    3. Employment of school and career counselors is expected to grow by ___ percent from 2010 to 2020, about as fast as the average for all occupations.

    • a. 29
    • b. 18
    • c. 19
    • d. 21

    4. Employment of marriage and family therapists is expected to grow by ______percent from 2010 to 2020, much faster than the average for all occupations.

    • a. 39
    • b. 41
    • c. 21
    • d. 44

    5. A _________ degree is required for most direct-service social work positions, but some positions and settings require a _________ degree.

    • a. master’s/bachelor’s
    • b. bachelor’s/associate’s
    • c. bachelor’s/master’s
    • d. master’s/doctorate’s

  • XI. Employability Skills and XII. Management Practices of Individuals

    Employability Skills:

    (12) The student exhibits employability skills.

    • (A) practice effective verbal, nonverbal, written and electronic communication skills
    • (B) analyze the influence of cultural background on patterns of communication
    • (C) practice positive interpersonal skills, including conflict resolution, negotiation, teamwork and leadership
    • (E) use leadership and team member skills in problem solving situations

    Module Content

    Employability Skills is the 11th unit of study in the Interpersonal Studies course. This section contains two TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Developing Workplace Skills
    • B. Strategies for Job Success

    Module XI Handouts

    Developing Workplace Skills

    Total employment is expected to increase by 20.5 million jobs from 2010 to 2020, with 88 percent of detailed occupations projected to experience employment growth. Industries and occupations related to health care, personal care, social assistance, and construction are projected to have the fastest job growth between 2010 and 2020.
    Jobs requiring a master’s degree are expected to grow the fastest, while those requiring a high school diploma will experience the slowest growth over the 2010–20 time frame. Slower population growth and a decreasing overall labor force participation rate are expected to lead to slower civilian labor force growth.

    Job openings result from the relationship that exists among the:

    • population
    • labor force
    • demand for goods and services

    The population restricts the size of the labor force, which consists of working individuals and those looking for work. The size and productivity of the labor force limits the quantity of goods and services that can be produced. In addition, changes in the demand for goods and services influence which industries expand or contract. Industries respond by hiring the workers necessary to produce goods and provide services.

    However, improvements in technology and productivity, changes in which occupations perform certain tasks, and changes in the supply of workers all affect which occupations will be employed by those industries. Examining past and present changes in these relationships in order to project future shifts is the foundation of the Employment Projections program of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS, the Bureau). This page presents highlights of BLS population, labor force, and occupational and industry employment projections for 2010–2020. For more information, visit the Employment Projections at http://www.bls.gov/emp/

    Developing workplace skills allows for efficient career exploration and planning. What workplace skills are employers in the 21st Century requiring?

    Basic Skills

    • Content skill—background skills that are needed to work with and acquire more specific skills in a variety of domains
      • Active listening
      • Mathematics
      • Reading
      • Science
      • Speaking
      • Writing

    • Process skills—procedures that contribute to more rapid acquisition of knowledge and skill across a variety of domains
      • Active learning
      • Critical thinking
      • Monitoring
      • Strategy learning

    Transferable skills

    • Social skills—working with people to achieve goals
      • Coordination
      • Instructing
      • Negotiation
      • Persuasion
      • Service orientation
      • Social perceptiveness
    • Complex problem-solving skills—solving problems in real world settings
      • Idea evaluation
      • Idea generation
      • Implementation planning
      • Information gathering
      • Information organization
      • Problem identification
      • Solution appraisal
      • Synthesis/reorganization
    • Technical skills—designing, setting up, operating, and correcting malfunctions involving machines and technological systems
      • Equipment maintenance
      • Equipment selection
      • Installation
      • Operation and control
      • Operation monitoring
      • Operations analysis
      • Programming
      • Product inspection
      • Repairing
      • Technology design
      • Testing
      • Troubleshooting
    • Systems skills—understanding, monitoring, and improving organizations and systems
      • Identifying downstream consequences
      • Identifying key causes
      • Judgment and decision-making
      • Systems evaluation
      • Systems perception
      • Visioning
    • Resource management skills—allocating resources efficiently, including finances, materials, and human resources
      • Management of financial resources
      • Management of material resources
      • Management of personnel resources
      • Management of time

    On-the-job training encompasses any additional training or preparation that is typically needed, once employed in an occupation, to attain competency in the skills needed in that occupation. Training is occupation-specific rather than job-specific; therefore, skills learned can be transferred to another job in the same occupation.

    Occupations are assigned one of the following six training categories:

    • Internship/residency—An internship or residency is training that involves preparation in a field such as medicine or teaching, generally under supervision in a professional setting, such as a hospital or classroom. This type of training may occur before one is employed. Completion of an internship or residency program is commonly required for state licensure or certification in fields including medicine, counseling, architecture, and teaching. This category does not include internships that are suggested for advancement. Examples of occupations in the internship/residency category include physicians and surgeons and marriage and family therapists.
    • Apprenticeship—An apprenticeship is a formal relationship between a worker and sponsor that consists of a combination of on-the-job training and related occupation-specific technical instruction in which the worker learns the practical and theoretical aspects of an occupation. Apprenticeship programs are sponsored by individual employers, joint employer-and-labor groups, and employer associations. The typical apprenticeship program provides at least 144 hours of occupation-specific technical instruction and 2,000 hours of on-the-job training per year over a 3-to-5 year period. Examples of occupations in the apprenticeship category include electricians and structural iron and steel workers.
    • Long-term on-the-job training. More than 12 months of on-the-job training or, alternatively, combined work experience and formal classroom instruction, are needed for workers to develop the skills to attain competency. Training is occupation specific rather than job specific; therefore, skills learned can be transferred to another job in the same occupation. This on-the-job training category also includes employer-sponsored training programs. Such programs include those offered by fire and police academies and schools for air traffic controllers and flight attendants. In other occupations—nuclear power reactor operators, for example—trainees take formal courses, often provided at the jobsite, to prepare for the required licensing exams. This category excludes apprenticeships. Examples of occupations in the long-term on-the-job training category include opticians and automotive service technicians and mechanics.
    • Moderate-term on-the-job training. Skills needed for a worker to attain competency in an occupation that can be acquired during 1 to 12 months of combined on-the-job experience and informal training. Training is occupation-specific rather than job-specific; therefore, skills learned can be transferred to another job in the same occupation. This on-the-job training category also includes employer-sponsored training programs. Examples of occupations in the moderate-term category include school bus drivers and advertising sales agents.
    • Short-term on-the-job training. Skills needed for a worker to attain competency in an occupation that can be acquired during 1 month or less of on-the-job experience and informal training. Training is occupation-specific rather than job specific; therefore, skills learned can be transferred to another job in the same occupation. This on-the-job training category also includes employer-sponsored training programs. Examples of occupations in the short-term category include retail salespersons and maids and housekeeping cleaners.
    • None. There is no additional occupation-specific training or preparation typically required to attain competency in the occupation. Examples of occupations that do not require occupation-specific on-the-job training include geographers and pharmacists.

    Strategies for Job Success

    In an uncertain economy, reliable information about tomorrow’s labor market can be a valuable tool in career planning. Understanding the future workforce helps you prepare for your place in it.

    When choosing among careers—or assisting others who are making such choices—it helps to know a few basics:

    • the types and number of jobs likely to be available
    • the wages of workers in those occupations
    • the typical ways of preparing for them.

    And that’s just to get started.

    The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) provides this information and more.

    The 2012–13 Occupational Outlook Handbook describes hundreds of occupations in:

    • detail
    • cataloging data on employment
      • wages
      • projections
      • education
      • job duties

    View http://www.bls.gov/ooh/ for additional information.

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings—and good wages—promise better opportunities. But when it comes to employment prospects, job growth tells only part of the story. Job openings for workers also come from the need to replace workers who retire or permanently leave an occupation for other reasons.

    The economy’s need for workers originates in the demand for the goods and services that these workers provide. So, to project employment, Bureau Labor Statistics starts by estimating the components of gross domestic product (GDP) for 2020. GDP is the value of the final goods produced and services provided in the United States.
    Then, Bureau Labor Statistics estimates the size—in inflation-adjusted dollars—of the five major categories of production.

    The categories are as follows:

    • Personal consumption expenditures. This category includes purchases made by individuals, including goods (such as cameras, appliances, and food) and services (such as public transportation, personal care, and household maintenance).
    • Gross private domestic investment. This category includes business investment in equipment and software, changes in business inventories, and the construction of houses, factories, hospitals, and other structures.
    • Government consumption expenditures and gross investment. This category includes goods and services bought by federal, state, and local governments.
    • Exports. These are goods and services produced in the United States and purchased in foreign countries.
    • Imports. Imports are goods and services produced abroad and purchased in the United States.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Module XI Handouts

    • 3-2-1 on Strategies for Job Success
    • Article Evaluation
    • Charade Topics
    • Communication Scenarios
    • Conflict Resolution Scenarios – Interpersonal Studies
    • Conflict Resolutions
    • Employability Skills
    • Five Steps for Effective Communication
    • Job-Related Communication Scenarios
    • Sample of Charade Topics
    • Self-Assessment of Communication Survey
    • Service Learning Demonstrating Communication Skills
    • Slide Presentation Notes
    • Steps to Resolve Conflicts
    • The Communication Process Quiz
    • The Communication Process Quiz (Key)
    • Typical on-the-Job Training Needed to Attain Competency in the Occupation
    • Word Chain Activity
    • You Statements versus I Statements
    • You Statements versus I Statements

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas:

    • Have students complete a ticket out with at least one employability workplace skill they are going to need in the 21st century. A ticket out is a half sheet of paper that students are required to fill out in order to leave class. It gives the teacher an idea of how well the students grasped the concept learned in class that day.
    • Have students create a paragraph by answering each of these questions: What-Why-How on Employability Skills– What do you think about the topic? (your opinion) Why do you think it? (reasons) How do you know? (evidence or examples)
    • Utilize 3-2-1 on Strategies for Job Success Have students write down 3 key terms from what they have just learned, 2 ideas they would like to learn more about, and 1 concept or skill they think they have mastered. Make sure the point is immediately evident.
    • Utilize RAFT, which is an acronym for Role (of the writer), Audience, Format and Topic. The RAFT strategy is a post-reading exercise outlined to determine student understanding of the material in a creative and relevant way.
      Role: Employer
      Audience: Employee
      Format: Letter
      Topic: What are employability workplace skills? What is the importance of attaining them?
    • Complete Employability Skills table by listing an employability skill, importance of having that particular skill in the job market, methods of obtaining the skill, and resources to obtain the skill.
    • Complete Typical on-the-Job Training Needed to Attain Competency in the Occupation to determine additional training or preparation that is typically needed, once employed in an occupation, to attain competency in the skills needed in that occupation.

    References and Resources:

    Textbooks:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child Development Early Stages Through Age 12. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Decker, C. (2004). Children: The Early Years. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Johnson, L. (2004). Strengthening Family & Self. (3rd ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Ryder, V., & Decker, C. (2010). Parents and Their Children. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Sasse, C. (2004). Families Today. (4th ed.). Peoria: McGraw Hill.

    Websites:

    • Bureau of Labor Statistics
      Employment Projections
      http://www.bls.gov/emp
    • Bureau of Labor Statistics
      Occupational Outlook Handbook: Welcome to the Nation?s premier source for career information! The profiles featured here cover hundreds of occupations and describe What They Do, Work Environment, How to Become One, Pay, and more. Each profile also includes BLS employment projections for the 2010–20 decade.
      http://www.bls.gov/ooh/
    • Occupational Outlook Handbook
      Teacher’s Guide
      http://www.bls.gov/ooh/About/Teachers-Guide.htm

    YouTube™:

    Interpersonal Studies Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Total employment is expected to increase by ____million jobs from 2010 to 2020, with 88 percent of detailed occupations projected to experience employment growth.

    • a. 16.5
    • b. 20.5
    • c. 24.5
    • d. 18.5

    2. Jobs requiring a master’s degree are expected to grow the ________, while those requiring a high school diploma will experience the _________ growth over the 2010–20 timeframe.

    • a. slowest/faster
    • b. fastest/slowest
    • c. slowest/shortest
    • d. none of the above

    3. Workplace skills employers are requiring in the 21st Century are__________.

    • a. content and writing skills
    • b. complex problem solving and technical skills
    • c. process and transferable skills
    • d. all of the above

    4. A/an ________________ is training that involves preparation in a field such as medicine or teaching, generally under supervision in a professional setting, such as a hospital or classroom.

    • a. short-term on-the-job training
    • b. apprenticeship
    • c. internship or residency
    • d. none of the above

    5. When choosing among careers—or assisting others who are making such choices—it helps to know these basics:

    • a. the typical ways of preparing for them
    • b. the wages of workers in those occupations
    • c. the types and number of jobs likely to be available
    • d. all of the above

    Management Practices of Individuals

    (13) The student analyzes management practices facilitating individuals assuming multiple family, community, and wage-earner roles.

    • (A) determine the impact of career choice on family life
    • (B) describe the effect of family life on workplace productivity
    • (C) determine employment practices and trends that support families
    • (D) explain how technology impacts career options and family roles

    Module Content

    Management Practices of Individuals is the 12th unit of study in the Interpersonal Studies course. This section contains four TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Types of Family and Work Relationships
    • B. Employment Trends
    • C. Realities of the Workplace
    • D. Techniques for Managing Family and Work

    Module 12 handouts

    Types of Family and Work Relationships

    Nearly three-quarters of all mothers are in the labor force. Even among mothers with very young children, more than sixty percent are in the labor force. Unmarried mothers are more likely to work than married mothers. The most popular type of childcare arrangement for preschool children is center based.
    In 2010, 48 percent of children ages 0–4 with employed mothers were primarily cared for by a relative—their father, grandparent, sibling, other relative—while she worked. This is not statistically different from the percentages in 2005 and 2002. Twenty-four percent spent the most amount of time in a center-based arrangement (day care, nursery school, preschool, or Head Start). Fourteen percent were primarily cared for by a nonrelative in a home-based environment, such as a family day care provider, nanny, babysitter, or au pair. Among married couples, the combined weekly hours of husbands and wives are rising. In 1969, couples age 25-54 worked an average of 56 hours a week. By 2000, this had increased to 67 hours. Couples with children under 18 tend to work somewhat fewer hours than those without children—66 hours compared with 70 hours. Nevertheless, average combined hours have increased by almost 20 percent over the past three decades for both groups. The increase mostly reflects the fact that more and more women are working, with those who work increasingly likely to be employed year round. The average commuting time for workers who drive to work is 20 minutes each way. About one worker in eight spends 40 minutes or more driving to work.

    Employment Trends

    • The very rapid labor force growth over the 1970s reflected two dramatic changes: the baby-boom generation reached working age, and it became more common for women to work outside the home. Since the 1970s, the labor force has continued to grow, but at a slower rate. A substantial slowdown in the pace of labor force growth is projected for the 2015-25 period, as the baby-boom generation retires. The baby-boom generation was born from 1946 to 1964. The oldest baby boomers turned 55 in 2001.
    • About 60 percent of all women are in the labor force, compared with nearly 75 percent of all men. (The participation rate is the share of the population 16 years and older working or seeking work.) The long-term increase in the female labor force largely reflects the greater frequency of paid work among mothers. The slow long-term decline in work activity among men reflects, in part, the trend to earlier retirement. Women now account for 47 percent of the labor force, up from 40 percent in 1975. Among married-couple families where both the wife and the husband work, about one-fifth of the wives earn more than their husbands.
    • The median age of the labor force is rising. It approached 41 years in 2008 — a very high level by historical standards. (The median age is the age at which half of the labor force is younger and half of the labor force is older.) Many of the changes in the age structure of the labor force reflect the aging of the baby boomers. One-fifth of men in the labor force are veterans. The median age of these workers is 50 years, compared with 39 years for non-veterans.
    • Asians and Hispanics have the fastest labor force growth, primarily because of immigration. The higher-than-average labor force growth for blacks reflects a higher birth rate among blacks than among white non-Hispanics. White non-Hispanics are still the largest labor force group, accounting for about 71 percent of the labor force in 2008. Hispanics account for about 13 percent, black non-Hispanics for about 11 percent, and Asians and other groups for about 5 percent. Half of all Hispanics live in California and Texas, but over the past decade nearly all states saw an increase in the Hispanic share of their population.
    • Only about seven percent of 25-34-year-old workers born in the U.S. have not completed high school. In contrast, about 26 percent of recent immigrants in that age group have not obtained a high school diploma. (Recent immigrants are foreign-born persons who entered the country from 1996 to 2000.) At the same time, recent immigrants age 25-34 are more than twice as likely as their U.S.-born counterparts to have a master’s or higher degree. Large numbers of legal immigrants come to the United States from Mexico, China, India, and the Philippines.
    • College graduates age 25 and over earn nearly twice as much as workers who stopped with a high school diploma. College graduates have experienced growth in real (inflation-adjusted) earnings since 1979. In contrast, high school dropouts have seen their real earnings decline. From 1979 to 2000, the earnings of college-educated women grew nearly twice as fast as the earnings of men, but these women still earn less than men. The unemployment rate for workers who dropped out of high school is nearly four times the rate for college graduates. High school graduates are more likely to go on to college today than in the past. The share of high school graduates in that age group, along with the share of those with some college, have also reached record levels. In 2012, 90 percent were high school graduates, up from 78 percent in 1971. And 63 percent have completed some college work, up from 34 percent in 1971.
    • Benefits’ share of compensation costs has remained relatively steady since the late 1970s. Legally required benefits (Social Security, Medicare, unemployment insurance, and workers’ compensation) account for the largest share of benefit costs — nearly three-tenths of the total. Vacations, holidays, sick leave, and other paid leave account for about a quarter of benefit costs. Stock option and related stock-purchase plans are available to less than 10 percent of the workforce.
    • With more retirement plan choices, today’s workers are increasingly responsible for their own retirement planning. A declining share of workers are enrolled in traditional defined benefit plans, which promise workers a specific monthly benefit upon retiring. A growing share of workers are in defined contribution plans, such as 401(k) plans, where their retirement income will be much more dependent on their own investment decisions. Workers with defined contribution plans can more easily transfer retirement savings from one employer to another or into private accounts. About half of all American families owned publicly traded stock in 1998; the proportion had been only one-third a decade earlier. Families own stock in many different ways—through direct ownership, mutual funds, retirement accounts, or other managed assets.

    Realities of the Workplace

    With short-term on-the-job training, workers develop the skills needed after a short demonstration or up to one month of on-the-job experience or instruction. In moderate-term on-the-job training, workers develop the skills needed after 1 to 12 months of combined on-the-job experience and informal training. Long-term on-the-job training requires more than 12 months of on-the-job training or combined work experience and classroom instruction. Post-secondary vocational training requires completion of vocational school training and may require passing an examination after completing the training. Completion of an associate’s degree program requires at least 2 years of full-time academic work. The 2012 Median Income of U.S. households was $45,018 per annum.

    Of the 10 fastest-growing occupations, the top 5 are computer related. Three of the top 10 are health related: personal care and home health aides, medical assistants, and physician assistants. Half of all persons age 35-54 participate in adult education, the majority in career- or job-related courses.

    The Social Security Administration expects that before the middle of the 21st century there will be only two workers for every Social Security beneficiary; as recently as 1960 there were five workers for every beneficiary. Of the 45 million people receiving Social Security payments in 2000, about 29 million were retired workers. The remainder were spouses of retirees, spouses and children of disabled and deceased workers, and disabled persons under age 65. Many disabled people work. According to the Census Bureau, among those whose disabilities were classified as not severe, 82 percent of those age 21-64 were working in 1997, only slightly different from those without disabilities. Among the severely disabled, 31 percent were employed.

    Over the last 2 decades, the number of years men have been with their employer has fallen. In contrast, the number of years women have been with their employer has risen slightly. People change jobs for many reasons. For instance, if the economy is performing well, more workers may take the opportunity to change jobs. When that happens, measures of workers’ length of service can decline. The average person in the U.S. holds around 9 jobs from age 18 to age 34.

    Techniques for Managing Family and Work

    The share of women in the labor force grew from 30 percent in 1950 to almost 47 percent in 2000, and the number of working women is projected to reach 92 million by 2050—on the basis of an annual growth rate of 0.7 percent. That same year, women’s share of the workforce is expected to be nearly 48 percent. How do families balance family and work? Today’s families share the household responsibilities. Each family is unique on how they deal with roles and responsibilities of the family. According to Sasse (2004), studies have shown that women who are married, have two children, and are employed work an average of about 75-80 hours a week total including at home. Women still do the majority of the household duties such as laundry, cooking, and cleaning. Men are responsible for the yard, vehicle maintenance, home repair, and the household budget. Unless there is good communication concerning the distribution of roles and responsibilities of household, the parties involved will not fully understand the situation. This could perhaps lead to anger, frustration, and resentment.

    Couples should develop a checklist to communicate effectively about household work. A checklist could include:

    • identify all work to be done and list how often the job needs to be done and the time it will take to complete the task
    • set a standard of completion
    • determine the responsibilities of each family member; ask for preferences of the duties keeping in mind age, skills, and strength. Some responsibilities can be completed individually or as a team. A rotation system can also be developed.
    • set up a specific schedule and place it on a poster, calender, chart, or notebook within everyone’s view
    • evaluate the efficiency of the schedule. Are the tasks getting completed? Is everyone taking on their responsibility? What changes are needed?

    Another tip for managing family and work is to set up a family calendar. Find one that is large enough to write several items and post it in an accessible place. All family can update it as they see fit. Conduct regular family meetings. Good communication skills are essential to manage family and work.

    The meetings could include work responsibilities such as:

    • complaints
    • values
    • goals
    • upcoming events
    • changes to the calendar
    • problems

    A family bulletin board is a valuable tool to help a family manage their busy lives.
    Employers realize the challenges of trying to balance a family and work. They are creating policies that appeal to people who need to blend family and personal life smoothly with their careers.

    Some of the changes in workplace policies include the following:

    • offering leave of absence to workers, which provides time off from work to use for some purpose
    • alternating work schedules, which eases the lives of employees by providing alternate work schedules
    • offering flexible work hours, which give the employees some control over their lives and makes them feel better about their jobs, as well as become more productive workers
    • compressing the work week, which may mean offering a three-day weekend
    • job sharing, which occurs when two people divide the time and responsibilities of one job

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Module 12 handouts

    • Balancing Multiple Roles
    • Rubric for Brochure
    • Venn Diagram-Compare Responsibilities of Working Parents Today

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas:

    • Develop a checklist about household work and how it can improve family relationships and strengthen communication.
    • Utilize the Internet to locate articles about balancing work and family life. Summarize the information from the articles into a brochure or fact sheet. Students will be assessed by Rubric for Brochure.
    • Have students complete Venn Diagram-Compare Responsibilities of Working Parents Today.
    • Interview a working parent on managing work and a family using Balancing Multiple Roles.
    • Have students each print a source of information about EMPLOYMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILIES — 2011, pair off and trade documents, and then use the ”read, write, pair, share” strategy. They will first read independently, then write about what they have read, and finally discuss in pairs their insight into the careers they have read about.
      http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/famee.pdf

    References and Resources:

    Textbooks:

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child Development Early Stages Through Age 12. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Decker, C. (2004). Children: The Early Years. (5th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Johnson, L. (2004). Strengthening Family & Self. (3rd ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Ryder, V., & Decker, C. (2010). Parents and Their Children. (7th ed.). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Sasse, C. (2004). Families Today. (4th ed.). Peoria: McGraw Hill.

    Websites:

    • Bureau of Labor Statistics
      Employment Projections
      http://www.bls.gov/emp
    • Bureau of Labor Statistics
      EMPLOYMENT CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILIES — 2011
      http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/famee.pdf
    • Bureau of Labor Statistics
      Working in the 21st Century is a portrait of the U.S. workforce at the beginning of the New Millennium: a set of charts and related information about subjects ranging from education levels to retirement plans.
      http://www.bls.gov/opub/working/home.htm
    • Forum on Child and Family Statistics
      The Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, or the Forum, is a working group of Federal agencies that collect, analyze, and report data on issues related to children and families. The Forum has partners from 22 Federal agencies as well as partners in private research organizations
      http://www.childstats.gov

    YouTube™:

    • Preparing for the Future Jobs
      Stay on top of job trends and keep yourself marketable on the job front. Find more job search advice and compare resume writing companies at www.resumelines.com.
      http://youtu.be/VFeqnK3Z6BM
    • The World of Work
      In today’s global environment there is considerable pressure on businesses to do more with less. Companies are looking for trustworthy talent at competitive rates, while wanting to create a flexible workforce that will allow them to scale up and down as needed.
      Meanwhile, workers around the world are seeking new ways to leverage their existing talents while gaining flexibility in their lifestyle. They are focusing their skills and seeking jobs that best showcase their particular talents, all while being mindful of the many pitfalls and false promises contractors often face.
      http://youtu.be/5JNzAmWG2Fs

    Interpersonal Studies Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Nearly _________ of all mothers are in the labor force.

    • a. one-fourth
    • b. three-quarters
    • c. one-half
    • d. none of the above

    2. College graduates age 25 and over earn nearly ________ as much as workers who stopped with a high school diploma.

    • a. one-fourth
    • b. the same
    • c. twice
    • d. half

    3. Families own stock in many different ways through ____________.

    • a. direct ownership
    • b. mutual funds
    • c. retirement accounts or other managed assets
    • d. all of the above

    4. Three of the top 10 fastest growing occupations are ____________.

    • a. nurses, counselors, and physician assistants
    • b. personal care and home health aides, medical assistants, and physician assistants
    • c. home health aides, school nurses, and personal care aides
    • d. none of the above

    5. Employers realize the challenges of trying to balance a family and work. They are creating policies that appeal to people who need to blend family and personal life smoothly with their careers such as:

    • a. offering leave of absence to workers
    • b. alternating work schedules
    • c. compressing the work week and offering flexible work hours
    • d. all of the above

  • End of Course Project Options/Course Outline

    An excellent way to end the semester or school year is with a culminating course project. See End of Course Project Options Lesson for Interpersonal Studies.

    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/end-of-course-project-options-interpersonal studies

    Culminating activities at the end of the course give students an opportunity to reflect and apply all of their knowledge and skills into an end of course project.

    Interpersonal Studies Course Outline
    The lessons in this course may be used in any sequence. The suggested sequence order is based on the Scope and Sequence for the course.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/2013/02/10/interpersonal-studies

  • Quiz

    Interpersonal Studies Online Course

    Progress:

    1. Factors which affect personal identity, personality, and self esteem are________________.

    2. Factors that tend to help shape a person’s identity are________________.

    3. Which of the following is true about personality?

    4. Your character traits are defined by your inner traits or moral qualities such as______________.

    5. ___________ is a concept of personality; for it to grow, we need to have self-worth, which is sought from embracing challenges that result in the showing of success

    6. What is the decision-making process?

    7. What are the consequences of using the decision-making process?

    8. In using the decision-making process, identifying the alternative is________.

    9. Some rules to remember when making decisions are:

    10. Which of the following is evidence that making good health care decisions is beneficial?

    11. What are some adjustments which are related to achieving independence?

    12. What are some of the responsibilities of living as an independent adult?

    13. Why are the stages of life, such as infancy, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, middle life, and late life, important?

    14. An intimate relationship includes which of the following?

    15. According to a study performed on about 5,500 teens and presented at an American Heart Association meeting, which of the following was true?

    16. What is the family’s role in the development of relationships?

    17. Why is dating important?

    18. Good communication is vital to a good relationship because _________.

    19. What is self-disclosure?

    20. What is a relationship?

    21. Why is it important to promote positive friendships outside the family?

    22. What influences do peers have on an individual?

    23. A good healthy peer relationship includes:

    24. Characteristics of a healthy relationship include the following:

    25. The world is constantly changing in the areas of social and economic trends. One of the absolute changes has been the shift from being an ________society to an __________ society.

    26. An engagement serves which purpose?

    27. The period of engagement allows the couple to seriously think about their future together. Communication is very important during the engagement period. Things that should be discussed are __________.

    28. Some rules for nurturing a loving relationship include the following:

    29. As far as communication goes, showing signs of affection, verbally and non-verbally, is important throughout marriage and enhances marital satisfaction.

    30. Good communication fosters couple satisfaction and is an important component of family ___________(emotional bonding of family members).

    31. What are the stages of the family life cycle?

    32. A two-parent family, or nuclear family, consists of __________.

    33. Which is true of an extended kinship family?

    34. Which is true of foster parents?

    35. The following facts about being a single parent are true except for one:

    36. Types of crisis-producing events include __________.

    37. A distinct phase of a family crisis is_________.

    38. Factors associated with meeting a crisis creatively include __________.

    39. ________________ families cope well in a time of crisis or adversity.

    40. During very difficult family changes, children may have developmental regressions. The reason for this is _________.

    41. Stress affects the body as well as one’s emotional state by causing ________.

    42. __________ is/are beneficial in all Human Services/Counseling and Mental Health career fields.

    43. Some mental/emotional stress-management techniques include __________.

    44. Employment of school and career counselors is expected to grow by ___ percent from 2010 to 2020, about as fast as the average for all occupations.

    45. Employment of marriage and family therapists is expected to grow by ______percent from 2010 to 2020, much faster than the average for all occupations.

    46. Jobs requiring a master’s degree are expected to grow the ________, while those requiring a high school diploma will experience the _________ growth over the 2010–20 timeframe.

    47. A/an ________________ is training that involves preparation in a field such as medicine or teaching, generally under supervision in a professional setting, such as a hospital or classroom.

    48. Nearly _________ of all mothers are in the labor force.

    49. College graduates age 25 and over earn nearly ________ as much as workers who stopped with a high school diploma.

    50. Three of the top 10 fastest growing occupations are ____________

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