Instructional Practices in Education and Training Online Course

  • Instructional Practices in Education and Training Online Course Introduction

    Career and Technical Education (CTE) in Texas is organized around 16 career clusters and 79 career pathways. Instructional Practices in Education and Training is one of 4 courses in the Education and Training career cluster that equip students with:

    • core academic skills
    • employability skills
    • job specific technical skills

    Students Doing Homework

    Instructional Practices in Education and Training is a field-based internship that provides students with background knowledge of child and adolescent development as well as principles of effective teaching and training practices. Students work under the joint direction and supervision of both a teacher with knowledge of early childhood education and exemplary educators or trainers in direct instructional roles with elementary-, middle school-, and high school-aged students.

    Students learn to plan and direct individualized instruction and group activities, prepare instructional materials, develop materials for educational environments, assist with record keeping, and complete other responsibilities of teachers, trainers, paraprofessionals, or other educational personnel.

    Important
    This online course consists of an introduction and thirteen modules. Carefully read all course content to become familiar with the TEKS, student expectations, published lessons, and suggested activities. Names of handouts, graphic organizers, slide presentations appear in bold letters. Refer to attachments at the end of each module for additional information. 12 pre-assessment multiple choice statements can be found at the end of the Introduction. Each module ends with seven multiple choice statements.

    After completing the course, you will be required to complete a 50 question quiz and submit your name and email address. You will receive a certificate of completion at that address.

    The certificates for the successful completion of the online courses are NOT automatically computer generated and are reviewed individually. Certificates will be generated Monday through Friday between the hours of 8:00am and 5:00pm.
    For questions, contact: sfacte@gmail.com

    As approved by the Texas Education Agency, a passing score of 80 is required to receive a certificate equalling six (6) Continuing Professional Education (CPE) credits.

    Modifications for the Special Education and English Language Proficient Students

    Many links provided in this course can also be translated in Spanish or other languages for your ELPS students so they may understand the information. An auditory symbol may be visible and can be used for your Special Education students so that they can hear the information as they read it.

    Refer to the Introductory Lesson: Instructional Practices in Education and Training for an overview of ALL course TEKS and student expectations.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/introductory-lesson-instructional-practices-in-education-and-training/

    Instructional Practices in Education and Training Course Outline
    The lessons in this course may be used in any sequence. The suggested sequence order is based on the Scope and Sequence for the course.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/2013/06/23/instructional-practices-in-education-and-training-course-outline/

  • I. Course Introduction/ Historical Overview

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student explores the teaching and training profession.

    • (A) demonstrate an understanding of the historical foundations of education and training in the United States

    College students

    Module Content

    This section of the Instructional Practices in Education and Training course is divided into the following units of study:

    • A. Introduction
    • B. Historical Foundations
      • 1. Colonial Period
      • 2. Revolutionary Period
      • 3. State Supported Common Schools
      • 4. Compulsory Education
      • 5. Progressive Era
      • 6. Post World War II Schools to Present

    Refer to lesson “Where Will We Go from Here?” for additional references and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/where-will-we-go-from-here/

    Module I Handouts

    A. Introduction

    High School Students are Specialists in Education

    High school students have been in school for many years, taking a variety of classes, with a vast collection of teachers. They have survived creative instructors, innovative activities, long lectures, with everyone from first-year to retiring teachers. For years they have been immersed in the career of education, experiencing the “good, the bad, and the ugly.”

    • In spite of those experiences or because of them, students who choose to take Instructional Practices in Education and Training, want to know more about being a teacher. Even though students have many educational experiences, most of them take education for granted. They have never thought about how the people and events that built this country are reflected in the educational system.
    • Most students believe that education will improve their life and think of it as a necessary step to a better future. In the meantime though, they expect class to be fun, entertaining, relevant, and “not history again.”
    • Teaching the historical foundations of education is a time to help students begin to appreciate how the events in America and the world influenced the daily lives of people like them. Students can realize that education is a continuously changing collection of old and new ideas, strategies, and techniques.

    B. Historical Foundations

    1. Colonial period

    • The colonists came seeking religious freedom and started schools to support their beliefs.
    • Colonial schools mainly taught white males.
    • Dame schools were taught by respected women who had learned to read and write. They initially taught male students in their homes. Later, in New England, females were allowed to attend but their curriculum focused on homemaking.
      • The first Latin grammar school, in Boston, was for boys who could afford to pay for education and was
        similar to modern high school.
      • Harvard University, the first institution of higher education, was founded in 1636.
      • Compulsory education laws were passed requiring students to go to school, but they did not provide funds to pay for the schools.
      • The New England Primer and the Horn Book were samples of early learning materials.
      • There was no formal teacher preparation.
      • Teachers had little status, they often had to live with families of students, and they received low pay.

    2. Revolutionary Period of Education

    • Many political leaders, such as Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson, were also leaders in education.
    • Private academies were established with a variety of curriculum areas.
    • Town schools were created for whole communities.
    • Quakers, believing that education was for everyone, developed schools for boys, girls, Native Americans and African Americans.
    • Several colleges were established that originally focused on theology; and later, law, medicine, and commerce.
    • Noah Webster wrote The American Spelling Book.

    3. State Supported Common Schools and Compulsory Education

    • Common schools were the first free public schools.
    • They were elementary schools supported by communities.
    • Horace Mann, known as the Father of American Education, was an important advocate for common schools.
    • The McGuffey Reader was the most common book in schools.
    • The first normal school for teacher preparation was created in Massachusetts in 1839.
    • Laws also paved the way for the first public high school, and kindergarten programs.
    • Frontier schools were usually one room where all ages and abilities learned together with few books or supplies.
    • Children with disabilities were beginning to obtain services in separate schools.
    • Mexican American children and African American children continued to face challenges at school if they were allowed to go to school.
    • The arrival of many immigrants and the industrial movement increased the need for vocational education.
    • The Morrill Act granted land and financial support for new colleges.

    4. Compulsory Education

    In the United States, compulsory education was first established in Massachusetts in 1852. The law specified not only a requirement for education, but a requirement that children attend public school.

    The requirement to attend public school is not a universal element of compulsory education. For example, although it was in 1918 that compulsory education became law in every state, many states now allow private or home school education to substitute for public education, though the majority of children in the United States attend state-suported schools.

    The compulsory education requirements in the United States vary by state. In Texas, children between the ages of 6 and 18 attend public school.

    5. The Progressive Era

    • John Dewey, the leader of the Progressive principles, created many ideas to change traditional education.
    • Progressive ideas included considering the interests of the child, teaching problem-solving rather than rote memorizing, adapting the teacher’s role to be a facilitator, more cooperation than competition, and encouraging children to express ideas in a democratic way.
    • Benjamin Bloom advocated his taxonomy of learning that is still an important educational tool.

    6. Post World War II to Present

    • The Vocational Education Act allocated money for career training.
    • The Civil Rights Act said that if schools discriminated on race, color, or national origin, they would not be eligible for federal funding.
    • Legislative acts were also passed to provide funds for low income services, bilingual education, and special education.
    • Education focused on science and math because of space exploration.
    • There was an increased emphasis on middle school and junior high programs.
    • The No Child Left Behind Act was created to mandate accountability for schools to help students master skills and knowledge.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module I Handouts

    • Early Schools Word Web
    • Compare and Contrast: Then and Now
    • Cause and Effect Diagram (To explain how a historical event, such as the Civil War, created other changes.)

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Assign each student a different date or era in American education. They can use books or internet research to compare a typical day in school then to a typical day now. They could also compare education in that era for girls and for boys. Another topic for comparison could be the school or classroom or teaching strategies.
    • After reading about schools in the past, students could work independently or in groups to write a lesson plan for that time period. They could choose what age level and what type of school.
    • Students could research teaching materials, books, or school buildings to create a model of an item from an earlier era.
    • After completing research about the schools in the local area, students could develop a web page about the history of education in their area. This might include interviews with earlier educators or museum personnel.
    • Using web sites or books, each student could choose the five most important events in the history of American education. The students could work in small groups to share their choices and create a group list of the five events they agree upon and why. This could be developed into a class presentation or video with photographs or drawings.
    • Research to plan recess using games from the eighteenth century.
    • Students can use the Cause and Effect Diagram in a variety of ways to clarify understanding of the effects historical events or the effects theorists have had on education.
    • Provide students copies of the TEKS for this course at the beginning of the semester. Remind them to check off each area as they accomplish that section of the TEKS.
    • The Instructional Practices in Education and Training class is an excellent opportunity to involve students in both Family, Career, and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA) and Texas Association for Future Educators (TAFE.)

    References and Resources

    Textbooks

    • Putting It All Together, Texas Tech Curriculum Center for FCS, 2010.
      Includes the history and philosophy of education in the United States
    • Reaching to Teach, The Texas Tech Curriculum Center for FCS, 2005.
    • Teaching, Goodheart-Wilcox Company, 2010.

    Websites

    Videos

    Instructional Practices in Education and Training: Pre-Assessment Quiz

    1. Colonial education was characterized by all of the following except:

    • a. Dame Schools
    • b. no public funds were used to provide education
    • c. there was education for all
    • d. compulsory education laws

    2. Throughout history, many political leaders were also leaders in education, including:

    • a. Benjamin Bloom
    • b. Benjamin Franklin
    • c. Thomas Jefferson
    • d. b and c

    3. ________________schools were the first free public schools.

    • a. Compulsory schools
    • b. Common
    • c. Normal
    • d. Dame

    4. Who is considered the Father of American Education?

    • a. John Dewey
    • b. Benjamin Franklin
    • c. Horace Mann
    • d. McGuffey

    5. Benjamin Bloom created his ____________of learning.

    • a. taxonomy
    • b. list
    • c. strategy
    • d. law

    6. The ___________________Education Act allocated money for career training.

    • a. Morrill
    • b. Vocational
    • c. NCLB
    • d. Civil Rights Act

    7. The ________________________________Act was created to mandate accountability for schools.

    • a. Morrill
    • b. No Child Left Behind
    • c. Vocational Education
    • d. Civil Rights

  • II. Effective Teachers

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student explores the teaching and training profession.

    • (B) determine knowledge and skills needed by teaching and training professionals
    • (C) demonstrate personal characteristics needed by teaching and training professionals

    Young Boy Being Tutored by His Teacher

    Module Content

    This section of the Instructional Practices in Education and Training course is divided into the following units of study:

    • A. Needs
      • 1. Knowledge of Self and Students
      • 2. Knowledge of Subject
      • 3. Knowledge of Educational Theories and Research
    • B. Characteristics

    Refer to lesson Educational Support Staff: Partners in Creating a Strong Learning Community for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/educational-support-staff-partners-in-creating-a-strong-learning-community/

    Refer to lesson How Do I Get That Job? Education Administration for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/how-do-i-get-that-job-education-administration-2/

    Refer to lesson Posting On Your Wall: More Than Just Facebook for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/posting-on-your-wall-more-than-just-facebook/

    Refer to lesson How to Teach Texas Style for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/how-to-teach-texas-style/

    Module II Handouts

    “Texas public schools employ more than 320,000 teachers plus about 70,000 additional professional staff members such as principals, central office administrators, and others. There is a broad range of knowledge, skills, and characteristics needed by the professional educators who teach and work with students in today’s schools.” http://www.hcisd.org/Page/3221
    Fortunately, there is a wealth of good information for students to use in sorting through all careers, and especially those in the Education and Training Cluster.

    A. Needs

    1. Knowledge of Self and Students

    There are many reasons why teachers become teachers. It is helpful for teachers to understand themselves and why they are teaching.

    • Were they a good student and love learning and facilitating learning for others?
    • Were they a student who struggled but had one teacher who changed their life?
    • Are they passionate about the subject matter and want to share that with their students?

    Teachers are responsible for managing and monitoring student learning.

    Successful teachers develop, plan, and alter classroom settings to keep the students’ focus and make effective use of time. They maintain a disciplined learning environment and keep students motivated. Teachers should be the model of an educated person and should exhibit curiosity, honesty, fairness, respect, and appreciation for cultural differences. They need to be able to use their knowledge of the subject matter, human development, educational strategies and experience to teach all students.

    Successful teachers believe that all students can learn and treat all students equally. They know that various students have individual differences and they adjust their teaching practices accordingly. They consider interests, abilities and skills as well as personal circumstances. They also foster students’ self-esteem, character, and respect for others regardless of cultural or other differences.

    2. Knowledge of Subject

    Accomplished teachers have a thorough understanding of the subject they teach, appreciate how it is linked to other subjects, and recognize its connection to the real world. They use their knowledge and skills to help students learn to think, solve problems, and develop skills for living.

    Knowledgeable teachers also have the ability to help students who may not be skilled or particularly interested in the subject. They can present facts and information from a different angle or explain it in a way that reaches all students.

    3. Knowledge of Educational Theories and Research

    Teaching methods and strategies are constantly changing. New research and new interpretations of research create different ways to teach students who are also changing. Every generation has varied learning styles and issues that affect their classroom performance.

    In the area of technology alone, teaching methods and the wealth of information that is available changes almost every month. Teachers must continue to be learners to be most effective.

    They use observation with many other tools to assess progress and performance. These teachers utilize theories of learning and development and continually look for strategies to help each student succeed. Teachers should think systematically about their practice and learn from experience.

    Accomplished teachers work collaboratively with other teachers, administrators, and support staff in education to create policies, allocate resources, and improve education locally, in the state, and nation. They work with parents and families and involve them in the education of their children.

    B. Characteristics

    There is no specific list that describes the perfect teacher. There are traits that many successful teachers have in common, such as caring, responsible, trustworthy, confident, creative, honest, and friendly.

    Some characteristics that are consistently found in teachers whose students excel include:

    Create Independence – avoid being the center of the classroom, motivate students to explore and research, be a part of the learning team, not always the one with all of the answers

    Diverse – use a variety of methods to help students learn, such as active learning, art, poetry, technology, videos, and other media

    Effective Communicator – communicate effectively orally and in writing, are role models for being concise or elaborate as needed

    Flexible – use the community as a classroom, use current resources such as events in the news, technology, and newspapers to enrich learning

    Humor – have a good sense of humor, make and accept jokes, bring joy to tough situations and aren’t afraid to laugh

    Nonconforming – step outside the box, do things differently, keep students interested and engaged, be ready for the unexpected

    Unaccepting – help students develop self-discipline by not accepting work that is not a best effort, push students to evaluate themselves and their efforts

    These traits were summarized from an article archived on the following website:
    Reach Every Child
    A collection of archived articles for many areas of education.
    http://reacheverychild.com/

    The teaching and training field includes a variety of types of jobs. For example, the characteristics that would be necessary to teach kindergarten might be somewhat different from those required to be a trainer for industry or college students.

    Go to the following website and select a teaching profession to investigate at:
    http://www.onetonline.org/

    • As you go through the site, it provides lists of tasks, tools, knowledge, skills, abilities, work activities, and other data. It clarifies the various career choices available and what they involve.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module II Handouts

    • Career Research – Educational Support Staff
    • Job Description of Careers
    • Job Shadowing Project Rubric
    • Job Shadowing Project
    • KWL Chart Support Staff
    • Note Taking Support Staff Creating a Strong Learning Community
    • Personal Characteristics for Effective Teachers
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Exploring Professional Support Services Comp
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Exploring Professional Support Services Comp (Key)
    • TAFE Exploring Professional Support Services Careers Competition
    • Traits for Teachers Around the World
    • Ways to Become Knowledgeable

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Ask students to identify their favorite teacher and individually list at least 5 qualities that made them effective. In small groups, have students list all of the qualities they had identified. As a class, then develop a comprehensive list of Qualities of Effective Teachers. Make a chart with all of the skills and have students make a check by the skills they think they possess and circle the skills they would like to develop.
    • Ask students to create skits or videos to demonstrate personal characteristics needed by education and training professionals.
    • Use the graphic organizer Traits for Teachers Around the World to articulate what they consider as important traits for teachers
    • Encourage students to think about ways teachers become knowledgeable by using the graphic organizer Ways to Become Knowledgeable. This will help them see that it takes more than going to college to become an effective teacher.

    List of References and Resources

    Textbooks

    • Putting It All Together, Texas Tech Curriculum Center for FCS, 2010.
    • Reaching to Teach, The Texas Tech Curriculum Center for FCS, 2005.

    Websites

    Videos

    Instructional Practices in Education and Training: Pre-Assessment Quiz

    1. It is the responsibility of teachers to:

    • a. work with parents and families
    • b. work with policy makers
    • c. only teach the TEKS equitably to all students
    • d. a and b

    2. Every teacher fosters students development in:

    • a. problem-solving, communication skills, analytical thinking
    • b. character development, self-esteem and respect for others
    • c. religion
    • d. a and b

    3. Teachers must __________________what happens in their classroom.

    • a. accept responsibiltiy for
    • b. blame students for
    • c. ignore
    • d. analyze

    4. Teachers must continue to be ____________to be most effective.

    • a. learners
    • b. negative
    • c. controlling
    • d. complainers

    5. Teachers use ____________ with many other tools to assess performance.

    • a. humor
    • b. diversity
    • c. observation skills
    • d. flexibility

    6. Teaching methods are:

    • a. constantly changing
    • b. involving technology
    • c. diverse
    • d. a, b, and c

    7. Effective teachers:

    • a. have a thorough knowledge of the subject they teach
    • b. develop a good lesson and repeat it every year with no changes
    • c. treat all students equally
    • d. a and c

    8. Teachers need to understand:

    • a. themselves
    • b. students
    • c. the subject they teach
    • d. all of the above

  • III. Effective Schools

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student explores the teaching and training profession:

    • (D) identify qualities of effective schools
    • (E) investigate possible career options in the field of education and training

    Module Content

    This section of the Instructional Practices in Education and Training course is divided into the following units of study:

    A. Qualities of Effective Schools
    B. Education and Training Career Options

    Refer to lesson How Do I Get That Job? Education Administration for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/how-do-i-get-that-job-education-administration-2/

    Refer to lesson Educational Support Staff: Partners in Creating a Strong Learning Environment for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/educational-support-staff-partners-in-creating-a-strong-learning-community/

    Module III Handouts

    A. Qualities of Effective Schools

    Effective schools meet the needs of the students they serve with quality teaching and learning programs. Many criteria contribute to effective schools including:

    • Clear and continually updated mission statements, goals and objectives
    • Opportunities for academic preparation and progress
    • Resources, facilities and access to technology
    • Safe environments, no drugs or guns
    • Available support services like health care, food and exercise
    • Effective leaders in administration including parents and community representatives on decision-making boards
    • Assessment programs that include various types of measures
    • Open communication among students and staff encouraging cooperation and collaboration
    • Respect for diversity
    • Continuous and relevant staff development

    The 3 R’s and the 4 C’s for the Future

    Schools must continue to do better at what they have always done with teaching students core subjects. They must also go beyond what they have done in the past to equip students with skills for success in the 21st Century.

    Learning and innovation skills are being recognized as those that separate students who are prepared for a more complex life and work environment and those who are not.

    These skills include:
    Creativity

    • Students need skills and practice for thinking creatively and then refining, analyzing, and evaluating their own ideas.
    • It important for students to incorporate group ideas and be able to communicate their concepts.
    • They also need to realize that failure is a learning opportunity and innovation can be a slow process.

    Critical Thinking

    • This skill involves using various types of reasoning, and analyzing how the parts of the whole work together.
    • Students need to be able to synthesize, make connections, evaluate the information they hear quickly and immediately interpret and draw conclusions.
    • They have to solve different kinds of non-familiar problems in both conventional and innovative ways, always working toward better solutions.

    Communication

    • Their communication skills will need to be effective in many ways, such as for informing, instructing, motivating, and persuading.
    • They will have to communicate in diverse environments, with several languages, and be flexible and willing to compromise and value the ideas of others.

    Collaboration and Cooperation

    • Students need skills for collecting thoughts and ideas in groups and listening to new concepts.
    • It will also be important to respect people and ideas; judging ideas only on the concept, not on the person who conceived it.
    • They will also need to be comfortable sharing the credit for successes and failures.

    The future will require schools that help students learn academic content and the four C’s through real-world examples, applications, and experiences both inside and outside the school.

    B. Education and Training Career Options

    Different Types of Schools

    There are many sizes and types of schools in the United States, with everything from large, metropolitan facilities to small, rural districts.

    • Magnet schools are public schools with a specific focus.
    • Charter schools usually have different regulations and are monitored by an agency or contractor.
    • Alternative schools work with students who need special scheduling or those who are not successful in traditional schools.
    • Private schools charge for attendance.
    • Homeschooling is when education is provided at home.
    • Traditional public schools serve the majority of American students.

    There are many careers for teachers as trainers in business and industry. Almost every organization, from theme parks to the United States military employ many teachers who train employees and staff in limitless areas. All teachers certainly do not have to work in public school classrooms.

    —-

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Every Education and Training program is different. Below is a list of handouts/graphic organizers you can use or adapt to meet the needs of your students.

    Module III Handouts

    • 21st Century Skills
    • Career Research – Education Administration
    • Job Shadowing Project Rubric
    • Job Shadowing Project
    • KWL Chart – Education Administration
    • One – Minute Speech Planner
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Exploring Education Administration Careers Competition
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Exploring Education Administration Careers Competition (Key)
    • TAFE Exploring Education Administration Careers Competition
    • Video Analysis

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Have students work in small groups to develop interview questions to ask students, teachers, administrators, parents and other community members about how effective they believe the school is. Collaborate to develop a survey about school effectiveness, possibly asking about strengths and weaknesses. After each student interviews a specific number of people have students plan and implement a way to summarize and present the information to others. Provide copies to the school administration.
    • Assign students to research the local school district to make a flow chart of school personnel and the chain of command. Have them categorize types of educators included in the system. They can use information from the TEA website for assistance.
    • Assign groups of students or classes to conduct a service learning project connected to education and training. Use the FCCLA planning Process. This could become the basis for a FCCLASTAR event. Students could also develop “Power of One” FCCLA activity in this area.
    • Use the video about dropouts listed in the video resources to stimulate a discussion about how schools have responded to the issues facing dropouts. Students could develop a list of more changes that would help students struggling to finish high school. The Video Analysis graphic organizer would be useful as students think about this video.
    • Assign the graphic organizer, 21st Century Skills for students to identify skills and ways schools can help them acquire the skills.

    List of References and Resources

    Textbooks

    • Putting It All Together, Texas Tech Curriculum Center for FCS, 2010..
    • Reaching to Teach, The Texas Tech Curriculum Center for FCS, 2005.
    • Ready, Set, Teach! I and II Curriculum Guide, Curriculum Center for FCS, 2003.
    • Teaching, Goodheart-Wilcox Company, 2010.

    Websites

    Videos

    Instructional Practices in Education and Training: Pre-Assessment Quiz

    1. A priority for all schools is:

    • a. new buildings
    • b. safe environments
    • c. high ratings
    • d. new technology

    2. Effective leaders include _______________ on decision-making boards.

    • a. parents
    • b. administrators
    • c. only staff members
    • d. school board members

    3. ________________schools are public schools with a specific focus.

    • a. Charter
    • b. Magnet
    • c. Private
    • d. Alternative

    4. Effective schools have:

    • a. never – changing mission statements
    • b. parents on decision-making boards
    • c. respect for diversity
    • d. b and c

    5. _______________________schools serve the majority of American students.

    • a. Magnet
    • b. Traditional public schools
    • c. Charter
    • d. Private

    6. Teachers can work in:

    • a. public schools
    • b. business
    • c. industries
    • d. all of the above

    7. Students need _________________skills for collecting thoughts and ideas in groups and listening to new concepts.

    • a. creativity
    • b. critical thinking
    • c. collaboration
    • d. innovation

  • IV. Communication Skills

    TEKS Addressed

    (3) The student communicates effectively.

    • (A) demonstrate effective verbal, nonverbal, written and electronic communication skills
    • (D) demonstrate effective communication skills in teaching and training
    • (C) evaluate the role of classroom communications in promoting student literacy and learning

    (5) The student creates an effective learning environment.
    (D) describe conflict-management and mediation techniques supportive of an effective learning environment

    School Children in Physical Education Class

    Module Content

    This section of the Instructional Practices in Education and Training course is divided into the following units of study:

    • A. Types
      • 1. Verbal
      • 2. Non-verbal
      • 3. Written
      • 4. Electronic
    • B. Teacher communication
    • C. Promoting literacy
    • D. Conflict management and mediation

    Refer to lesson Can’t We All Just Get Along? Conflict Resolution Strategies for more activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/cant-we-all-just-get-along-conflict-resolution-strategies-2/

    Refer to lesson Posting On Your Wall: More Than Just Facebook for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/posting-on-your-wall-more-than-just-facebook/

    Refer to lesson Service Learning with a Smile:Education and Training for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/service-learning-with-a-smile-education-and-training/

    Refer to lesson Principles and Areas of Human Development for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/principles-and-areas-of-human-development/

    Refer to lesson Managing Your Classroom for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/managing-your-classroom/

    Refer to lesson Stories, Stories and More Stories for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/stories-stories-and-more-stories/

    Refer to lesson Educational Support Staff: Partners in Creating a Strong Learning Environment for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/educational-support-staff-partners-in-creating-a-strong-learning-community/

    Refer to lesson How Do I Get That Job? Education Administration for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/how-do-i-get-that-job-education-administration-2/

    Refer to lesson Can’t We All Just Get Along? Conflict Resolution Strategies for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/cant-we-all-just-get-along-conflict-resolution-strategies-2/

    Refer to lesson Multimedia Presentations: The Good, Bad and Ugly for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/multimedia-presentations-the-good-bad-and-ugly/

    Refer to lesson The Art of Planning a Lesson for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-art-of-planning-a-lesson/

    Refer to lesson How to Teach Texas Style for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/how-to-teach-texas-style/

    Module IV Handouts

    A. Types

    • 1. Verbal
    • 2. Non-verbal
    • 3. Written
    • 4. Electronic

    High school students do a great deal of communicating. One of the important objectives for these TEKS is that they differentiate between personal communicating and professional communications. A communication requires a message, a sender and a receiver.

    The types of communication are:

    • Verbal – involves words
    • Nonverbal – includes gestures, signs, and symbols
    • Written – includes all types
    • Electronic – digital communication including all of the other forms

    Receptive language includes listening or receiving the message. Expressive language involves sending or expressing ideas or messages.

    B. Teacher Communication

    A significant point about communication in the classroom is for students to differentiate between personal communication and professional communication. It is very important for students to communicate with correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling as they are a part of the education profession. They should also avoid using inappropriate words and phrases around children and other students. This class is an excellent place for them to apply what they have been learning in English classes.

    • When teachers talk with students, it needs to be developmentally appropriate, and at the correct level of understanding for each student in the class.
    • Classroom interactions between students and teachers, and student to student should encourage language and mental development.
    • Teachers should consider different types of intelligences and learning styles when communicating in the classroom.
    • Teachers and students continue to be challenged by the integration of more different languages and cultures and the effect they have on classroom dynamics, understanding, and learning.
    • The Internet has enabled students to research and acquire information almost instantly. With this comes a responsibility for ethical use of the system. Students and teachers can make and complete assignments, talk with students in other countries, or analyze data and virtual situations from a classroom or home.
    • Electronic communication also makes sharing information with families easier in writing newsletters, sending emails, posting class updates on Facebook and other social networking sites, and having school or classroom web pages.
    • An important aspect of teacher communications is talking with parents. Teachers should always remember to be professional and include both strengths and weaknesses. Give the parents time and opportunities to express their concerns and ask questions. Technology provides several methods for parent-teacher communications such as emails, texts, and information about what classes are doing in social media, including blogs.

    C. Promoting Literacy

    Literacy affects everyone. It is more than reading and writing. It includes how people get, use, and share information, in any language. Good literacy skills help people:

    • - Be healthy and safe.
    • - Help others at school and at home.
    • - Get and keep a job.
    • - Vote and participate in their community.

    Promoting literacy is an important and ongoing task for teachers at all ages. Students should be continually working with words and language at challenging levels.

    Some best practices for encouraging literacy are:

    • - Making reading and writing connect to the students’ lives and interests.
    • - Encouraging students to interact with each other.
    • - Creating student-centered classrooms where students make displays, choose words and create word walls, write and distribute newsletters, develop blogs, and online communications.
    • - Focusing on vocabulary development and review
    • - Using cooperative and collaborative learning where students must use language to learn.

    Students in Instructional Practices in Education and Training are perfect role models to work with other students to promote literacy through peer-tutoring, projects in the community or other campuses, or by working with literacy programs at libraries.

    D. Conflict Management and Mediation

    Conflict resolution or management requires that everyone involved respect the others, listen to various views, and work toward mutual decisions. Some steps to reach an agreement are:

    • 1. Each person states their side while others listen respectfully with no interruptions.
    • 2. Participants use I-messages to verify their understanding.
    • 3. They try to see the other’s opinions or side.
    • 4. Brainstorm to find solutions.
    • 5. They all volunteer what they can do to solve the conflict or problem.
    • 6. They listen, negotiate, and work toward a mutual agreement or decision.

    It is helpful for Instructional Practices in Education and Training students to learn conflict management techniques to use with peers and to apply to classroom situations where they do their internships or field experiences. The steps require practice.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Every Education and Training program is different. Below is a list of handouts/graphic organizers you can use or adapt to meet the needs of your students.

    Module IV Handouts

    • Article Evaluation
    • Bulletin Board Ideas
    • Bulletin Board on Pinterest
    • Bulletin Board Project Rubric
    • Bulletin Board Project
    • Conflict Resolution Scenarios – Instructional Practices in Education and Training
    • Conflict Resolutions
    • KWL Chart Bulletin Boards
    • Note Taking Posting On Your Wall More Than Just Facebook
    • Parent Conference Form
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Bulletin Board Competition
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Bulletin Board Competition (Key)
    • School Communication
    • Slide Presentation Notes
    • Steps to Resolve Conflicts
    • TAFE Bulletin Board Contest
    • Verbal and Nonverbal Communication
    • Video Storyboard
    • Word Chain Activity

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Create a classroom communication such as a newsletter, parent note, web site, newspaper, etc. about the classroom where the student is doing the field-based experience. Use a rubric to evaluate creativity, professionalism, correct application of English, and use of technology.
    • Use the graphic organizer for “Parent Conference” to prepare for a meeting with parents to explain a student’s strengths and weaknesses. Have students work in pairs to practice role-playing parent and teacher situations.
    • Prepare a bulletin board to communicate concepts to students. Encourage students to work with mentor teachers to identify an objective in advance so the student’s bulletin board could be used in the field-based classroom at the appropriate time.
    • Assign students a project to include technology to create a classroom communication, such as a comic strip or video. Use the Video Storyboard.
    • Ask students to write down classroom conflicts they have observed at their field-based site. Have them work in teams of three, acting as two students and a teacher to apply the conflict management steps listed above. Provide opportunities for all groups to resolve the same problem. Let them compare results and discuss different solutions to the same problems.
    • Assign students a project to identify a strategy for working with English Language Learners. It should be one that helps with learning vocabulary or reading skills. The strategy could be one they have observed or one found through researching. They will demonstrate peer teaching it to the Instructional Practices students.

    Resources and References

    Textbook

    • Putting It All Together, Texas Tech Curriculum Center for FCS, 2010.
    • Reaching to Teach, The Texas Tech Curriculum Center for FCS, 2005.
    • Ready, Set, Teach! I and II Curriculum Guide, Curriculum Center for FCS, 2003.
    • Seven Habits of Highly Effective Teens. Covey, Sean, 1998.
    • Teaching, Goodheart-Wilcox Company, 2010.

    Websites

    Videos

    • Route 66
      Route 66 is an online instructional literacy program for adolescent and adult beginning readers. Based on research-proven pedagogical methods, Route 66 pairs beginning readers side-by-side with teacher-tutors who guide the reading and writing activities on the computer. This short video explains the program.
      http://www.route66literacy.org/?gclid=CPPQq-aOt7YCFQTqnAodnkMAyQ
    • The Duke Engage Students Take Part in Spring Creek Literacy Project
      This video shows an example of a summer enrichment program using literacy and digital media to work with middle school girls in a disadvantaged area.
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eESztZOrUlo
    • 21st Century Skills in Action
      This video shows teachers describing communication skills and their importance for the future and creating global citizens.
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ATOwl8WGtl0

    Instructional Practices in Education and Training: Pre-Assessment Quiz

    1. 21st Century Skills include:

    • a. the highest TAKS scores
    • b. creativity, critical thinking
    • c. collaboration, communication
    • d. b and c

    2. When instructing students, teachers need to consider:

    • a. developmental levels of students
    • b. learning styles
    • c. the internet
    • d. a and b

    3. Communication requires three elements, a ________________, a receiver, and a sender.

    • a. gesture
    • b. symbols
    • c. message
    • d. words

    4. It is important for students to distinguish between personal and ____________ communication in verbal, nonverbal, written, and electronic communications.

    • a. cell phone
    • b. professional
    • c. public
    • d. words

    5. Conflict-management techniques require respect for others, _________________, and mutual decisions.

    • a. you messages
    • b. time managment
    • c. listening
    • d. empathy

    6. Literacy includes:

    • a. reading and writing
    • b. how to share information
    • c. conflict management skills
    • d. a and b

    7. Teachers need to be effective talking with:

    • a. students
    • b. parents
    • c. school staff members
    • d. all of the above

  • V. Principles and Theories of Human Development

    TEKS Addressed

    (2) The student understands the learner and the learning process. The student is expected to:

    • (A) relate principles and theories of human development to teaching and training situations
    • (B) relate principles and theories about the learning process to teaching and training situations
    • (C) demonstrate behaviors and skills that facilitate the learning process
    • (D) explain the relationship between effective instructional practices and learning differences, learner exceptionality, and special-needs conditions.
  • Kindergarten Students Learning to Tell Time

    Module Content

    This section of the Instructional Practices in Education and Training course is divided into the following units of study:

    A. Related to Teaching
    B. Related to Learning Process
    C. Related to Effective Instructional Practices

    Refer to lesson How Did You Learn That? for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/how-did-you-learn-that/

    Refer to lesson Principles and Areas of Human Development for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/principles-and-areas-of-human-development/

    Refer to lesson Posting On Your Wall: More Than Just Facebook for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/posting-on-your-wall-more-than-just-facebook/

    Refer to lesson Stories, Stories and More Stories for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/stories-stories-and-more-stories/

    Refer to lesson The Art of Planning a Lesson for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-art-of-planning-a-lesson/

    Refer to lesson Researching Learning Disabilities for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/researching-learning-disabilities/

    Module V Handouts

    A. Related to Teaching

    For hundreds of years, people have tried to understand more about how people learn. They have developed theories based on research, observation and testing. However, theories about development and learning are not facts.

    It is important for students to see the connection between theories of development which attempt to explain how humans grow and develop, with theories of learning which try to explain how people learn. Students easily get confused with the concept of theories. The term “developmentally appropriate” describes activities that are at the correct level for a student’s abilities in the areas of development. For example, it would not be developmentally appropriate to ask a kindergarten student to read a chapter and take a quiz. They cannot read and write at their stage of development. It would be developmentally appropriate for a high school student.

    Refer to the Human Growth and Devlopment lesson A Look at Theories Part I at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-look-at-theories-part-i/

    Human Growth and Development lesson A Look at Theories Part II at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-look-at-theories-part-ii/

    B. Related to the Learning Process

    Refer to Principles and Areas of Human Development for lesson ideas.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/principles-and-areas-of-human-development/

    Many theories have been developed to understand and attempt to explain how people learn. Learning is a mental or behavioral change that comes from experiences. The experiences that people have create changes in their brains. As children interact with others, teaching materials, and the world, they change. What children are learning can be seen by watching them, listening to them, and looking at what they write or draw.

    The Four Areas of Development

    Human development is like a pie with four equal pieces. It is easy to remember each of the areas of development by remembering the acronym PIES.

    • P = Physical Development = motor and muscle development, growth, and body coordination and control
    • I = Intellectual Development = developing concepts, solving problems, learning
    • E = Emotional Development = feelings, self-concept, attitudes
    • S = Social Development = getting along with others, working with groups, adjusting to society

    Principles of Development

    • Development is similar for everyone.
    • Development builds on earlier learning.
    • The different areas of learning are interrelated.
    • Development proceeds at an individual rate.
    • Development occurs in sequence.
    • Development is continuous throughout life.

    Refer to the Human Growth and Development lesson on “A Look at Theories, Part II.”
    See http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-look-at-theories-part-ii/

    C. Related to Effective Instructional Practices

    Often, the students in one classroom may be at different levels. That is why teachers plan different activities and teach the same concept in several different ways. Various programs such as English Language Learners and Special Needs students require using accommodations, modifications, and innovative strategies.

    • From Martin Luther, who believed all people should learn to read, not just the wealthy, so they could understand the Bible to contemporary theorists like Howard Gardiner who believe everyone is smart in their particular “intelligence,” it is important to know theories about learning. Most child development and education textbooks provide detailed information about the many people who have contributed to theories about learning. This list include some of the significant names.
    • Martin Luther – advocated literacy for all
    • John Amos Comenius – created the first picture book for children, Orbis Pictus
    • Friedrich Froebel – labeled the father of kindergarten
    • Maria Montessori – worked with children with problems, developed techniques still used today
    • John Dewey – initiated Progressivism or focusing on a child’s interests rather than subject matter
    • Jean Piaget – developed significant studies about intellectual development
    • Lev Vygotsky – studied sociocultural development and believed that play promotes language development
    • Abraham Maslow – created a theory of motivation and his Hierarchy of Needs
    • Howard Gardiner – developed the Theory of Multiple Intelligences

    Lev Vygotsky is associated with the term “scaffolding” that says people learn as teachers give them a basic foundation and build new concepts and skills onto that foundation. He compares it to the way a scaffold is used in construction. This is a term that is frequently seen in literature about teaching.

    Howard Gardiner explains that all people have a strength or are “smart” but not all are smart in the same ways. He has developed assessments for teachers and students to use to determine their strengths and weaknesses. Teachers can use these instruments to discover what the strengths of their students are and develop instructional practices that teach to those areas. This is helpful at all levels.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module V Handouts

    • Children’s Book Project
    • Crossword Puzzle
    • Developing Your Story
    • Four Areas of Development
    • Historical Theories
    • Maslows Hierarcy of Needs
    • Moral Character of Story Ideas
    • Note Taking Researching Learning Disabilities
    • Remember
    • Researching Learning Disabilities Project Rubric
    • Researching Learning Disabilities Project
    • Researching Learn Main
    • Rubric for Storytelling
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Researching Learning Disabilities Competition
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Researching Learning Disabilities Competition (Key)
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Storybook Creation Competition
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Storybook Creation Competition (Key)
    • Students With Disabilities
    • Students With Disabilities (Key)
    • TAFE Storybook Creation Competition
    • Theorist Comparison Chart

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Go to http://www.edutopia.org/ to take the “Learning Style Quiz.” Read about the various types of intelligence and have each student make a graph that shows their dominant intelligence. Assign the class the task of making a graph to illustrate the dominant intelligences for the entire class.
    • Write the theorist’s names on slips of paper for students to select a theorist to research. Have each student tell the era when the theorist lived and three facts about their work. Have the students arrange themselves into a human timeline using the information about their theorist.
    • Do an “Who Was in the News” assignment. After students select a theorist or significant person from education history, have them write a newspaper account of that individual. They could include photographs or drawings. This could be done in a newspaper software such as Microsoft Publisher. These could then be used to make a bulletin board or timeline posted around the room. Some students might prefer to create a video of an “interview” of their person.
    • Invite educators from special needs, or other programs to demonstrate various accommodations and modifications and explain the strategies they use with students.
    • Instruct students to write an essay analyzing their strengths and weaknesses in each of the four areas of development. They should included examples from their lives to support their statements. Have them include information about how they learn best.
    • “Conversation Circle” Have students sit in a circle. This is a good strategy when repetition is helpful for learning. One student begins by telling the name of the theorist they studied. Each student takes a turn repeating the first and adding the name of their theorist. The second time around the circle, each student adds a fact. Each time the previous information is repeated before the student adds more. As the information is repeated over and over, it is easier to remember. Students also listen carefully so they will be able to repeat what has been said.
    • Use the graphic organizer I Remember to summarize information about theories and draw a visual to help them remember various theorists.

    References and Resources

    Textbooks

    • Putting It All Together, Texas Tech Curriculum Center for FCS, 2010.
      Includes the history and philosophy of education in the United States
    • Reaching to Teach, The Texas Tech Curriculum Center for FCS, 2005.
    • Teaching, Goodheart-Wilcox Company, 2010.

    Websites

    Videos

    Instructional Practices in Education and Training: Pre-Assessment Quiz

    1. Developmentally appropriate classrooms might include:

    • a. modifications
    • b. accommodations
    • c. graphic organizers
    • d. a, b and c

    2. The areas of human development include which of the following areas:

    • a. physical, intellectual, emotional and social
    • b. language, social studies, science and math
    • c. a and b
    • d. physical, intellectual, emotional and personality

    3. John Dewey’s Progressivism included which of the following ideas:

    • a. it is important to consider the interests of the child
    • b. it is most important to focus on the curriculum
    • c. teachers should be more of a facilitator
    • d. a and b

    4. Learning usually progresses from __________to abstract.

    • a. complex
    • b. simple
    • c. cognitive
    • d. complicated

    5. Theories are:

    • a. facts
    • b. not facts
    • c. proven to be true by research
    • d. none of the

    6. Development is _____________for everyone.

    • a. constant
    • b. similar
    • c. diverse
    • d. theoretical

    7. Jean Piaget developed theories about _____________________development.

    • a. cognitive
    • b. mental
    • c. emotional
    • d. a and b

  • VI. Effective Learning Environment

    TEKS Addressed

    (5) The student creates an effective learning environment.

    • (A) describe characteristics of safe and effective learning environments
    • (B) demonstrate teacher and trainer characteristics that promote an effective learning environment
    • (C) identify classroom-management techniques that promote an effective learning environment

    A shot of an asian student working on his laptop at the campus

    Module Content

    This section of the Instructional Practices in Education and Training course is divided into the following units of study:

    • A. Safety Issues
    • B. Teacher/Trainer Characteristics
    • C. Classroom Management

    Refer to lesson More Strategies, Tips and Resources for Managing Your Classroom for additional resources, ideas and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/more-strategies-tips-and-resources-for-managing-your-classroom/

    Refer to lesson Managing Your Classroom for additional resources, ideas and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/managing-your-classroom/

    Refer to lesson The Art of Planning a Lesson for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-art-of-planning-a-lesson/

    Refer to lesson Researching Learning Disabilities for more activities, ideas and resources.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/researching-learning-disabilities/

    Module VI Handouts

    A. Safety issues

    Teachers have many tasks, but nothing is more important than creating learning environments that help students feel safe, secure and comfortable. It is critical to families and children that they are protected from physical and psychological harm. It is one thing to observe safe and pleasant environments and another thing entirely to plan, create, and supervise a place where students of any age will be able to learn.

    Safety considerations can be quite different based on the age of the children in the area. Young children are curious about everything. They explore, act, and create without thinking of consequences.

    Safety considerations for preschool:

    • Art materials such as scissors, glue, paint, clay, and finger paint should be safe. Check the labels and purchase items that are not toxic.
    • Always supervise children and watch what they put in their eyes, mouth, nose and ears.
    • Make certain toys are age-appropriate and in good repair.
    • Keep water tables and other water areas germ free and well-supervised.
    • Follow proper rules for using and storing chemicals.
    • Check that outdoor play areas have age-appropriate play equipment that has no rough edges or loose parts.
    • Areas should be thoroughly checked every day before children play.
    • Include safe, soft surfaces to create a cushion when children fall.

    For more information on preschool safety see:
    http://www.healthychild.net/SafetyFirst.php?article_id=179

    Safety for older students is also a big concern. Check for all of the items on the preschool list as well as those below:

    • Remember to inspect classrooms for items that could cause falls.
    • Inspect electrical cords, outlets, and power strips that may be overloaded with too much power for technology.
    • Avoid stacking storage boxes or shelves too high or with too many boxes that could fall.
    • Teach rules for specific safety behaviors in the halls, library, playground, restrooms and the cafeteria.
    • Demonstrate the proper use of equipment.
    • Insist that students keep their hands and feet to themselves.
    • Be alert to check for the safety and toxins in all materials and supplies.
    • Keep rooms well ventilated and at the proper temperatures.
    • Remember to consider emotional safety for all students. Create an environment where each can express emotions and feelings without fear but with respect for all others.

    For all levels, know and practice emergency procedures for fires, tornadoes, lockdowns and other emergencies.

    Too often, students are bullying and violence is too common in school settings. Though bullying is not new, many of the techniques have changed. Cyber-bullying and school shootings are common topics on the news. It is important to talk with students about these issues and make certain they know they can talk to their teachers about concerns. Teachers must be advocates for students and never a part of the problem.

    Refer to the Education and Training lesson, Who Is Protecting Our Children at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/whos-protecting-our-children/

    Teacher Pointing at Map of World

    B. Teacher/Trainer Characteristic

    Few places still have one-room schools. Teachers have many things to consider in creating a positive learning environment from walls, desks, and a few resources, that may or may not include state-of-the-art technology. Everyday, teachers use their skills to do whatever it takes to help students learn.

    Theorists believe that all children learn in different ways at different rates. Each student is also influenced by their existing knowledge and memory. Learning usually progresses from concrete, sensory concepts to abstract ideas. Students and teachers need timely feedback to determine if learning is taking place. It is also believed that students respond to the expectations of themselves and others about what they can learn and do. Teachers, especially those who are preparing teachers, need to realize that they are always serving as role models for tomorrow’s educators.

    The strategies listed below will be helpful in teaching Instructional Practices in Education and Training. They also provide good information for the students to use as they create positive and effective learning environments.

    Teachers

    • Identify your personal strengths and weaknesses and how you relate best to others
    • Pay attention at all times, believe that you are in control
    • Keep your word and respect students and staff
    • Accept responsibility for what happens in your classroom
    • Treat students equally

    With Students

    • Foster each student’s self-concept
    • Learn their names, ask about their families, and care about each student
    • Let them have a say and choice when it is appropriate
    • Speak with respect even if they are not acting respectfully toward you
    • Praise them for specific things
    • Let them know your expectations
    • Be consistent
    • Ask for help from parents and other staff members
    • Keep others informed about what is going on
    • Provide many oportunities for learning: observing, note taking, sketching, polling, surveying, sorting ideas, writing, working alone, working in groups, answering questions, comparing
    • Help them understand rather than only memorize vocabulary and terms
    • Reward creativity and imagination
    • Give the impression that learning is a process, and that no one has all of the answers
    • Work in alternative areas when possible, such as outside or in other classes

    C. Classroom Management

    • Keep accurate records
    • Follow a regular routine, keep students engaged from bell to bell
    • Plan a variety of work
    • Expect students to be responsible for their learning and materials
    • Have a system for collecting assignments, grading and returning work
    • Keep a neat work area
    • Use a team approach with specific time limits, too much time in groups can be a problem
    • Repetition is one of the best forms of learning.

    Behavior and Guidance

    • Make rules clear, short, fair and be consistent
    • Make positive statements, tell them what you want them to do, avoid don’ts
    • Move around the room as student work
    • Over explain and review expectations
    • Correct students with as little distraction as possible: whisper, tap on their shoulder
    • Comment more on what is being done right, than what is being done wrong
    • Avoid yelling, they have heard it before
    • Use different strategies for different students

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module VI Handouts

    • Classroom Management and Instruction
    • Classroom Management Scenarios
    • Indoor Observation Report
    • More Strategies, Tips and Resources for Managing Your Classroom Note Taking
    • Note Taking – Researching Learning Disabilities
    • Outdoor Observation Report
    • Researching Learning Disabilities Project Rubric
    • Researching Learning Disabilities Project
    • Researching Learn Main
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Researching Learning Disabilities Comp
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Reseaching Learning Disabilities Comp (Key)
    • Students with Disabilities
    • Students with Disabilities (Key)
    • Teacher Instructions for Inside Outside Circles Activity
    • Think Pair Share Classroom Management
    • Video Analysis

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • With students working in small groups, have students develop a survey to interview both teachers and students about what they think are the most effective teacher strategies for creating effective learning environments. Analyze their final data and create a brochure or post the information on a web site to share the results.
    • Watch the video, “Help Stop Childhood Bullying” in the video resources section. Have students complete the graphic organizer Video Analysis as a discussion starter.
    • When students go to a classroom to observe, have them complete the graphic organizer, Indoor Observation Report.
    • When students go to an outdoor play area to observe, have them complete the graphic organizer, Outdoor Observation Report.
    • Have students make a list of equipment they would request if they were hired to teach in a classroom in a new school. They should also research items for cost and availability.
    • Draw a map of a playground with equipment they would purchase if they were building a new play area. Students should include costs and space requirements.

    References and Resources

    Textbook

    Putting It All Together, Texas Tech Curriculum Center for FCS, 2010.
    Reaching to Teach, The Texas Tech Curriculum Center for FCS, 2005.

    Websites

    • Healthy Child Care
      An extensive collection of information about health topics.
      http://www.healthychild.net/librarysearch.php
    • Safe Kids USA
      A collection of information for parents, teachers and professionals on safety for children.
      http://www.safekids.org/educators/Start-safe/
    • Teaching Tips: Conflict Resolution
      This site contains activities and discussion ideas to help students learn about conflict and practice the skills involved in identifying and resolving conflicts peacefully. There are stories that illustrate conflict situations, videos and role-playing opportunities so that students can see and practice the techniques described.
      http://ethemes.missouri.edu/themes/1367

    Videos

    • Bully-Proof Children by Teaching 9 Conflict Resolution Strategies
      This video reviews 9 Conflict Resolution Strategies to teach to children. Teaching children how to better handle conflict and can help prevent bullying. This is helpful for parents, educators and anyone who works with children.
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DybPI_vr-Ig
    • Caring and Control: Creating A Safe and Caring, Positive Classroom
      video and the site where it is located is a valuable resource for teachers and students to learn strategies for creating effective classroom environments.
      https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/create-a-safe-classroom
    • StopBullying.gov Webisode 1: KB’s First Day
      Being the new girl at school isn’t easy for KB. Lost and late for class, she endures name-calling by other students.
      http://youtu.be/HgePIkvqtFU

    Instructional Practices in Education and Training: Pre-Assessment Quiz

    1. Make class rules clear, ___________, and consistent.

    • a. complicated
    • b. numerous
    • c. fair
    • d. flexible

    2. ________________________considerations are very different for different ages of students.

    • a. Technical
    • b. Safety
    • c. Consistency
    • d. Consequential

    3. Teachers should know and practice:

    • a. fire drills
    • b. tornado drills
    • c. procedures for lock downs
    • d. all of the above

    4. Following a _____________ is good classroom management for all ages.

    • a. strict time schedule
    • b. routine
    • c. variety of time schedules
    • d. theoretical plan

    5. Classroom management includes:

    • a. system for collecting assignments
    • b. keeping accurate records
    • c. giving plenty of free time to students
    • d. a and b

    6. Teachers should be alert to potential situations for:

    • a. bullying
    • b. cyberbullying
    • c. school violence
    • d. all of the above

    7. It is important for teachers to:

    • a. respect students
    • b. be on time
    • c. be partial to certain students
    • d. a and b

  • VII. Ethical Conduct of Teachers

    TEKS Addressed

    (9) The student understands the ethics and legal responsibilities in teaching and training.

    • (A) describe teacher and trainer characteristics that promote ethical conduct
    • (B) analyze ethical standards that apply to the teaching and training profession
    • (C) analyze situations requiring decisions based on ethical and legal considerations
    • (D) analyze expected effects of compliance and non-compliance

    Schoolboy Writing in Notebook

    Module Content

    This section of the Instructional Practices in Education and Training course is divided into the following units of study:

    • A. Ethical Conduct and Characteristics
    • B. Ethical Standards for the Teaching and Training Profession
    • C. Ethical Decisions and Consequences


    Module VII Handouts

    Refer to lesson Ethical Standards for Educators for additional resources and activities.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/ethical-standards-for-educators/

    A. Ethical Conduct and Characteristics

    Laws are created to serve as guides for people living together, in a country, state, community or school. Teachers have influence in the classroom to follow and enforce rules.
    Laws indicate what can and cannot be done. Ethics are what people should and should not do.

    Ethics for Teachers

    • Ethical teachers follow beliefs and values that are dedicated to what is best for students.
    • Some of the characteristics that help teachers make ethical decisions are knowledge, empathy, reasoning, courage, and interpersonal skills.
    • The Texas Education Agency provides a professional code of ethics for educators.

    B. Ethical Standards for the Teaching and Training Profession

    • Laws that affect schools and teachers come from federal, state, and local authorities.
    • These laws affect employment, contracts, tenure, and dismissal.
    • Teachers have the same rights as other citizens, including freedom of expression, with restraints placed by the responsibilities of teaching.
    • Academic freedom requires teachers to use judgment about what and how they teach and choices they make in their personal lives.
    • Teachers have the responsibility to care for and protect students.
    • They also are required to follow laws for liability, copyright issues, and the reporting of suspected child abuse.

    Read the Texas Education Agency—-Code of Ethics
    http://tea.texas.gov/

    C. Ethical Decisions and Consequences

    Almost every day, the news reports situations where teachers, coaches, administrators and students are not ethical. They are making choices that put themselves and others in unethical and often illegal acts. Different states and school districts handle things differently. It is important to ask and know where to find the guidelines for each school district. This is especially important for teachers of Instructional Practices in Education and Training since students are also involved with other students on other campuses.

    Legal Rights of Students

    • Laws and courts try to balance the rights of students to protect their rights and provide the safety and care of others.
    • Students have freedom of expression, privacy from unreasonable search and seizure, and the right not to be sexually harassed.
    • Students also have due process rights when facing disciplinary action, the right to privacy of school records, and the right to be treated equally without discrimination.

    Ethics and Religion

    The First Amendment says that the government or public schools cannot establish or interfere with the practice of religion. Public prayer in public schools is illegal. Religion can be taught but not to persuade or force students to adopt in a particular belief.

    Texas Administrative Code
    The Rules for school in Texas at:
    http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module VII Handouts

    • Compare and Contract Work Ethics
    • Ethical Conduct of Teachers Cards
    • Note Taking Template
    • Qualities of Effective Teachers
    • True or False – Ethical Standards in Education
    • True or False – Ethical Standards in Education (Key)
    • Work Ethics Scenarios in Education and Training

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Plans

    • Ask the principal or superintendent to speak to the class about ethical and legal issues involved in hiring and supervising teachers. Ask them to describe the qualities they think are most important for successful teachers.
    • Ask students to identify their favorite teacher and individually list at least 5 qualities that made them effective. In small groups, have students list all of the qualities they had identified. As a class, then develop a comprehensive list of Qualities of Effective Teachers. Make a chart with all of the skills and have students make a check by the skills they think they possess and circle the skills they would like to develop.
    • Provide students with copies of the school handbook or the web site where it can be found. Have students list situations where students break the rules. Organize the students in small groups to analyze the situations and create compliance and non-compliance options for each situation. They should document their decisions using the school handbook.
    • Use the KWL Charts, example provided below for Ethics for Teachers.
    • Ask students to create skits to demonstrate personal characteristics needed by education and training professionals.
    • Have students look in current periodicals or on the internet to find stories about unethical conduct of teachers. In groups, discuss how they would handle the situation if they were the school board members of the districts involved.
    • Watch the videos listed in the resource sections about ethical situations in schools. After viewing, assign some students to respond as if they were teachers and some to respond as if they were the students involved.
    • Use the graphic organizer Compare and Contrast to analyze one ethic from the TEA website with the same principle on the American Association for Educators site and the same code on the National Association for Education website.

    List of References and Resources

    Textbooks

    Putting It All Together, Texas Tech Curriculum Center for FCS, 2010.
    Reaching to Teach, The Texas Tech Curriculum Center for FCS, 2005.

    Websites

    Videos

    • Do Today’s Youth Have a Code of Ethics?
      Are today’s youth unethical? Howard Gardner, author of Five Minds for the Future, sat down for an interview on the television show Books of Our Time with host Lawrence R. Velvel the Dean of the Massachusetts School of Law to discuss the ethical decision making of our society’s younger members.
      http://youtu.be/r-SE_wVoJWI
    • Ethics in School
      Teens explain issues with lies and cheating at school.
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_vP4qu-1BYE
    • Ethics Lessons: Ethically Challenged Amy
      This student-made video that presents scenarios to stimulate thought and discussion for choices such as downloading music, plagiarism, and stealing.
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j_b-aTwBVkA

    Instructional Practices in Education and Training: Pre-Assessment Quiz

    1. Teachers must know and be in compliance with:

    • a. local laws
    • b. school policies
    • c. state and federal laws
    • d. a, b and c

    2. Ethics and laws in education guarantee:

    • a. the rights of students
    • b. the safety of teachers and students
    • c. passing EOC tests
    • d. a and b

    3. Which of the following statements is not true?

    • a. Laws are what should and should not be done.
    • b. Ethics are what should and should not be done.
    • c. Teachers are not responsible for enforcing school policies in their classrooms.
    • d. Teachers are role models and have extra restrictions on their personal choices.

    4. __________are created as guides for people living together.

    • a. Ethics
    • b. Laws
    • c. Morals
    • d. Compliance

    5. Teachers have the responsibility to:

    • a. teach students
    • b. keep students safe
    • c. protect their rights
    • d. all of the above

    6. Students have:

    • a. freedom of expression
    • b. privacy from unreasonable search and seizure
    • c. the right to privacy of school records
    • d. a, b and c

    7. Teachers are required by law to:

    • a. report suspected child abuse
    • b. follow laws for copyright issues
    • c. teach the TEKS of their choice
    • d. a and b

  • VIII. Internship Field-Based Experiences

    TEKS Addressed

    (10) The student participates in field-based experiences in education and training.

    • (A) apply instructional strategies and concepts within a local educational or training facility
    • (B) document, assess and reflect on instructional experiences

    Student Reading a Textbook

    Module Content

    This section of the Instructional Practices in Education and Training course is divided into the following units of study:

    A. Application
    B. Assessment

    Refer to lesson Service Learning with a Smile:Education and Training for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/service-learning-with-a-smile-education-and-training/

    Refer to lesson Multimedia Presentations: The Good, Bad and Ugly for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/multimedia-presentations-the-good-bad-and-ugly/

    Refer to lesson Posting On Your Wall: More Than Just Facebook for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/posting-on-your-wall-more-than-just-facebook/

    Module VIII Handouts

    A. Application

    Internship-Field-Based Experiences

    Field-based experiences are one of the most effective components of Instructional Practices in Education and Training. It is one thing to read about teaching and another to actually work with students.

    Instructional Practices teachers will need to work with administration to develop guidelines for identifying placement options for students. It will need to be determined how the district will provide transportation to training sites.

    Placement Options

    • Elementary, Middle School, or High School classrooms
    • Child Care facilities
    • Private Schools
    • Other training sites, such as libraries, museums, parks
    • Other school programs, such as Life Skills or English Language Learning classrooms

    It may be helpful to develop a contract or agreement that lists requirements for participation and have both students and parents read and sign it.
    It is important to complete any forms and the “Training Plan Agreement” to document what the student will be doing as part of the internship. Forms are available to download at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/rgroup/instructional-practices-in-education/

    If students are leaving the high school campus, they will also need to have the permission forms required by the district. Students must realize that this type of program requires responsibility, confidentiality, dependability, and maturity. The interns who work with other students are serving as role models and must act professionally, in the classroom, at school and in the community.

    Many programs require students to wear jackets, shirts or other clothing that identifies them as an intern. It is also appropriate for them to wear a name tag or badge that tells their name and indicates they are authorized to be there.

    B. Assessment

    Assessment of students in Instructional Practices in Education and Training needs to be done with a variety of strategies. Some steps to follow when starting with students are:

    • Review of rules for internships
    • Meet with administrators/mentor teachers to establish guidelines
    • Develop evaluation rubric
    • Do initial observation in the class the intern is assigned to
    • Instruct students to write reflective journal entries about their intern experiences
    • Assist with daily activities in the class
    • Plan, teach and evaluate lessons to peers in Instructional Practices classroom
    • Plan, teach, and evaluate one lesson, using format provided by mentor teacher
    • Develop, teach and evaluate lessons from a unit, as time allows using format provided by mentor teacher
    • Rotate to different age levels and classes throughout the year

    Document Experiences

    There are several ways for students to document their field-based experiences.

    • Reflective Journals
    • Blogs
    • Online websites such as Edmodo, that allow the entire class and instructor to review comments and discuss online. Supervising teachers can also be partners in these discussions.

    Edmodo
    Online resource where students can connect with others and their teachers.
    http://www.edmodo.com/

    The career portfolio students began in their Principles of Education and Training course should be continuously updated in preparation for it’s final evaluation in their Practicum in Education and Training course. Portfolios provide an effective way for students to organize and document their work. Documents can be kept in a binder, notebook, expandable file or other filing box. Another option is for students to develop an electronic portfolio where all of the documents are managed digitally. Students can be creative in developing the portfolio remembering that it should also look professional.

    Items to Include

    • Table of Contents
    • Résumé, reference letters, introductory materials
    • Transcripts, awards, certification documents
    • Examples of written plans or assignments
    • Photographs of working with students or items that were created, such as bulletin boards or teaching aids
    • Evidence of achievement in academic classes
    • List of TEKS or other standards
    • Samples of Observations
    • Record of service learning or activities done for others
    • Information about school activities such as FCCLA
    • Samples of technology applications
    • Journal Entries
    • Research papers or case-study reports
    • Self-Assessments

    Refer to the Hospitality and Tourism lesson, Maximize Your Career Search with a Portfolio: at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/maximize-your-job-search-with-a-career-portfolio/

    It is always important to remember when assessing field-based interns to include a variety of evaluation tools, including actual observation of their work on-site, written assignments, student reflections, self-evaluations and formal evaluations such as rubrics and tests.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module VIII Handouts

    • Observing Guidance Strategies
    • Portfolio Rubric
    • Sample Education and Training Agreement

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Have students write a newsletter to share with the Instructional Practices in Education and Training class about the class where they intern.
    • Have students use digital cameras or their phones to make a scrapbook or blog entries of bulletin boards they have seen at their intern site.
    • Tell students to keep a section in their journal of lessons that were very effective when taught at their intern site.
    • Have students create or edit a rubric to evaluate themselves throughout the semester.
    • Use the graphic organizer Observing Guidance Strategies to determine effective ways to work with students,
    • Experiment with students making a video diary of their internship activities.

    References and Resources

    Textbooks

    • Armstrong, D. (2009). Teaching today. Saddle River New Jersey: Pearson.
    • Curriculum Center for FCS. Ready, set, teach! Curriculum Guide. 2003.
    • Curriculum Center for FCS. Reaching to teach. 2005.
    • Feeney, S., Moravcik, E., Nolte, S., and Christensen, D. (2009) Who am i in the lives of children? Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson.
    • Morrison, G. (2009) Early childhood education today. Upper Saddle Rover, New Jersey: Pearson.
    • Powel, S. (2010`). S. Texas Tech University Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences (Ed.), Putting it all together: education and training. Boston. Massachusetts: Pearson.
    Websites

    Videos

    • Pearson Internship Video Diary: Week 1
      This is a short video about Pearson interns making a video diary of their activities. It could be used to expose students to this strategy as well as future internship programs they might consider.
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bz-dwpvfPh8
    • Exploring Teaching Internships and Job Shadows
      This is a quick video that illustrates the value of internships.
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JS_X—BA34Y

    Instructional Practices in Education and Training: Pre-Assessment Quiz

    1. It is important to complete forms, such as the ___________________ in the Field-Based experience.

    • a. Training Plan Agreement
    • b. STARR Contract
    • c. Behavior Agreement
    • d. Honesty Oath

    2. ________________are an effective way to organize a variety of documents and samples of work.

    • a. Rubrics
    • b. Portfolios
    • c. Reflections
    • d. Blogs

    3. Internship Field-Based Experiences could take place at:

    • a. various campuses in the school district
    • b. Life Skills or ELL classrooms
    • c. special educational activities
    • d. all of the above

    4. The interns must act professionally and as positive role models at:

    • a. the field-based sites
    • b. at school
    • c. places in the community
    • d. all of the above

    5. Evaluation and assessment of the interns might include:

    • a. portfolios
    • b. input from the supervising teacher at the site
    • c. comments from other students in the class
    • d. a and b

  • IX. Lesson Planning

    TEKS Addressed

    (4) The student plans and develops effective instruction.

    • (A) explain the role of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) in planning and evaluating instruction
    • (B) explain the rationale for having a fundamental knowledge of the subject matter in order to plan and prepare effective instruction
    • (C) explain the rationale and process of instructional planning
    • (D) describe principles and theories that impact instructional planning
    • (E) create clear short- and long-term learning objectives that are developmentally appropriate for students
    • (F) demonstrate teacher planning to meet instructional goals

    (2) The student understands the learner and the learning process.

    • (B) relate principles and theories about the learning process to teaching and training situations
    • (D) explain the relationship between effective instructional practices and learning differences, learner exceptionality and special-needs conditions

    stack of books

    Module Content

    This section of the Instructional Practices in Education and Training course is divided into the following units of study:

    A. TEKS
    B. Competent Knowledge of Subject Matter
    C. Planning Process, Lesson Cycle, and Instructional Preparation
    D. Theories that Impact Planning
    E. Learning Styles
    F. Special Populations
    G. Objective Writing

    Refer to lesson How Did You Learn That? for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/how-did-you-learn-that/

    Refer to lesson Stories, Stories and More Stories for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/stories-stories-and-more-stories/

    Refer to lesson Multimedia Presentations: The Good, Bad and Ugly for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/multimedia-presentations-the-good-bad-and-ugly/

    Refer to lesson Posting On Your Wall: More Than Just Facebook for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/posting-on-your-wall-more-than-just-facebook/

    Refer to lesson Principles and Areas of Human Development for activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/principles-and-areas-of-human-development/

    Refer to lesson The Art of Planning a Lesson for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-art-of-planning-a-lesson/

    Refer to lesson How to teach Texas Style for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/how-to-teach-texas-style/

    Module IX Handouts

    A. TEKS

    In Texas It’s The “TEKS

    The formal curriculum for school is what is required to be taught in the public school system.

    • Content standards are the specific knowledge a student should have.
    • Performance standards are the skills a student should be able to do.
    • Benchmarks determine the approximate level when a student should master the standards.
    • In Texas, the standards are organized as the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills or TEKS.
    • Beginning in spring 2012, the State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR™) will replace the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS).
    • More information about the STARR and the TEKS can be found at:
      http://www.tea.state.tx.us/student.assessment/staar/

    B. Competent Knowledge of Subject Matter

    The best teachers are even better students. They are people who like to learn and want to share what they know with others. Few subject areas are exclusive to one topic. Helping students learn often requires teachers to connect new information to things that students learned in the past.

    All teachers teach literacy by integrating reading, writing, vocabulary and understanding language into specific knowledge about their content areas. Family and Consumer Science classes are most effective when they help students apply knowledge from other core classes to practical and relevant issues.

    Teachers start with a solid foundation of knowledge for the subject matter they are teaching. As they teach and adapt their plans to meet the needs of students, they also acquire and expand their knowledge base. Many times, Family and Consumer Science teachers are expected to be the “specialists” about the broad areas they teach.

    Planning Process, Lesson Cycle and Instructional Preparation

    The best laid plans do not always guarantee success, but when teachers have not adequately planned and prepared, there will be problems.

    Planning helps teachers organize the material to be taught, consider variables in the class, and creates a guide. It also gives the teacher a feeling of confidence and feeling that I am ready to do this. It shows that what is being taught in class supports the requirements for the class and is aligned with other instruction.

    Types of Plans

    • Annual or semester for semester classes – includes scope and sequence for entire course
    • Weekly – usually required by administration
    • Daily – has specific objectives, tasks, strategies, details about materials to have and what will be done
    • Each class period – to accommodate for student differences and learning styles in each time period

    Where To Begin

    • Goals are broad statements of purpose that state what is to be achieved.
      • Objectives are specific statements that include:
        • a) an action the teacher expects the student to perform
        • b) the conditions when the action will occur
        • c) the level of performance that is expected.

    Objectives for learning can be in three domains:

    • cognitive – mental or thinking skills
    • affective – which relate to attitudes about learning
    • psycho-motor – which includes physical movement and related skill

    Developing the Lesson Plan

    Different schools provide various forms for planning. This format would be appropriate for a specific lesson:

    1. Objectives and Goals
    The lesson’s objectives must be clearly defined and aligned with district and/or state educational standards.
    2. Introduce the Lesson
    Before you begin the main part of the lesson’s instruction, set it up for students by connecting it to their prior knowledge and giving the objectives a context.
    3. Direct Instruction
    When writing your lesson plan, this is the section where you specifically list the lesson concepts you will present to your students.
    4. Guided Practice
    Under teacher supervision, the students are given a chance to practice and apply the skills that were taught through direct instruction.
    5. Closure
    In the Closure section, outline how to wrap up the lesson by giving the lesson concepts further meaning for students.
    6. Independent Practice
    Through homework or other independent assignments, the students will demonstrate whether or not they absorbed the lesson’s learning objectives.
    7. Required Materials and Equipment
    List supplies that are required to help students achieve the stated lesson objectives.
    8. Assessment and Follow-Up
    The lesson doesn’t end after your students complete a worksheet. The assessment section is one of the most important parts of all. How will the lesson be evaluated? How will you determine if the student met the objective?

    D. Theories that Impact Planning

    Each teacher makes decisions about the principles or theories that guide planning and forms that into a basic philosophy of teaching and learning. These ideas are influenced by theorists such as Vygotsky, Piaget, and Dewey as well as personal learning experiences and formal instruction in education.

    Students in Instructional Practices in Education and Training need an awareness of the things that affect their decisions about teaching others. They also need to realize that all teachers are unique and that is an important factor in creating schools for a variety of students and their learning styles.

    E. Learning Styles

    Instructional strategies determine different methods that can be used to help a learner. What is learned depends on what is taught, the student’s level of development, their interests, and the methods used to teach. All students do not learn in the same way. That is why teachers should use a variety of instructional strategies.

    Because students learn in different ways, it is beneficial to incorporate various ways to include language in every lesson. Include a listening, reading, writing, and speaking component in all lessons. This could be done working individually, in pairs or small groups.

    An extensive list of instructional strategies can be viewed at:
    Instructional Strategies
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/rgroup/instructional-strategies/

    F. Special Populations

    Classrooms have students who are classified as special populations. This includes:

    • individuals with disabilities
    • individuals from economically disadvantaged families, including foster children
    • individuals preparing for nontraditional training and employment
    • individuals with other barriers to educational achievement, including individuals with limited English proficiency.

    When teaching special populations, it is helpful to:

    • have flexible, but high expectations based on their abilities and goals
    • encourage each student to assist in developing their goals for the class
    • make the student feel a part of the class
    • use consistent rules and discipline strategies
    • keep the content relevant to the course
    • provide many opportunities for questions and application of the material

    When planning the direct instruction or delivery of content, limit one strategy to a length of twenty minutes; provide handouts with outlines or notes, and review what has been covered.

    This information was summarized from a video, Strategies for Special Populations in CTE: Part 3
    a webcast, by Drs. Mickey Wircenski and Lynda West. It provides excellent information including best practices for working with special populations. View the entire video at
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUBA4dsma74

    G. Objective Writing

    Goals are broad and general statements about what is to be learned. They are too general for developing specific activities or lessons. Goals and objectives clarify what is to be learned and how it will be assessed. Listing goals and objectives is one way to tell students the expectations of the class.

    Instructional objectives are the specific, measurable, short-term observable student behaviors that teachers can see and evaluate to know what a student has “learned.”
    There are three types of objectives:

    • Cognitive – for mental skills
    • Affective – for attitudes
    • Psycho-motor – for physical skills

    Objectives should include the ABCD’s:

    • Audience – Who will do it?
    • Behavior – What will they do? This should include action verbs that can be measured, such as demonstrate, list, evaluate. See Bloom’s Taxonomy for more action verbs.
    • Conditions – How will learning occur?
    • Degree – How much information is required to determine success?

    An example is: The Practicum in Education and Training student (audience) will develop materials that align with the TEKS (behavior) when assigned as a course project (condition) as measured by the lesson plan rubric (degree.)

    Visit the website:
    Writing Instructional Goals and Objectives
    This site explains the three types of objectives and how they align with Bloom’s Taxonomy with specific action verbs.
    http://www.personal.psu.edu/bxb11/Objectives/

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Every Education and Training program is different. Below is a list of handouts/graphic organizers you can use or adapt to meet the needs of your students.

    Module IX Handouts

    • Areas of Human Development Observation Project Sheet
    • Bloom’s Taxonomy Action Verbs
    • Compare and Contrast TEKS and Instructional Objectives
    • CTE-TEKS Instructional Practices in Education and Training
    • Determining Developmentally Appropriate Activities
    • Effective Lesson Planning
    • Emphasize Language Skills
    • How to Teach Texas Style Matching Activity (Key)
    • How to Teach Texas Style Scenario
    • How to Teach Texas Style TEKS Instructional Objectives Matching Activity – Teacher’s Copy
    • IRDT Lesson Template
    • KWL Chart Lesson Planning
    • KWL Chart TEKS Instructional Objectives
    • Lesson Plan Project Rubric
    • Lesson Plan Project
    • Lesson Plan Template
    • Lesson Planning
    • Locating TEKS
    • Note Taking The Art of Planning a Lesson
    • Note Taking Principles Areas of Human Development
    • Rubric for Areas of Human Development Project
    • Rubric for Converting TEKS to Instructional Objectives
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Lesson Plan Competition
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Lesson Plan Competition (Key)
    • TAFE Lesson Plan Competition
    • Teaching Strategies
    • Teaching Texas Style Note-taking
    • Teaching Texas Style Project
    • Teaching Texas Style Reflection
    • Theory and Lesson Planning

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Use the graphic organizer Lesson Planning to develop a plan to teach at the intern site or to your Instructional Practices in Education and Training class.
    • Incorporate the Emphasize Language Skills graphic organizer into your lesson plans.
    • Apply theory in planning by reviewing theories with the graphic organizer Theory and Lesson Planning.
    • Collect copies of lesson plans from teachers at the intern site and at your school. Make a bulletin board or display to examine how different teachers develop plans.
    • Interview teachers to check if the district or state has specific requirements for lesson planning at your school

    Resources and References

    Textbook

    • Putting It All Together, Texas Tech Curriculum Center for FCS, 2010.
    • Reaching to Teach, The Texas Tech Curriculum Center for FCS, 2005.
    • Ready, Set, Teach! I and II Curriculum Guide, Curriculum Center for FCS, 2003.
    • Teaching, Goodheart-Wilcox Company, 2010.

    Websites

    Videos

    • Strategies for Special Populations in CTE: Part 1
      This webcast, by Drs. Mickey Wircenski and Lynda West, provides excellent information including best practices for working with special populations.
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gRy4FD239Jc
    • Strategies for Special Populations in CTE: Part 2
      This webcast, by Drs. Mickey Wircenski and Lynda West, provides excellent information including best practices for working with special populations.
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j3sZSErUD5k
    • Strategies for Special Populations in CTE: Part 3
      This webcast, by Drs. Mickey Wircenski and Lynda West, provides excellent information including best practices for working with special populations.
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUBA4dsma74

    Instructional Practices in Education and Training: Pre-Assessment Quiz

    1. In Texas, the content standards for knowledge and skills for each class are called the:

    • a. STAAR
    • b. NCLB
    • c. EOC
    • d. TEKS

    2. Planning helps teachers:

    • a. organize the material to be taught
    • b. gives the teacher confidence
    • c. is a waste of time
    • d. a and b

    3. __________ are specific statements that include an action, the conditions, and the expected level of performance.

    • a. Goals
    • b. TEKS
    • c. Objectives
    • d. Expectations

    4. Objectives can be in three domains:

    • a. cognitive, affective and psycho-motor
    • b. emotional, social and physical
    • c. psycho-motor, sensory, and social
    • d. a and b

    5. Especially when working with students from special populations, teachers should:

    • a. limit the length of each educational strategy to twenty minutes
    • b. expect these students to come to tutorials every day for extra help
    • c. provide handouts, outlines or written notes
    • d. a and b

  • X. Technology in Teaching

    TEKS Addressed

    (8) The student develops technology skills.

    • (A) describe the role of technology in the instructional process
    • (B) use technology applications appropriate for specific subject matter and student needs
    • (C) demonstrate skillful use of technology as a tool for instruction, evaluation, and management

    Young Girl at School Holding a Computer Mouse

    Module Content

    This section of the Instructional Practices in Education and Training course is divided into the following units of study:

    A. Role of Technology
    B. Applying Technology

    Refer to lesson Service Learning with a Smile:Education and Training for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/service-learning-with-a-smile-education-and-training/

    Refer to lesson Multimedia Presentations: The Good, Bad and Ugly for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/multimedia-presentations-the-good-bad-and-ugly/

    Refer to lesson “Where Will We Go from Here?” for additional references and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/where-will-we-go-from-here/

    Module X Handouts

    A. Role of Technology

    There have been many changes in education, though none of them change more quickly than technology. Items that are new today will be improved or gone and replaced by another trend soon. There are two ways to divide technology in schools, those items used by students and that used by teachers. The use of technology varies with the level of the students, availability, teacher capability, and budgets.

    Computers and other technology equipment are an important part of preparing students for the 21st Century. Their proper use leads to a growth in problem-solving skills, increased motivation, research capabilities, and improved strategies for working with students with disabilities.

    Students must be constantly supervised when involved with technology. Students need to be monitored for what they are using and it is important to keep up with equipment that could be easily removed from the classroom.

    Other issues dealing with technology include risks for plagiarism, increased staff development and training and finding funding resources to continue upgrading equipment. Future predictions indicate that textbooks and online classes will continue to change delivery systems for learning. Students who will become employees of the future will need skills for teleworking from home, digital voice and text capabilities, and global interaction.

    B. Applying Technology

    Teaching is changing in many ways. Technology is one area where the changes occur almost daily. Strategies or equipment that is new today could well be obsolete in a few weeks. It is the responsibility of the teacher to evaluate applications to determine their effectiveness for the age and abilities of students and the knowledge and skills they support.

    Technology can improve education in many ways by:

    • Providing more realistic and relevant learning with digital simulations and models, virtual activities
    • Exposing students throughout the globe
    • Providing digital multimedia for creating presentations and projects
    • Presenting E-books
    • Making class web pages and web classrooms
    • Using video-making technology
    • Developing digital learning games
    • Providing digital data storage

    Explore the 100 Best Web 2.0 Classroom Tools at:
    http://edudemic.com/2011/11/best-web-tools/

    Schools put a lot of money into putting technology into classrooms. It is important to have guidelines for integrating its use with students:

    • Check the district policy about what acceptable use policy is required before students are released onto the world wide web. All students of any age and their parents need to know technology rules.
    • Teach students procedures for using and handling all equipment from how to turn it on to where to put it away.
    • Develop rules about what settings students can use and change. Make sure they know how to use files, folders, ways to open and when to delete. This would include respect for the materials of others stored on the device.
    • Devise rules for Internet safety that are age appropriate for your students.
    • Make it clear to students as to when it is appropriate to access the internet and print items. It is recommended that they ask for the teacher’s permission prior to either activity.

    Teachers should think about ways to use technology to improve student engagement. Computers are not just for keeping students busy.
    Students will need additional monitoring while using technology. Make certain they stay on task at the appropriate sites.

    Technology should be a strategy incorporated with other activities and lessons. Teach students to question the validity of online sources. Everything they read online is not true. Help them learn to separate credible sources from others. Try unique applications for tried and true strategies like PowerPoints™ and video streaming.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module X Handouts

    • 3-2-1 Closure
    • Compare and Contrast Multimedia Presentation Tools
    • Multimedia Presentation Project
    • Rubric for Multimedia Presentation
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Instructional Multimedia Competition
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Instructional Multimedia Competition (Key)
    • Slide Presenation Notes
    • TAFE Instructional Multimedia Competition
    • Technology in Education Timeline
    • Web Directory

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Have students choose a grade level to design a classroom of the future. Assign them to plan for digital learning areas, types of classes, curriculum areas, and skills students will be needing to develop.
    • Research online to prepare a budget for costs of media devices they would add to the Instructional Practices in Education and Training classroom.
    • Assign students a project to make a video or Powerpoint of their top ten teacher tips.
    • Give students a grade level and a limited amount of money. They need to research TEKS for that grade level to determine what types of technology would benefit them most. They can spend the budgeted amount purchasing the appropriate technology.
    • After students have learned a technology application such as making videos or web pages, have them identify another class they could teach it to. For example, they could teach fifth grade students how to make videos on science vocabulary. The fifth graders could burn DVDs to take home to review their vocabulary and use their video skills.
    • Instructional Practices in Education and Training students could choose several technology applications they think are most effective for teaching. They could offer a short workshops or brown bag lunch seminars for teachers on how to use that technology.
    • Invite a life skills or special needs teacher to demonstrate ways technology is used with students. Students could do research on additional technology applications for special services.
    • Use the graphic organizer below to involve students in researching to create a Technology in Education Timeline.

    Textbook

    • Putting It All Together, Texas Tech Curriculum Center for FCS, 2010.
    • Reaching to Teach, The Texas Tech Curriculum Center for FCS, 2005.
    • Ready, Set, Teach! I and II Curriculum Guide, Curriculum Center for FCS, 2003.
    • Teaching, Goodheart-Wilcox Company, 2010.

    Websites

    Videos

    Instructional Practices in Education and Training Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Constant ____________and monitoring when using technology keeps students safe and focused.

    • a. supervision
    • b. grading
    • c. assessment
    • d. rules

    2. _____________________is one of the most continually changing strategies in education.

    • a. Evaluation
    • b. Assessment
    • c. Technology
    • d. Guidance

    3. Some of the issues with adding technological devices include:

    • a. additional risks for plagiarism
    • b. internet security
    • c. increased costs of equipment and staff training
    • d. all of the above

    4. Guidelines for using technology should include:

    • a. knowledge of the district policies for technology
    • b. respect for the materials of others stored on devices
    • c. if students can use personal devices
    • d. all of the above

    5. Technology is an excellent strategy for:

    • a. doing research
    • b. adding videos to instruction
    • c. keeping students busy
    • d. a and b

  • XI. Evaluating the Learning Process/XII. Relationship Between School and Society/ XIII. Career Planning

    TEKS Addressed

    (6) The student assesses teaching and learning.

    • (A) describe the role of assessment as part of the learning process
    • (B) analyze the assessment process
    • (C) identify appropriate assessment strategies for use in an instructional setting

    Answers Marked on Test

    Module Content

    This section of the Instructional Practices in Education and Training course is divided into the following units of study:

    A. Role of Assessment
    B. Assessment Process
    C. Assessment Strategies

    Refer to lesson Assessing What is Being Taught for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/assessing-what-is-being-taught/

    Refer to lesson The Art of Planning a Lesson for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-art-of-planning-a-lesson/

    Module XI Handouts

    A. Role of Assessment

    Assessment is more than quizzes and exams. It includes many methods for getting information about what, how much and how well a student is learning. Assessment is directly connected to accountability, or who is responsible to guarantee a student is learning. Is it the teacher, principal, or school? Some argue that parents and the community are responsible. Others argue that state and federal governments should guarantee student success since they make the standards. Accurate assessments are vital to helping students be successful.

    Federal and state legislation mandates testing and the monitoring of the testing and scoring. State tests are standards-based and are considered high-stakes tests. In Texas, an example of these tests are those that are based on the TEKS and determine advancement and ultimately graduation from public high school. The content of these tests is a major factor in determining the curriculum that is taught. In some school districts, the performance of students is linked to the teacher’s contract and salary.

    Four major purposes of classroom assessment are:

    • 1. To monitor student progress.
    • 2. To make instructional decisions.
    • 3. To evaluate student achievement.
    • 4. To evaluate the effectiveness of programs.
  • B. Assessment Process

    The planning process begins with thinking about ways to assess or measure what the students learned. It should also be considered throughout the lesson to make certain each component is taught, and at the end when the evaluation will be completed.

    The TEKS are ultimately measured by standardized, high-stakes tests that may be used to determine if a student will promote to the next grade or graduate from high school. Other forms of assessment are used to make decisions about student progress, to evaluate the program or to determine if review or reteaching is needed.

    C. Assessment Strategies

    Bloom’s Taxonomy, originally developed in 1956, has been revised to summarize types of learning and ways to determine if students can apply what they have learned.
    Review Bloom’s Taxonomy at:
    http://ww2.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_taxonomy.htm

    The following site has an extensive collection of web tools and applications for a variety of technology devices that assist with application and assessment. It is organized by Bloom’s learning behaviors.
    http://www.schrockguide.net/bloomin-apps.html

    There is a way to evaluate any type of learning. Traditional strategies include:

    • Forced-choice questions such as multiple choice and true-false
    • Essay and short written response
    • Oral reports and presentations
    • Teacher observation
    • Student self-assessment
    • Portfolios
    • Collaborative group projects
    • Oral questioning
    • Case studies
    • Performance of a task, demonstrate
    • Rubrics – for teacher assessment or student self-assessment

    Assigning Grades
    The grade is a number assigned to an evaluation. Students usually receive grades for individual assignments and an accumulative grade for grading periods.

    Assessments and grades should be linked to goals and standards and what has been taught. They should not be a comparison of one student to another student.

    Grades and assessments are for motivating students, to identify strengths and weaknesses, to determine promotion and eligibility for activities, and to help students make plans for their future. They should be as fair and as equitable as possible.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Every Education and Training program is different. Below is a list of handouts/graphic organizers you can use or adapt to meet the needs of your students.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module XI Handouts

    • 3 – 2 – 1 Closure
    • Assessment of Test Questions
    • Constructing Tests Answer Key
    • Constructing Tests
    • Student Course Reflection
    • Test Question Exit
    • Types of Test Questions

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Use the graphic organizer Assess A Test for students to evaluate tests in their classes or their training site.
    • Use the graphic organizer Test Question Exit after a lesson. Students can gather the questions to develop an assessment for the class.
    • Use the graphic organizer 3 – 2 – 1 Closure at the end of a lesson. Analyze the information to determine review and re-teaching.
    • Make copies of the PDAS evaluation instruments. Have students critique themselves using the forms.
    • Have the students create rubrics to use with the lessons they teach at the training site.

    Resources and References

    Textbook

    • Armstrong, D. (2009). Teaching today. Saddle River New Jersey: Pearson.
    • Curriculum Center for FCS. Ready, set, teach! Curriculum Guide. 2003.
    • Curriculum Center for FCS. Reaching to teach. 2005.
    • Feeney, S., Moravcik, E., Nolte, S., and Christensen, D. (2009) Who am i in the lives of children? Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson.
    • Morrison, G. (2009) Early childhood education today. Upper Saddle Rover, New Jersey: Pearson.
    • Powel, S. (2010). S. Texas Tech University Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences (Ed.), Putting it all together: education and training. Boston. Massachusetts: Pearson.

    Websites

    Videos

    Instructional Practices in Education and Training Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. The ______________is an effective way to organize a variety of documents and samples.

    • a. rubric
    • b. self-assessment
    • c. portfolio
    • d. web page

    2. Assessment and evaluation should be:

    • a. the last step to consider when planning
    • b. the first step to consider when planning
    • c. considered at the beginning, throughout instruction, and at the end of the lesson
    • d. the most important step in lesson planning

    3. Grades should be:

    • a. given for assignments
    • b. given subjectively
    • c. used to identify strengths and weaknesses
    • d. a and c

    4. Assessments and grades should be linked to:

    • a. goals
    • b. standards
    • c. personality
    • d. a and b

    5. Having students do demonstrations is a good way to assess_____________.

    • a. goals
    • b. objectives
    • c. knowledge
    • d. skills

    XII. Relationship Between School and Society

    TEKS Addressed

    (7) The student understands the relationship between school and society.

    • (A) explain the relationship between school and society
    • (B) use school and community resources for professional growth
    • (C) use the support of family members, community members, and business and industry to promote learning

    (3) The student communicates effectively.

    • (B) communicate effectively in situations with educators and parents or guardians

    Module Content

    This section of the Instructional Practices in Education and Training course is divided into the following units of study:

    A. Relationship Between School and Society
    B. Resources for pProfessional Growth
    C. Learning Support Networks

    Refer to lesson Service Learning with a Smile:Education and Training for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/service-learning-with-a-smile-education-and-training/

    Refer to lesson Where Will We Go from Here? for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/where-will-we-go-from-here/

    Refer to lesson Principles and Areas of Human Development for activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/principles-and-areas-of-human-development/

    Refer to lesson Can’t We All Just Get Along? Conflict Resolution Strategies for more activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/cant-we-all-just-get-along-conflict-resolution-strategies-2/

    Refer to lesson The Art of Planning a Lesson for additional activities, ideas and resources at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-art-of-planning-a-lesson/

    Module XII Handouts

    A. Relationship between School and Society

    Schools Are The Center of Many Communities

    Throughout the history of education, schools have served as the center of the communities they served. Teachers are considered leaders and respected as an important part of local, state, and national societies.

    As business and industry depended on schools to train their future employees, they became more involved in working with schools to get workers with relevant knowledge and skills. It is important for schools to collaborate with the community so there can be a give – and – take partnership. The students in our schools come from many types of families. Teachers should realize that it is how the people in those families act and how the schools and communities support the children, that affects success for their children.

    Possibly the most important thing for teachers to remember every day is that their students may have gone through incredible obstacles just to be at school. The teacher should help that student know that school is worth the trouble and can be one way to make their life and the lives of their future family better.

    B. Resources for Professional Growth

    Each individual is created by their collection of past and present experiences. The type of community, city, or metroplex a student grows up in affects who they are and what they become. When a student comes from an agricultural community or an industrial area, that probably has been a factor in the life of the family. They have learned about that lifestyle by being part of it.

    All communities have something to offer as a student prepares for a career and future professional growth. They may even decide to choose a similar area to live in as they settle for a lifetime. They learn how towns work and figure out where to go for advice and assistance. The local history may also be a significant factor in their growth.

    Businesses and industries provide opportunities for field trips, job shadowing and internships. These businesses may also provide part – time and summer employment that will help students determine career paths.

    C. Learning Support Networks

    21st Century initiatives encourage real world participation by students for effective learning. The community can provide appropriate internships, job shadowing activities, and jobs/training sites for students. Many communities have other training institutions, such as universities and community colleges that may offer dual credit opportunities. Teachers should also explore the availability of Statewide Articulation Credit for each program. These programs give students an edge once they graduate from high school and may be motivators for them to enroll in the Education and Training Cluster at the high school level.

    Service Learning is an excellent strategy for real world learning and community partnerships. It involves students in identifying needs and applying academic knowledge and skills to create solutions for problems.

    Browse service learning ideas at:
    https://gsn.nylc.org/learn

    Service Learning is a perfect way to incorporate FCCLA into programs. There is more information at:
    http://www.texasfccla.org/Service_Learning.html

    Refer to lesson Service Learning With a Smile: Education and Training at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/service-learning-with-a-smile-education-and-training/

    Schools and teachers can be creative in developing activities that will make the most of interactions between the school and each family.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module XII Handouts

    • Help Needed
    • If I Were There
    • Thanks For Your Help

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Assign groups of students or classes to conduct a service learning project connected to education and training. Use the FCCLA Planning Process. This could become the basis for a FCCLASTAR event. Students could also develop “Power of One” FCCLA activity in this area.
    • Use the graphic organizer This Needs Help to help students think of needs and concerns in their community.
    • Do service learning projects that incorporate parents, families and community members as partners. An example could be creating multicultural exhibits for the local museum with parents providing items to display about their culture.
    • Use the graphic organizer If I Were There to compare the schools and relationships between schools and society in another country.
    • Write a letter to your Senator or representative about changes that you think would improve the educational system in your state.
    • Use the graphic organizer, Thanks for Your Help, to make a list of all of the businesses and organizations that support your school, athletic teams, and school organizations. Think of ways you could express appreciation for their contributions.
    • Have students watch the “Communities in Schools: Videos about Heroes. Let each student choose one to reflect on and identify strategies that might work in their school district.

    References and Resources

    Textbook

    • Armstrong, D. (2009). Teaching today. Saddle River New Jersey: Pearson.
    • Curriculum Center for FCS. Ready, set, teach! Curriculum Guide. 2003.
    • Curriculum Center for FCS. Reaching to teach. 2005.
    • Feeney, S., Moravcik, E., Nolte, S., and Christensen, D. (2009) Who am i in the lives of children? Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson.
    • Morrison, G. (2009) Early childhood education today. Upper Saddle Rover, New Jersey: Pearson.
    • Powel, S. (2010`). S. Texas Tech University Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences (Ed.), Putting it all together: education and training. Boston. Massachusetts: Pearson.

    Websites

    Videos

    Instructional Practices in Education and Training: Pre-Assessment Quiz

    1. Schools support the community by:

    • a. providing a gathering place for community events
    • b. training the workforce of the future
    • c. having business and industry leaders on advisory boards
    • d. all of the above

    2. Businesses and industries provide opportunities for:

    • a. field trips
    • b. internships
    • c. job shadow experiences
    • d. all of the above

    3. Service-learning is:

    • a. a strategy to teach the TEKS
    • b. another word for community service
    • c. bringing learning to life
    • d. b and c

    4. Service learning is an excellent strategy for working with:

    • a. community businesses and industries
    • b. meeting needs in the community
    • c. helping students apply what they are learning
    • d. all of the above

    5. Including local community leaders on advisory boards helps by:

    • a. obtaining advice about the types of skills their employees will need
    • b. obtaining information about trends in business and industry
    • c. finding guest speakers
    • d. all of the above

    —-

    XIII. Career Planning

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student explores the teaching and training profession.
    (A) Investigate possible career options in the field of education and training

    Module Content

    This section of the Instructional Practices in Education and Training course is divided into the following units of study:

    A. Teaching and training profession
    B. Career options

    Module XIII Handouts

    A. Teaching and Training Profession

    High school students have been exposed to the public school segment of education and training careers almost all of their lives. They know about elementary, middle school and high school teachers and what those jobs include. There are many other jobs in the public education field they may have not considered.

    Go to the O*Net site below to review the list of education jobs and check the information provided:

    http://www.onetonline.org/find/career?c=5&g=Go

    If all students do not have access to a computer or other digital device, copies of the page could be made to show the variety of occupations in the teaching and training fields.

    B. Career Options

    Continue the career information search at the next site by watching a video about one of the job areas at:
    Career One Stop
    This site has many videos, some are in Spanish. They feature careers, skills and abilities, industry information and work options. http://www.careeronestop.org/Videos/CareerandClusterVideos/career-and-cluster-videos.aspx

    Students may not realize there are many “education” jobs outside public schools. The following site lists jobs in the United States and federal government for various types of trainers and teachers in atypical positions.

    USA Jobs: Working For America
    http://www.usajobs.gov/JobSearch/Search/GetResults?Keyword=education&Location=&search=Search%21

    This TEA site lists jobs that are available in Texas by each school district:
    http://www.tea.state.tx.us/districtSearch.aspx

    It is also important to expect students and staff to appreciate diversity, learn about cultures from around the world, and apply global consideration and awareness to all areas of learning. Look at the following web site to see a wonderful resource about the importance of culture in workplaces and teaching in multicultural settings.

    Volunteer Opportunities
    http://www.peacecorps.gov/volunteer/

    The Peace Corps YouTube™ website is a valuable resource in showing students the impact teachers and volunteers are making throughout the world. They are inspiring for students to consider as they plan their future in education and training.
    https://www.youtube.com/user/peacecorps

    Help students identify other areas where educators are employed, such as Disney, Texas Parks and Wildlife, magazines, web site developers, textbook and book companies. This could be done with guest speakers, Skype presentations, or webinars.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module XIII Handouts

    • Career Research
    • Disney Job Description
    • List of Careers in Teaching

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Copy the job description from Disney in the handouts below. Have students work individually first and then in small groups to identify teaching abilities and skills that would prepare a student for that position. Later, have them list other industries and businesses that would also hire educators.
    • Identify a career choice. Select a group to teach about the career choice, kindergarten, elementary, middle school or high school. Prepare a lesson plan and teach it to a class.
    • Plan and present a career fair to younger students about the types of careers in the Education and Training Cluster.
    • Have the Instructional Practices in Education and Training students mentor and send letters or emails to a student in the Principles of Education and Training class. They could describe their experiences and answer questions the students might have about their class.
    • Invite various educators to class to be guest speakers. They could explain their career and education background.
    • Students could write letters to retired teachers, describing their activities and asking questions about their lives. These former teachers might also serve as guest speakers.

    References and Resources

    Textbooks

    • Armstrong, D. (2009). Teaching today. Saddle River New Jersey: Pearson.
    • Curriculum Center for FCS. Ready, set, teach! Curriculum Guide. 2003.
    • Curriculum Center for FCS. Reaching to teach. 2005.
    • Feeney, S., Moravcik, E., Nolte, S., and Christensen, D. (2009) Who am i in the lives of children? Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson.
    • Morrison, G. (2009) Early childhood education today. Upper Saddle Rover, New Jersey: Pearson.
      Powel, S. (2010`). S. Texas Tech University Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences (Ed.), Putting it all together: education and training. Boston. Massachusetts: Pearson.

    Websites

    Videos

    Instructional Practices in Education and Training: Pre-Assessment Quiz

    1. Career choices in education and training could include:

    • a. Texas Parks and Wildlife, the Peace Corps
    • b. Disney World
    • c. Southern Living Magazine
    • d. all of the above

    2. Teaching jobs could be available at:

    • a. the Department of Defense to work in other countries
    • b. aid organizations like the Peace Corps
    • c. hospitals to do human resource development
    • d. all of the above

    3. Students who are preparing to work or go to school in other countries need to:

    • a. learn about protocol in other cultures
    • b. be proficient on other languages
    • c. make all A’s in high school
    • d. a and b

    4. If each student does not have computer access in the classroom, teachers can:

    • a. project videos and web pages on a projector
    • b. obtain permission for them to use personal devices
    • c. use Perkins funds to purchase devices
    • d. all of the above

    5. Teachers can make information from the internet available by:

    • a. obtaining permission to make written copies
    • b. dividing students into small groups to do computer activities
    • c. plan for the class to work in centers, rotating through various activities, some including technology devices
    • d. all of the above

  • Quiz

    Instructional Practices in Education and Training Online Course

    Progress:

    1. Colonial education was characterized by all of the following except:

    2. Throughout history, many political leaders were also leaders in education, including:

    3. ________________schools were the first free public schools.

    4. Who is considered the Father of American Education?

    5. Benjamin Bloom created his ____________of learning.

    6. Every teacher fosters students' development in:

    7. Teachers must continue to be ____________to be most effective.

    8. Teachers use ____________ with many other tools to assess performance.

    9. Effective leaders include _______________ on decision-making boards.

    10. ________________schools are public schools with a specific focus.

    11. Students need _________________skills for collecting thoughts and ideas in groups and listening to new concepts.

    12. 21st Century Skills include:

    13. When instructing students, teachers need to consider:

    14. It is important for students to distinguish between personal and ____________ communication in verbal, nonverbal, written, and electronic communications.

    15. Literacy includes:

    16. Developmentally appropriate classrooms might include:

    17. The areas of human development include which of the following areas:

    18. John Dewey's Progressivism included which of the following ideas:

    19. Learning usually progresses from __________to abstract.

    20. Jean Piaget developed theories about _____________________development.

    21. Following a _____________ is good classroom management for all ages.

    22. Classroom management includes:

    23. Teachers should be alert to potential situations for:

    24. Teachers must know and be in compliance with:

    25. Ethics and laws in education guarantee:

    26. __________are created as guides for people living together.

    27. Teachers are required by law to:

    28. The ________________is an effective way to organize a variety of documents and samples of work.

    29. Internship field-based experiences can take place at:

    30. The interns must act professionally and as positive role models at:

    31. In Texas, the content standards for knowledge and skills for each class are called the:

    32. __________ are specific statements that include an action, the conditions, and the expected level of performance.

    33. Especially when working with students from special populations, teachers should:

    34. Constant ____________and monitoring when using technology keeps students safe and focused.

    35. _____________________is one of the most continually changing strategies in education.

    36. Some of the issues with adding technological devices include:

    37. Guidelines for using technology should include:

    38. The ______________is an effective way to organize a variety of documents and samples.

    39. Assessment and evaluation should be:

    40. Grades should be:

    41. Assessments and grades should be linked to:

    42. Having students do demonstrations is a good way to assess_____________.

    43. Career choices in education and training could include:

    44. Teaching jobs could be available at:

    45. Students who are preparing to work or go to school in other countries need to:

    46. If each student does not have computer access in the classroom, teachers can:

    47. Teachers can make information from the internet available by:

    48. Technology is an excellent strategy for:

    49. Planning helps teachers:

    50. It is important to complete forms, such as the ___________________ in the Field-Based experience.

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