Human Growth and Development Online Course

  • Human Growth and Development Online Course Introduction

    Course Learning Objectives

    kid on bike

    This self-paced professional development course will provide you with a thorough overview of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for the Human Growth and Development course (one credit). The suggested scope and sequence for this course is divided into twelve modules. Each module will be explored in addition to providing teachers with resources, references, suggested teaching strategies, and a five question assessment.

    Students will identify this course as part of a Career and Technical Education (CTE) program of study, understand that CTE in Texas is organized around 16 career clusters and 79 career pathways, and that Human Growth and Development is one of 4 courses in the Education and Training career cluster that equips students with:

    • core academic skills
    • employability skills
    • job specific technical skills

    Important
    This online course consists of an introduction and twelve modules. Carefully read all course content to become familiar with the TEKS, student expectations, published lessons, and suggested activities. Names of handouts, graphic organizers, and slide presentations appear in bold letters. Refer to attachments at the end of each module for additional information. 12 pre-assessment multiple choice statements can be found at the end of the Introduction. Each module ends with five multiple choice statements.

    After completing the course, you will be required to complete a 50 question quiz and submit your name and email address. You will receive a certificate of completion at that address.

    The certificates for the successful completion of the online courses are NOT automatically computer generated and are reviewed individually. Certificates will be generated Monday through Friday between the hours of 8:00am and 5:00pm.
    For questions, contact: sfacte@gmail.com

    As approved by the Texas Education Agency, a passing score of 80 is required to receive a certificate equalling six (6) Continuing Professional Education (CPE) credits.

    Refer to the Introductory Lesson: Human Growth and Development for an introduction to Career and Technical Education, Career Clusters™, coherent sequence of courses, and programs of study.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/introductory-lesson-human-growth-and-development/

    Be sure to open all the attachments below that correspond to this course as you will need to refer to them as you follow along. All of the handouts and graphic organizers are available for you to use in your classroom. All keys are included.

    Human Growth and Development: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Which of the following reasons best explain why teachers must understand the theories of human development?

    • a. To better understand how children learn and to be able to develop appropriate lessons and teaching methods.
    • b. To better understand how to get along with the students.
    • c. To better understand how to get along with colleagues.
    • d. To understand what is expected of the teacher in the classroom.

    2. Which of the following is not a reason to have good medical care and health practices prior to and during pregnancy?

    • a. To lessen the risk of serious birth.
    • b. So any complications can be detected and treated or prevented.
    • c. To ensure there will be no complications at delivery.
    • d. To improve both the mother’s and the baby’s chances of survival.

    3. Which of the following organizations or individuals have the responsibility of protecting children who have been abused?

    • a. Teachers and schools
    • b. Doctors
    • c. Family and Protective Services
    • d. All of the above

    4. What is the relationship of guidance and discipline?

    • a. Guidance is about teaching behaviors; discipline is how we teach those behaviors.
    • b. Guidance is showing a child what is right; discipline is punishing him when he is wrong.
    • c. Guidance is about helping children choose a career path; discipline is about making the choose the path we want.
    • d. Guidance is about keeping kids safe; discipline is about keep parents in control.

    5. Breastfeeding is the best form of nutrition for infants because it

    • a. is inexpensive.
    • b. is easy to prepare and clean up.
    • c. is customized to the needs of each infant and has several compounds that are not reproducible.
    • d. all of the above

    6. Which of the following physical changes usually occurs during adolescence?

    • a. An increase in sex hormone production.
    • b. Rapid changes in height and weight.
    • c. An increase in oil produced by the sebaceous glands.
    • d. All of the above

    7. The major psychosocial task of adolescence according to Erikson, is:

    • a. Autonomy
    • b. Identity
    • c. Intimacy
    • d. Trust

    8. What is the importance of maintaining good physical condition during early adulthood?

    • a. To ensure getting a good job.
    • b. To reduce the effects of aging.
    • c. To slow the metabolic rate.
    • d. Enhance sexual performance.

    9. Friendships developed during young adulthood are significant because

    • a. they are often the most lasting friendships.
    • b. they often lead to romantic relationships.
    • c. they are based on social status.
    • d. none of the above

    10. Middle adulthood is a time of contentment for most adults. This is true only if:

    • a. the adult has hopped from job to job; still looking for just the right place.
    • b. the adult has had general success in marriage, parenting, and a career.
    • c. the adult has experienced a mid-life crisis.
    • d. none of the above

    11. Ageism is a form of discrimination based on____________.

    • a. the belief that a person cannot perform certain tasks due to their gender.
    • b. the belief that a person cannot perform certain tasks due to their skin color.
    • c. the belief that a person cannot perform certain tasks due to their age.
    • d. the belief that a person cannot perform certain tasks due to their weight.

    12. What benefit does researching a company before an interview have?

    • a. Knowing about the company’s goals and history will give you an idea of the culture.
    • b. It will show the interviewer that you are truly interested in what the company does.
    • c. It will give you a good idea of how to dress for the interview.
    • d. All of the above

  • I. Historical, Theoretical, and Research Perspectives and II. Child Development

    3rd labor

    TEKS Addressed:

    (1) The student understands historical, theoretical, and research perspectives of human growth and development. The student is expected to:

    • (A) explain the role of theories in understanding human development
    • (B) describe theoretical perspectives that influence human development throughout the lifespan
    • (C) summarize historical influences on modern theories of human development
    • (D) compare and contrast the research methods commonly used to study human development
    • (E) compare and contrast pedagogy and andragogy

    Module Content

    Historical, Theoretical, and Research Perspectives is the first module in the Human Growth and Development course. This section contains five units of study that include:

    • A. Major theorists
    • B. Explanation of major theories using real world examples
    • C. Critique of major theories
    • D. Use of theory to predict and explain individual and group behavior and guidance techniques
    • E. Pedagogy versus andragogy

    Module I Handouts

    Refer to lesson: A Look at Theories: Part I for additional resources and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-look-at-theories-part-i/

    Refer to lesson: A Look at Theories: Part II for additional resources and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-look-at-theories-part-ii/

    Major Theorists

    The study of how humans grow and develop is a natural topic of interest for most people. Watching babies develop into adults gives most families reason to question why a child looks or acts more like one parent or the other. Wondering what kind of person will be the end result of the unique combinations of genetics, experiences, and lifestyle is a question most parents find fascinating. Being able to recognize patterns of growth and development is essential to those who work with children in any capacity.

    Growth and development are terms that are often used together but have very different meanings. “Growth refers to an increase in physical size. Growth is quantitative: it can be measured in inches or centimeters, pounds or kilograms. Development, on the other hand, refers to the progressive acquisition of skills and the capacity to function” (Polan). They are interdependent on one another and occur at the same time. Human growth and development follow two directional patterns: cephalocaudal (begins at the head and moves to the feet), and proximodistal (begins at the center of the body and moves outward toward the extremities).

    Characteristics of growth and development are as follows:
    1. They occur in an orderly pattern from simple to complex.
    2. They are continuous processes that occur in spurts of growth and periods of slow, steady growth.
    3. They progress at uniquely individual rates.
    4. They affect all body systems, but at different times for specific structures.
    5. They form a total process that affects a person physically, mentally, and socially.

    Explanation of Major Theories Using Real World Examples

    Theories about human development are many and varied. The major push currently is on Lifespan Development. This school of thought digresses from earlier theories that focused primarily on the development of children and adolescents because it continues to look at development throughout the lifespan. There are currently six major perspectives of Human Development theory, with the work of the individual theorists grouped into different areas of each theory.

    • The psychodynamic perspective – Behavior is motivated by unconscious forces stemming from childhood.
    • The behavioral perspective – Studies development based on observable behaviors and environmental stimuli.
    • The cognitive perspective – Examines the ways people know, understand, think, and how that influences behavior.
    • The humanistic perspective – States that behavior is chosen through free will and motivated by capacity to reach our full potential.
    • The contextual perspective – Examines the interrelationship of physical, cognitive, personality, and social worlds.
    • The evolutionary perspective – Behaviors are the result of genetics and are adaptive for promoting survival.

    The Four Areas of Development

    Human development is like a pie with four equal pieces. It is easy to remember each of the areas of development by remembering the acronym PIES.

    • P-Physical Development – Motor and muscle development, growth, body coordination, and control.
    • I-Intellectual Development – Developing concepts, solving problems, and learning.
    • E-Emotional Development – Feelings, self-concept, attitudes.
    • S-Social Development – Getting along with others, working with groups, adjusting to society.

    Critique of Major Theories

    Researchers using the scientific method have four goals for their work in human development:

    • Describe – State what happens.
    • Explain – This is generally done by developing a theory for the observable behavior.
    • Predict – Create an educated guess about what will happen in a given situation.
    • Influence – To produce desired results or improvements in behaviors.

    Methods for discovering relationships and forming hypothesis vary from simple observation or case studies to surveys, laboratory observations, and correlations. Once a hypothesis is formed, it must be tested. The experimental method is a test that has control groups and variable groups to determine how the hypothesis works. In human development, many studies revolve around age-related changes. These changes can be studied with three different research designs:

    • Cross-sectional design: Looks at several subjects of the same age in each group and each group is of a different age.
    • Longitudinal designs: Looks at changes over time with the same group of individuals.
    • Sequential designs: Is the combination of cross-section and longitudinal designs, each age group is examined at various points during a certain time period.

    Use of Theory to Predict and Explain Individual and Group Behavior and Guidance Techniques

    The important objective for students in Education and Training is to understand basic theories well enough to apply them effectively. Each teacher has a different personality and style. Students will also need to consider their behaviors and skills to determine their strengths and weaknesses.

    Personal behaviors to consider include:

    • Be flexible
    • Be willing to listen and understand
    • Be willing to try new ideas
    • Give others the credit for having accomplished an objective or achieved a success
    • Keep an open mind
    • Keep the goal in mind
    • Reach out to give and ask for assistance
    • Respect other individuals

    Teachers also need to evaluate the various needs of their students. Most classes in schools or in business and industry will have a diverse collection of students with different language abilities, learning levels, and other needs. The following YouTube™ video provides seven steps to assist English Language Learners (ELL). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Ub0NJ6UClI

    Pedagogy versus Andragogy

    The differences in learning for adults and children may revolve more around motivation and how that changes the learner’s reception of different teaching methods, than just the learner’s age. Pedagogy is a term that was coined in the early centuries of formal learning. It stems from the Greek word ped meaning “child”, and agogus meaning “leader of” (Holmes, Abington-Cooper). Thus, pedagogy is the science of teaching children. Andragogy is a much newer term that is based on the Greek term of “man” and agogus or “leader of.” Andragogy has taken on the definition of the science of facilitating learning for adults.

    Pedagogy is generally considered to be a very teacher-centered or teacher-directed learning method. The instructor prepares and presents lessons in the traditional formats of lectures and readings, followed with guided and independent practice. The teacher is able to filter information that he or she feels is appropriate for the group of students and directs their learning. This is the primary method of instruction that is considered appropriate for children and what the traditional school system in the U.S. is based on.

    Andragogy, on the other hand, is usually more learner-directed. The instructor plays the role of facilitator more than teacher and sets only the general outline of learning to take place and the method of assessment. The learner has the primary responsibility of finding and assimilating the required information. Andragogy is generally believed to be the best method for adult education, as it allows for self-directed learning.

    More recent studies indicate that perhaps pedagogy and andragogy are two sides of the same continuum of learning. That each method can be used for various age groups, depending on the group’s prior knowledge, reason for learning the content, and whether the motivation to learn is extrinsic or intrinsic. (Holmes)

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Every Education and Training program is different. Below is a list of handouts/graphic organizers you can use or adapt to meet the needs of your Human Growth and Development students.

    Module I Handouts

    • Applying Theories to Practice
    • Backgrounds and Attitudes
    • Four Areas of Development
    • Historical Theories

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Sample Theories of Human Development Chart
    • Have students make a copy of the Theories of Human Development chart—they will use this as a foundation for pulling the theories into the various lifespan stages. This could also be completed as a web-search activity.
    • Divide students in to small groups and have them prepare a lesson on the same subject with some groups using pedagogical instruction methods and others using andragogical instruction methods.
    • Create Venn Diagram for teaching methodologies (pedagogy versus andragogy) for students to fill in during lecture/discussion.
    • Students can choose three theorists to compare on the Applying Theories to Practice graphic organizer. They could also draw the names so that students compare a variety of theorists.
    • Make a video, PowerPoint™ or bulletin board with photographs they have taken that illustrate the principles of development.
    • Students will complete Backgrounds and Attitudes handout to determine attitudes or beliefs he or she has about teaching children with disabilities.
    • Review the information on the handout Historical Theories.
    • Students will complete Four Areas of Development handout. Label each area of the chart with one of the four areas of development. List two activities or examples of that development in each section.
    • Have students make a display with educational materials that supports theories for a particular theorist.
    • Write in their journals about the theories they think are most significant and why. They should give examples of ways they will incorporate these ideas when they teach and why.
    • Take the Learning Styles Quiz at
      http://www.edutopia.org/multiple-intelligences-learning-styles-quiz
    • Put each of the areas of the multiple intelligences on a bulletin board. After taking the quiz, have each student write their name on a sticky note and place it by their dominant area of intelligence. This will show what types of strategies will work best within each class as well as show students there are many types of learners.

    Resources and References

    Textbooks

    • Armstrong, D. (2009). Teaching today. Saddle River New Jersey: Pearson.
    • Curriculum Center for FCS. Ready, set, teach! Curriculum Guide. 2003.
    • Curriculum Center for FCS. Reaching to teach. 2005.

    Websites

    • Learning Style Quiz
      This Edutopia site has the “Learning Style Quiz,” videos about Howard Gardiner and many innovative education programs and topics.
      http://www.edutopia.org/

    YouTube™

    Human Growth and Development: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Which of the following reasons best explain why teachers must understand the theories of human development?

    • a. To better understand how children learn and to be able to develop appropriate lessons and teaching methods.
    • b. To better understand how to get along with the students.
    • c. To better understand how to get along with colleagues.
    • d. To understand what is expected of the teacher in the classroom.

    2. Which of the following best explains the focus of pedagogical instruction?

    • a. Teacher-directed lectures and traditional format.
    • b. Learner-centered with self-paced, discovery style learning.
    • c. Intrinsically motivated learning.
    • d. None of the above

    3. Which of the following is an accepted method of studying human behaviors?

    • a. Cross-sectional studies
    • b. Laboratory observations
    • c. Longitudinal studies
    • d. All of the above

    4. _________________= motor and muscle development, growth, and body coordination and control.

    • a. Social Development
    • b. Emotional Development
    • c. Physical Development
    • d. Physic Development

    5. The following steps would be useful in helping all students. They are:

    • a. Assess needs, empathize and foster a sense of belonging.
    • b. Assign a buddy, read and reread books aloud.
    • c. Only A
    • d. A and B

    II. Child Development

    Tummy of a Pregnant Woman

    TEKS Addressed:

    (2) The student understands the importance of prenatal care in the development of a child. The student is expected to:

    • (A) describe nutritional needs prior to and during pregnancy
    • (B) analyze reasons for medical care and good health practices prior to and during pregnancy
    • (C) outline stages of prenatal development
    • (D) discuss the role of genetics in prenatal development
    • (E) determine environmental factors affecting development of the fetus

    Module Content

    Child Development is the second module in the Human Growth and Development course. This section contains four units of study that include:

    • A. Nutritional needs before and during pregnancy
    • B. Impact of nutrition on the development of the fetus
    • C. Nutritional guidelines
    • D. Safety and wellness
      • 1. Childhood illnesses
      • 2. Immunizations
      • 3. Fitness

    Module II Handouts

    Note to Teacher: More information on Prenatal Development can be found in these courses:

    Nutritional Needs Before and During Pregnancy

    While a natural event, pregnancy is a very taxing process for the mother’s body. Being in top or at least very good physical condition will ,of course, make things easier. Mothers who are already practicing good health habits such as proper diet and physical activity will have easier pregnancies and healthier babies, in most cases, than mothers who do not. Good prenatal health care is also essential to maternal and fetal outcomes. Mothers who can begin prenatal visits with their women’s health provider, considerably increase their odds of an uncomplicated pregnancy and a healthy, safely delivered baby.

    Some special considerations in diet are the need for more folic acid and water. Lower impact physical activity in the later stages of pregnancy when the body becomes more unwieldy needs to be taken into consideration. Most women can expect to add approximately 300 calories to their diet on a daily basis through pregnancy and lactation. These calories should be in the form of nutrient dense foods, although during the early stages, morning sickness can interfere with making the best choices! Nutrients to be especially aware of are protein, folic acid and iron.

    Impact of Nutrition on the Development of the Fetus

    Good prenatal nutrition is vital to the health of a baby. It’s important to remember that, prior to birth; a baby is totally dependent on his/her mother for nutrition. There is no other way for the baby to eat. That means that Mom has to take great care to ensure that her baby has a solid start in life by getting the food that he/she needs to be born well and healthy. If mothers do not take care to provide a nutritious environment for their unborn child, serious life-long damage to the baby can be the result. A mother who is malnourished (and whose baby is malnourished) can cause serious damage to the central nervous system. The baby’s brain weight can be lower than normal, keeping the child from reaching his/her full potential. Malnutrition can even cause distorted organ structure in organs such as the liver, kidney, and pancreas. These damage structures can affect the baby and have long-term consequences. Malnutrition can also suppress the development of the immune system; causing newborns to have respiratory problems.

    If all of those aren’t good enough reasons to be very aware of nutrition during pregnancy, babies who are malnourished prenatally, often are born irritable. They also have a very high-pitched cry, similar to that of drug-addicted newborns. This type of cry is very distressing to the adults who have to care for the infant. These babies are often unresponsive to stimulation, causing them to learn less quickly than other children. As these babies age, they often have low intelligence test scores and can have serious learning problems. What a pregnant woman eats (or does not eat) can cause life-long consequences for her child! Eating a well-balanced, healthty diet can go a long way towards helping an unborn baby receive the nutrition that he/she needs. As important as it is to not do unhealthful things, such as smoking and drinking, it is equally important to make certain that all nutrients are consumed on a daily basis. It is important to eat foods in the right amounts. It’s important not to consume too many empty calories (such as candy and soft drinks) so that most of the calories that enter the body provide nutrients for both the mother and the baby.

    Nutritional Guidelines

    Before you eat, think about what and how much food goes on your plate or in your cup or bowl. Over the day, include foods from all food groups: vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat dairy products, and lean protein foods.

    Folate or folic acid help the body make new cells and may prevent birth defects. Foods from the Dairy group provide calcium, potassium, vitamin D, and protein. Foods from the Protein group provide iron as well as protein. Fruits, vegetables, dry beans and grains are essential for folate and other nutrients such as fiber, vitamins, and minerals. 300 calories per day should be added to diet from nutrient rich foods. Prenatal vitamins and mineral supplements may be prescribed by an obstetrician. Pregnant women should take a prenatal vitamin and mineral supplement every day in addition to eating a healthy diet. Refrain from drinking any alcoholic beverages during pregnancy.

    Safety and Wellness

    1. Childhood Illnesses

    Health awareness involves recognizing wellness and the symptoms of illness and disability. It involves knowledge of illnesses that are common in group child care settings. In addition to the health of the children, a caregiver’s health is also part of a health awareness program.

    Characteristics of a Healthy Child
    Before caregivers can fully understand and recognize the symptoms of children’s health problems, they need to know how children look and behave when they are in good health. Healthy children:

    • are active, alert, curious, and often noisy
    • familiar surroundings and activities make them feel happy, content, and secure
    • have clear skin, bright eyes, shiny hair, straight posture, and strong white teeth that are in good condition
    • enjoy both individual and group activities
    • trust others, are basically free from worry, and generally feel good about themselves
    • have bowel movements that are regular and normal
    • sleep soundly and eat a variety of nutritious foods, without overeating
    • are curious and excited about new experiences
    • steadily gain weight and grow taller

    Recognition of Illness
    Sick children usually have shorter attention spans than healthy children, and they have little energy. They are often cranky, irritable and may cry easily. They may get into fights or minor conflicts more often than they do when they are healthy. Many childhood illnesses occur suddenly. Usually the signs and symptoms of those illnesses are easy to recognize. Some of the easily identified symptoms of illness include the following:

    • Convulsions, seizures, or attacks during which a child stiffens and twitches
    • Flushed face and hot, dry skin
    • Hoarse or husky voice
    • Large amounts of sweating unexpectedly
    • Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
    • Pain in ear, head, chest, stomach, abdomen, or joints
    • Raised temperature
    • Rash, bumps, or breaking out of skin
    • Runny nose, sneezes, or coughs
    • Sore throat
    • Stiff back or neck
    • Swollen glands
    • Unusual paleness or coldness
    • Watery or glassy appearance of the eyes

    Some illnesses and disabilities develop gradually and their symptoms are difficult to recognize, especially in the early stages. Screening and other health assessment methods are used to help detect serious illnesses and disabilities in the early stages. When an illness can be easily passed from one person to another, the illness is communicable. Contagious diseases are communicable by contact with a diseased person or with an object that a diseased person has used. Infectious diseases can move from one person to another or from one part of the body to another.

    2. Immunizations

    Every child needs protection against infectious disease. Immunizations were developed to provide this protection. An infectious disease is one that can be transmitted from person to person through an exchange of bodily fluids. An immunity is the body’s protection against certain diseases. Immunities can be developed by vaccination. Vaccination, or immunization, involves the injection or oral ingestion of a vaccine in order to create an immunity. A vaccine contains a small amount of the disease germ. After vaccination, a person’s body produces antibodies that fight off the disease germs. If children are exposed to a disease for which they have been vaccinated, they will either not catch it or only develop a mild form since they have the antibodies to fight it.

    All children must receive immunizations at certain times during their childhood and adolescent years. Community health clinics offer free immunizations to the public. Parents should keep careful records of their child’s immunizations.

    3. Fitness

    Unless your doctor advises you not to be physically active, include 2½ hours each week of physical activity such as brisk walking, dancing, gardening, or swimming. The activity should be done at least 10 minutes at a time, and preferably spread throughout the week. Avoid activities with a high risk of falling or injury.

    —-

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Every Education and Training program is different. Below is a list of handouts/graphic organizers you can use or adapt to meet the needs of your Human Growth and Development students.

    Module II Handouts

    • Graphic Organizer Phenotypes
    • Handout NIAAA Fetal Alcohol
    • MyPlate Graphic Organizer
    • Pregnancy Fact Sheet
    • Pregnancy Scenarios

    —-

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Have students generate a pregnancy newsletter for each trimester. Focus on Nutrition & Fitness, Fetal Development, and Doctors Visits. Additional ideas to fill space could be Breastfeeding Promotion, Community Resources (Mom’s groups, CHIP/Medicaid, or WIC).
    • Create a chart of the different theories of human development—just the basics—for students to use to reference during discussion of Life Span Stages.
    • Create a binder to include the pregnancy stages to be used as a reference in your classroom.
    • Distribute the handout Graphic Organizer Phenotypes. Have students write the names of three children that they know well. Fill in some obvious physical and behavioral similarities between them and their parents.
    • Distribute Pregnancy Scenarios handout and read the scenarios to the class. In groups of four, have students role play scenarios. Most role plays will last only a minute or two.
    • Have students develop a brochure that could be distributed in doctors’ offices, hospitals, and other places where pregnant women might pick them up. Have them describe at least five teratogens that should be avoided during pregnancy. The brochure should describe about what they are, where they are found, why they might be harmful, and how to avoid them. The brochure should include illustrations.
    • Go to the Quizlet website, study the terms included under Prenatal Terms. Take the quiz and print your results. http://quizlet.com/15628188/prenatal-terms-flash-cards/.
    • Find at least three professional websites (ending in “edu” or “org”) that discuss Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and the impact of that on a child’s life. Students will write a two page paper about their findings. Be sure to cite the sources.
    • Students might be able to volunteer to help in a Special Education classroom or in the pediatric section of the local hospital.
    • Download and print the following articles for students to read: Fetal Alcohol Exposure and the Brain from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
      http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa50.htm
    • Using the website:
      http://www.choosemyplate.gov/pregnancy-breastfeeding/making-healthy-food-choices.html and have students complete the MyPlate Graphic Organizer, allow time for questions and class discussion.
    • Print the following article for students to read: Pregnancy Fact Sheet. Discuss the information.

    —-

    Resources and References

    Textbooks

    • Berk, L. (2008). Infants and Children. (4th ed). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

    Websites

    YouTube™

    • 12 Healthy Snacks During Pregnancy
      “Two Pillars Of Healthy Pregnancy” where you will discover how much weight should you gain, what foods should you eat and which ones do you have to avoid, the right way to exercise during pregnancy, and much more.
      http://youtu.be/U6118JszdCU
    • Healthy Women Healthy Families – Prenatal Health
      Growing a healthy baby is one of the most important jobs of your life. Prenatal Health examines proper diet and nutrition to best ensure that you and your baby get all the vitamins, minerals and calories needed for a healthy pregnancy. University of California TV (Time 29:24)
      http://youtu.be/uLFuPFp535Y

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    Human Growth and Development: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Most women can expect to add approximately __________ to their diet on a daily basis through pregnancy and lactation.

    • a. 400 calories
    • b. 500 calories
    • c. 300 calories
    • d. 600 calories

    2. A mother who is _____________ (and whose baby is malnourished) can cause serious damage to the central nervous system.

    • a. nervous
    • b. malnourished
    • c. stressed
    • d. maladapted

    3. Babies that are malnourished prenatally, often have low intelligence test scores and can have serious learning problems.

    • a. True
    • b. False

    4. Which of the following is not a reason to have good medical care and health practices prior to and during pregnancy?

    • a. To lessen the risk of serious birth defects.
    • b. So any complications can be detected and treated or prevented.
    • c. To ensure there are no complications at birth.
    • d. To improve both the mother’s and the baby’s chances of survival.

    5. ____________ help the body make new cells and may prevent birth defects.

    • a. Vitamin D
    • b. B-Vitamins
    • c. Folate or folic acid
    • d. Estrogen

  • III. Care and Protection of Children and IV. Newborn to Two Years

    MC900440676

    TEKS Addressed:

    (7) The student understands the importance of care and protection of children. The student is expected to:

    • (A) determine agencies and services that protect the rights of children
    • (B) summarize various resources focusing on children
    • (C) predict the impact of changing demographics and cultural diversity on the health and welfare of children

    Module Content

    Care and Protection of Children is the third module in the Human Growth and Development course. This section contains four units of study that include:

    • A. Major economic factors affecting learning and educational practice
      • 1. Explaining factors using real world examples
      • 2. Relating factors to local funding issues
    • B. Family structures
    • C. Child abuse
    • D. Health care and safety of children

    Module III Handouts

    Refer to lesson: Who’s Protecting Our Children for additional resources and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/whos-protecting-our-children/

    Refer to lesson: Children and Safety: Infancy to Toddler for additional resources and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/children-and-safety-infancy-to-toddler/

    Refer to lesson: The Hidden Epidemic for additional resources and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-hidden-epidemic/

    Refer to lesson: Strategies to Deter Child Abuse for additional resources and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/strategies-to-deter-child-abuse/

    Major Economic Factors Affecting Learning and Educational Practice

    1. Explaining Factors Using Real World Examples

    “It takes a village to raise a child.” This African truism is possibly more applicable today in our fast paced society than ever. As we add activities and responsibilities to our lives, we become more dependent on our community resources to fill gaps. If a new parent has never had any formal parenting instruction, and has little or no support from family or friends, bringing home a baby can be quite daunting. Many new parents feel quite isolated and helpless during the first few months and this can create problems for the new family.

    A good place to start looking for help will be the pediatrician’s office. Regular health care to monitor a child’s growth can identify many issues before they become problems. A good health professional will include a discussion about how the parents are feeling. Over the years, regular well child visits will include vaccinations as well as physical exams. Families without insurance can miss out on these important benefits, so it is imperative to educate them about low or no cost health care that is provided by the state.

    Getting to know other parents can also be an excellent source of support for new parents. They can discuss behaviors and offer different perspectives. This can help new parents problem solve many different issues. As children approach adolescence, their dependency and focus shifts from family to friends, therefore, having developed relationships with other parents will help parents feel more secure about their child’s activities. It can also offer the child a greater understanding of tolerance and diversity as they witness other families’ traditions and daily living patterns.

    Guidance and discipline are areas of great controversy in the field of Child Development. But one concept on which most Child Development experts agree, is that of consistency. The purpose of guidance is to teach children what behaviors are appropriate—for their own safety and to learn what is socially acceptable. Discipline refers to the strategies a parent or educator employs to teach those lessons.

    2. Relating Factors to Local Funding Issues

    The Texas Education Agency oversees billions of dollars in both state and federal funds that support a diversity of programs to assist public education. Funds come from numerous sources, including state and federal coffers, grant organizations, the Permanent School Fund endowment, and others. All but one of the school districts in Texas are separate from any form of municipal government, therefore they are called “independent school districts”, or “ISD” for short. School districts may (and often do) cross city and county boundaries. School districts have the power to tax their residents and to use eminent domain. The Robin Hood plan is a debatable tax redistribution system that provides court-mandated equitable school financing for all school districts in the state. Property tax revenue from property-wealthy school districts is used and distributed in property-poor districts, in an effort to align the financing of all districts throughout Texas.

    Family Structures

    Today, there are many different family structures. There is no one best structure as long as the family members are happy and fulfilled individuals.

    The six common structures in society today are the:

    • two-parent
    • single parent
    • stepfamily
    • extended kinship
    • foster family
    • adoptive family structures

    The two-parent family is made up of a married couple and their biological children. One or both parents may work outside the home. This is also called a nuclear family. Activities and events center on the family. In 2009, 83 percent of children living in families maintained by two married parents had at least one parent who worked year round, full time. In contrast, 54 percent of children living in families maintained by a single father and 44 percent of children living in families maintained by a single mother had a parent who worked year round, full time.

    The single-parent family occurs as the result of divorce, separation, death of a spouse, or having children outside of marriage. In 2010, 66 percent of children ages 0–17 lived with two married parents, down from 77 percent in 1980. In 2010, 23 percent of children lived with only their mothers, 3 percent lived with only their fathers, and 4 percent lived with neither of their parents. Being a single parent, the sole head of the household, can be stressful. Single parents must provide the same needs and wants for their children as all parents.

    The stepfamily occurs when either or both spouses have been married before and have one or more children from the previous marriage. Relationships in stepfamilies can be rewarding and challenging. When families have been combined, it may bring financial tensions to the family. Space, time, and energy resources must be allocated with thought and consideration.

    The extended kinship family occurs when several generations of a family live together. It can be a mixture of grandparents, parents, children, aunts, uncles, and cousins in the same household. In many foreign countries, extended kinship families are very common. There are advantages of this type of family, including interaction between family members of all age groups. This can be an opportunity to educate and appreciate each other. Sometimes aging parents are the focus of this type of family. Middle-age has taken on a new image in recent years, partly due to finances. Some sociologists have labeled today’s middle-aged couples as the “sandwich generation.” The couple is often “sandwiched” between caring for their own children and their aging parents.

    Foster parents try to make their home loving, caring, and inviting to foster children. They are reimbursed only for the child’s expenses. The challenges lie in the type of child that may be in their homes. Some children are often abused, neglected, angry, frightened, and resentful of their situation. Adjustments must be made for both parties involved.

    The adoptive family chooses to adopt and raise a child. The child is legally theirs, and adoption can be just as fulfilling as having a biological child. Most couples prefer to adopt a newborn; however, children of all ages can be adopted.

    Child Abuse

    Child Abuse/Neglect, unfortunately, still occurs regularly in the United States. Child neglect is defined as harm or endangerment by failure of the parent to provide for the needs of a child. Neglect can be physical, educational, medical, moral, or emotional. Child abuse is an act of physical or sexual violence toward a child.

    Child abuse and neglect are serious problems in our country, and there are presently no signs of the problem getting any better. Over 3 million reports of child abuse are made every year in the United States, involving an estimated 6 million children. While physical injuries may or may not be immediately visible, abuse and neglect can have consequences for children, families, and society that last lifetimes, if not generations.

    Causes of child abuse include, but are not limited to:

    • Age of parent
    • Drug or alcohol abuse
    • Economic hardship
    • Lack of parental education or readiness
    • Parent was a victim of abuse

    Not all abused and neglected children will experience long-term consequences. The outcomes of individual cases vary widely and are affected by a combination of factors, including the following:

    • The child’s age and developmental status when the abuse or neglect occurred
    • The type of abuse (neglect, physical, or sexual)
    • The frequency, duration, and severity of abuse
    • The relationship between the victim and his or her abuser

    What are the behaviors that may lead to child abuse?

    Neglect may occur when parents cannot meet their child’s needs. This may be the result of unemployment, family illness, misappropriation of family funds, or lack of intelligence and education on how to properly care for children. According to Decker (2004), drug and alcohol abuse is present in 40 percent of reported neglect and abuse cases. Poverty and financial stress can also lead to child abuse. A parent that does not have coping skills or parenting skills can create parental stress that leads to child abuse. Other behaviors that may lead to child abuse are unwanted pregnancy, single- or teen-parenting, the parent having been abused as a child, lack of self-esteem, marriage problems, illness or a recent stressful event (death in the family, separation, or divorce).

    Strategies to Deter Abusive Behavior

    According to Prevent Child Abuse America, there are parenting tips families can use to deter abusive behavior. Refer to http://www.preventchildabuse.org/index.php/news-and-publications/tips-and-brochures for additional information. The tip and brochures includes:

    • Advice for New Moms and Dads
    • Families and the Workplace
    • Help Prevent the Long-Lasting Effects of Bullying
    • Helping Your Child to be Successful at School
    • “Home Alone” Child Tips
    • Protecting Your Toddler at Home
    • Recognizing Child Abuse – What Parents Should Know
    • Shopping with Your Children

    Researchers have begun to explore why, given similar conditions, some children experience long-term consequences of abuse and neglect while others emerge relatively unscathed. The ability to cope, and even thrive, following a negative experience is sometimes referred to as “resilience.” A number of protective and promotive factors may contribute to an abused or neglected child’s resilience. These include individual characteristics, such as optimism, self-esteem, intelligence, creativity, humor, and independence. Others include the acceptance from peers and positive individual influences such as teachers, mentors, and role models. Other factors can include the child’s social environment and the family’s access to social supports. Community well-being, including neighborhood stability and access to safe schools and adequate health care, are other protective and promotive factors (Fraser & Terzian, 2005).

    Prevention of child abuse is first accomplished by raising awareness of the problem. Enacting social change through the passage of laws and policies and professional support through the treatment process can both help create awareness. Education of communities and parents, recognition of child abuse when it occurs and reporting it to the proper authorities are also beneficial.

    Community resources that help ensure the welfare of children include the Family Protective Services, officers, churches, charities and private organizations, public organizations such as United Way, schools and governments.

    Health Care and Safety of Children

    Every child must have basic needs met to ensure healthy development. A need is a condition in which something is required for physical or mental well-being. Food, water, clothing, and shelter are examples of basic needs. Parents want their children to be safe and protected. Safety begins with medical checkups, inoculations, physically safe and emotional surroundings. To provide and maintain a safe environment, parents should be aware of safety practices to implement and to teach.

    The first step to preventing family violence is to know the makeup of healthy family relationships. Once the criterion is established for a healthy relationship, it is then easier to determine what makes that relationship unhealthy. Acts of violence and crime are caused by alcohol, drug abuse or homelessness. Many acts of violence and crime affect children. Children who have been exposed to violent and criminal acts may need professional counseling to help them overcome the lasting effects of these acts. Addiction to drugs and alcohol can cause families to suffer in many ways. Children of parents who abuse drugs and alcohol may be subject to violence, neglect, and danger. Family violence is often a result of a need for power and control in a relationship. This need may be a result from a history of family violence or inappropriate gender-role messages. Conflict resolution skills are needed and ground rules for handling conflict need to be established in all families. Conflict will occur in all relationships. The answer to family success is to find a way to manage anger and resolves issues as they arise without violence.

    —-

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Every Education and Training Program is different. Below is a list of handouts/graphic organizers you can use or adapt to meet the needs of your Human Growth and Development students.

    Module III Handouts

    • Child Maltreatment
    • Department of Family and Protective Services Strategic Plan for Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Services
    • Is This Abuse Activity
    • KWHL Chart – Who is Protecting Our Children?
    • Observation Record

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Find out who/where the nearest CPS office/investigators are and invite them to speak to your students.
    • Identify resources that are available in your community and keep a file available. A school counselor should be able to help with this.
    • Have students evaluate different parenting websites. Be sure to included trusted sources, i.e. American Academy of Pediatrics, as well as sites produced by special interest groups and popular media. Have students compare and contrast the information they found with one another.
    • Have students do a 30-minute observation on a child in one of the following age groups: newborn-two weeks, two-weeks to three months, three months to six months, six months to one year, one year to two years, and complete the Observation Record.
    • Before class begins, arrange the students’ desks or tables into groups. Compile a list of statistics on child abuse, or print out the following statistics from http://www.childhelp.org/pages/statistics#stats-sources. Give one handout on the statistics to each group. Allow them to read over the statistics as they come into the classroom.
    • As class begins, distribute, Is This Abuse?, and have students answer the questions. After each student has completed the assignment, provide the answers. Explain to the class that you will go over each type of abuse later in the lesson in more detail.
    • Distribute graphic organizer, KWHL Chart – Who’s Protecting Our Children?, and have students fill out the first three columns of the chart. Ask students to write down what they already know about the topic in the first column, what they want to learn about the topic in the second column and how they can locate more information about the topic in the third column. The last column will be completed during lesson closure.
    • Print, distribute and discuss, I Got Flowers Today which can be found at http://www.angelfire.com/tn/knowme68/flowers.html
    • Have the students write an article on child abuse awareness for the school newspaper, or the local paper.
    • April is National Child Abuse Awareness Month. Students could create fliers and handouts to post around the school to bring awareness to the issue of child abuse. The materials could also include contact information for those desiring more information.
    • Have students read the following publications and conduct a Jigsaw activity.
      • Child Maltreatment
      • Department of Family and Protective Services Strategic Plan for Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Services

    Resources and References

    Publication

    • Juvenile Products Manufacturers Association
      Safe and Sound for Baby A Guide to Baby Product Safety, Selection and Use
      http://jpma.org

    Textbook

    • Brisbane, H. (2010). The developing child. Columbus, OH: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.
    • Morrison, G. (2012). Early childhood education today. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Incs.

    Websites

    • Forum on Child and Family Statistics
      The Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, or the Forum, is a working group of Federal agencies that collect, analyze, and report data on issues related to children and families. The Forum has partners from 22 Federal agencies as well as partners in private research organizations.
      http://www.childstats.gov/index.asp
    • Texas Department of Family and Protective Services
      Texas Child Protective Services (CPS)
      This website gives an overview of CPS and specific information about its responsibilities.
      http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/child_protection/

    —-

    Human Growth and Development: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Which of the following organizations or individuals have the responsibility of protecting children who have been abused?

    • a. Teachers and schools
    • b. Doctors
    • c. Family and Protective Services
    • d. All of the above

    2. Which of the following is a cause of child abuse?

    • a. Poverty
    • b. Previous abuse
    • c. Drug and alcohol abuse
    • d. All of the above

    3. Where is the best place for parents to go for advice or support?

    • a. Their parents
    • b. Their child’s pediatrician
    • c. Blogs on other parent’s websites
    • d. All of the above

    4. What is the relationship of guidance and discipline?

    • a. The purpose of guidance is to teach children what behaviors are appropriate—for their own safety and to learn what is socially acceptable.
    • b. Guidance is showing a child what is right, discipline is punishing him when he is wrong.
    • c. Guidance is about helping children choose a career path, discipline is about making the choose the path we want.
    • d. Guidance is about keeping kids safe, discipline is about keep parents in control.

    5. What is the advantage of having a village approach to parenting?

    • a. It provides the parents with a large support network.
    • b. It exposes the family to different cultures and traditions.
    • c. It helps parents to be more secure about their child’s activities when they are not present to supervise.
    • d. All of the above

    IV. Newborn to Two Years

    MP900185173

    TEKS Addressed:

    (3) The student understands the development of children ages newborn through two years.

    • (A) analyze the physical, emotional, social, and cognitive development of infants and toddlers
    • (B) analyze various developmental theories relating to infants and toddlers
    • (C) discuss the influences of the family and society on the infant and toddler
    • (D) summarize strategies for optimizing the development of infants and toddlers, including those with special needs
    • (E) determine techniques that promote the health and safety of infants and toddlers
    • (F) determine developmentally appropriate guidance techniques for children in the first two years of life

    Module Content

    Newborn to Two Years is the fourth module in the Human Growth and Development course. This section contains ten units of study that include:

    • A. Physical milestones
    • B. Nutritional guidelines
    • C. Safety and wellness
      • 1. Childhood illnesses
      • 2. Immunizations
      • 3. Fitness
    • D. Child abuse and prevention
      • 1. SIDS
      • 2. Shaken baby syndrome
    • E. Family structure changes
    • F. Brain structure
    • G. Major theorists
    • H. Explanation of major theories using real world examples
    • I. Critique of major theories
    • J. Use of theory to predict and explain individual and group behavior and guidance techniques


    Refer to lesson: Infants and Babies and Toddlers! Oh, My! for additional resources and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/infants-and-babies-and-toddlers-oh-my/

    Refer to lesson: A Look at Theories: Part I for additional resources and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-look-at-theories-part-i/

    Refer to lesson: Four Areas of Development: Infancy to Toddler for additional activities and resources at http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/fours-areas-of-development-infancy-to-toddler/

    Refer to lesson: Nutritional Needs: Infancy to Toddler for additional resources and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/nutritional-needs-infancy-to-toddler/

    Refer to lesson: A Little Thing That Changes EVERYTHING! for additional resources and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-little-thing-that-changes-everything-woodward/

    Refer to lesson Stories, Stories and More Stories for additional activities, ideas and resources.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/stories-stories-and-more-stories/

    Module IV Handouts

    Physical Milestones

    Newborns: This stage is generally considered to encompass the first month of life. It begins at birth and should include well-child visits to the doctor.

    Physical: Full-term infants are born at 38-42 weeks of gestation. The average size in the United States is 7 pounds and 20 inches long. Most newborns will lose two to eight ounces after birth but should have gained it back by the end of the second week. Most newborns will add an additional 1.5 pounds by the end of the first month. Their physical needs are very basic and include food, sleep, clothing and cleaning.

    • The activity that newborns perform most and best is sleeping. They will sleep about 17 hours each day. It is important to let baby adjust to the normal sounds of the household so that he or she can learn to sleep through regular noises. It is important to keep the crib area free of any extra items such as pillows or toys as they can contribute to suffocation. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that infants sleep on their backs for the first year of life to reduce the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).
    • Infancy is a time of exciting and rapid growth and development. By the end of the first year, most babies have tripled their birth weight and grown at least 1.5 times their height and are able to control their body movements. Infants should be eating solid foods and drinking from a cup by the first birthday. They have become explorers of their worlds and their personalities are beginning to show.

    • Physical Development during the first year is categorized into two types:

    • Large Motor Skills such as rolling over, sitting, standing, crawling, and walking
    • Small Motor Skills that include better eyesight, mitten and pincer grasps
    • The increased mobility and curiosity that develop during the first year make it very important to have “baby proofed” the home. Pay close attention to any other areas where the baby commonly plays. Constant supervision is necessary at this stage!

    Skills such as taking a first step, smiling for the first time, and waving “bye bye” are called developmental milestones. Children reach milestones in how they play, learn, speak, behave, and move (crawling or walking).

    A checklist of all the milestones (in English and Spanish) from birth to age five can be downloaded at http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/pdf/checklists/all_checklists.pdf

    Nutritional Guidelines

    • Breastfeeding is the absolute best source of nutrients for infants, and should be encouraged for most mothers. It is custom made for each infant and cannot be replicated in a lab. It is laden with antibodies from the mother and is almost never contaminated by bacteria, viruses, or other toxins. The sucking that is required for breastfeeding is essential for good development of the facial skeleton and muscles. It is also considerably more economical than formulas. However, there are still many instances when breastfeeding is not the best choice for a particular family. It is important to discuss this with the parent’s doctors before the baby arrives.
    • Another important milestone for infants is the introduction of solid foods. When exactly to start solids depends on several factors. A family history of food allergies is important to discuss with the pediatrician before introducing solids. The other important rule during this time is, only introduce one new food at a time. This will allow the parent to evaluate any food sensitivity that might occur with the baby.
    • Weaning and teething are also important and often challenging physical development milestones. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) still recommends at least 12 months of breastfeeding if at all possible, and most babies are weaned from the breast or bottle feeding by 15 months. Teething is often a difficult time for parents. It is often painful and can cause babies to be very fussy. However, it does follow a set pattern, although the timing is quite unpredictable.

    Safety and Wellness

    1. Childhood Illnesses

    Prevention is the best way to fight disease. Health assessment is one important step in prevention. Other disease prevention procedures for children include the following:

    • Climate control – The physical climate affects illness prevention. Temperatures that are too warm or too cool may contribute to certain illnesses, particularly upper respiratory illness.
    • Appropriate dress – A child’s clothing should be selected to provide comfort within the physical climate of the home or child care center.
    • Hygiene practices – Hygiene is the practice of cleanliness and sanitation and relates to stopping the spread of germs. Good hygiene should be used at all times, especially with infants and young children. Adults are role models and should incorporate good hygiene into their lifestyles.
    • Proper nutrition – Nutrition is especially important when children are ill. Unless the doctor states otherwise, small amounts of food from each food group are suitable for sick children. Water is usually recommended, especially when children have fever.
    • Health education – Health education is important in helping children protect and improve their health. Health habits and attitudes learned early in life are usually long-lasting.
    • Health records – Maintaining accurate and accessible health records is important to provide the best possible health and emergency care for children. Personnel at schools or child care centers may ask for a copy of these records.

    Recognition of Illness
    Sick children usually have shorter attention spans than healthy children, and they have little energy. They are often cranky and irritable and may cry easily. They may get into fights or minor conflicts more often than they do when they are healthy. Many childhood illnesses occur suddenly. Usually the signs and symptoms of those illnesses are easy to recognize. Some of the easily identified symptoms of illness include the following:

    • Convulsions, seizures, or attacks during which a child stiffens and twitches
    • Flushed face and hot, dry skin
    • Hoarse or husky voice
    • Large amounts of sweating unexpectedly
    • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • Pain in ear, head, chest, stomach, abdomen, or joints
    • Raised temperature
    • Rash, bumps, or breaking out of skin
    • Runny nose, sneezes, coughs
    • Sore throat
    • Stiff back or neck
    • Swollen glands
    • Unusual paleness or coldness
    • Watery or glassy appearance of the eyes

    2. Immunizations

    Protect a baby by providing immunity early in life. Starting at one to two months of age, a baby receives vaccines to develop immunity from potentially harmful diseases. By following the recommended schedule and fully immunizing a child by two years of age, a child should be protected against 14 vaccine preventable diseases. Between 12 and 23 months of age, a child receives vaccines to continue developing immunity from potentially harmful diseases. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends a well-child visit at nine months. There are usually no vaccinations scheduled between seven and eleven months of age. However, if a baby has missed an earlier vaccination, this is a good time to “catch up”. Visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to view a schedules and tools on immunizations at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html

    3. Fitness

    • Parents need to keep a baby active. She or he might not be able to run and play like the “big kids” just yet, but there is a lot she or he can do to keep her or his little arms and legs moving throughout the day. Getting down on the floor to move helps the baby become strong, learn, and explore.
    • Try not to keep the baby in swings, strollers, and bouncer seats for too long.
    • It’s imperative to comprehend what children can do and what abilities are applicable for this age. By age 2, toddlers should be able to walk and run well. They may be able to kick a ball and jump in place with both feet. By age 3, toddlers characteristically are able to balance temporarily on one foot, kick a ball forward, throw a ball overhand, catch a ball with stiff arms, and pedal a tricycle.
    • Keep these abilities in mind when encouraging a child to be active. Play games together and provide age-appropriate active toys, such as balls, push and pull toys, and riding vehicles. Through practice, a child will continue to improve and refine his or her motor skills.
    • The most important thing is to provide a lot of opportunities to be active in a safe environment.

    Child Abuse and Prevention

    1. SIDS

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is defined as the sudden death of an infant less than one year of age that cannot be explained after a thorough investigation is conducted, including a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history.

    SIDS is the leading cause of death among infants aged 1–12 months, and is the third leading cause overall of infant mortality in the United States. Although the overall rate of SIDS in the United States has declined by more than 50% since 1990, rates for non-Hispanic black and American Indian/Alaska Native infants remain disproportionately higher than the rest of the population. Reducing the risk of SIDS remains an important public health priority.

    For a medical examiner or coroner to determine the cause of the death, a thorough case investigation including examination of the death scene and a review of the infant’s clinical history must be conducted. A complete autopsy needs to be performed, ideally using information gathered from the scene investigation. Even when a thorough investigation is conducted, it may be difficult to separate SIDS from other types of sudden unexpected infant deaths, especially accidental suffocation in bed.

    After a thorough case investigation, many of these sudden unexpected infant deaths may be explained. Poisoning, metabolic disorders, hyper or hypothermia, neglect and homicide, and suffocation are all explainable causes of Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths (SUID). Sudden unexpected infant deaths are defined as deaths in infants less than one year of age that occur suddenly and unexpectedly, and whose cause of death is not immediately obvious prior to investigation.

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is providing recommendations on a safe sleeping environment that can reduce the risk of all sleep-related infant deaths, including SIDS. Important recommendations include:

    • Always place your baby on his or her back for every sleep time.
    • Always use a firm sleep surface. Car seats and other sitting devices are not recommended for routine sleep.
    • The baby should sleep in the same room as the parents, but not in the same bed (room-sharing without bed-sharing).
    • Keep soft objects or loose bedding out of the crib. This includes pillows, blankets, and bumper pads.
    • Wedges and positioners should not be used.
    • Pregnant woman should receive regular prenatal care.
    • Don’t smoke during pregnancy or after birth.
    • Offer a pacifier at nap time and bedtime.
    • Avoid covering the infant’s head or overheating.
    • Do not use home monitors or commercial devices marketed to reduce the risk of SIDS.
    • Supervised, awake tummy time is recommended daily to facilitate development and minimize the occurrence of positional plagiocephaly (flat heads).
    • Breastfeeding is recommended and is associated with a reduced risk of SIDS.
    • Infants should be immunized. Evidence suggests that immunization reduces the risk of SIDS by 50 percent.
    • Bumper pads should not be used in cribs. There is no evidence that bumper pads prevent injuries, and there is a potential risk of suffocation, strangulation or entrapment.

    2. Shaken Baby Syndrome

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS), a form of abusive head trauma (AHT) and inflicted traumatic brain injury (ITBI), is a preventable and severe form of physical child abuse. It results from violently shaking an infant by the shoulders, arms, or legs. SBS may result from both shaking alone or from impact (with or without shaking). The resulting whiplash effect can cause bleeding within the brain or the eyes.

    Nearly all victims of SBS suffer serious health consequences and at least one of every four babies who are violently shaken dies from this form of child maltreatment.

    • SBS is a leading cause of child abuse deaths in the United States.
    • Babies (newborn to four months) are at greatest risk of injury from shaking.
    • Inconsolable crying is a primary trigger for shaking a baby.

    SBS Signs and Symptoms
    Babies, newborn to one year (especially babies ages two to four months) are at greatest risk of injury from shaking. SBS injuries are not always visible. However, babies with SBS may display some outward signs. Family members, caregivers, or others in close and regular contact with an infant should seek medical attention right away if they notice any of the signs and symptoms listed below:

    • convulsions or seizures
    • inability to be consoled
    • inability to nurse or eat
    • increasing irritability
    • significant changes in sleeping patterns or inability to be awakened
    • vomiting (more than usual)
    • uncontrollable crying

    In more severe cases, babies may be:

    • unresponsive
    • unconscious

    You can download a free copy of “Preventing Shaken Baby Syndrome: Guide for Health Departments and Community Based Organizations” for your classroom use at:
    http://www.cdc.gov/concussion/HeadsUp/sbs.html

    Family Structure Changes

    • Emotional and Social Needs: Learning to recognize a newborn’s alert stages will help parents to begin the process of interacting with their baby. Soothing babies is an important part of the social/emotional development in the first month. Learning to recognize the different cries of an infant and be able to offer what is needed is an important task. Newborns cannot be “spoiled” by being held and cuddled.
    • Social development during infancy is primarily about forming attachments and the fears that develop when the object of attachment is not available. Stranger anxiety and separation anxiety are two major hurdles for most infants, as they learn to recognize different people. By ten months, most babies can show emotions such as anger, hurt, sad, and happiness and they are sensitive to the reactions of their parents and others.
    • Guidance/Parenting: The major focus of parenting at this point is making sure that baby’s needs are taken care of and that the parent is getting as much rest as possible. This is the least complex part of childrearing, although without proper support from each other and/or family and friends; it can be one of the most difficult times as well for parents.
    • Guidance/Parenting during infancy can be challenging because babies can’t fully communicate their needs and wants. However, providing a stimulating, but safe environment is generally all that is necessary. As a baby becomes more mobile it is important that parents begin to set limits on what baby is allowed to experience. This begins with baby-proofing and then expands into limiting behaviors. Diversionary tactics are generally best to re-direct unwanted behavior, but by the first birthday, baby should know what the word no means.

    Brain Structure

    • Intellectual Needs: Infants experience the world through their sensory organs. Current research indicates that infants need to be touched and cuddled, talked to and offered sensory experiences. Newborns can recognize human voices within moments of birth and recognize their families’ voices as well. They are fascinated with faces, hearing sounds, and feeling warm and loved when cuddled.
    • Intellectual Development is at its most rapid in the life cycle. A nurturing environment as well as proper nutrition and care are essential for brain development in early life. Intellectual development in infancy is tied directly to physical development as the use of the senses are the way babies begin to make associations and learn. As soon as three months, infants memories have developed enough that they can recognized sequences of events that lead to rewards, such as preparing a bottle to feed. Peek-a-boo becomes a fun game for them.
    • Babies begin to be able to solve simple problem through trial and error. They also begin to recognize similarities and differences in behaviors. They being to imitate others and can identify parts of their bodies. By ten months most babies have a good enough memory for things that they cannot see. This concept of object permanence is a large step in skill building.
    • Another aspect of intellectual development is language acquisition. By the first year, most babies not only can recognize the meanings of a few words, but probably repeat those words as well.

    Major Theorists

    Psychoanalytic Child Development Theories

    Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). Freud believed that personality develops through a series of stages. Emotional experiences in childhood have profound effects on a person as an adult. The idea that early experiences affect adult life has profound importance for anyone caring for a child. Freud’s basic proposition was that personality is the result of instinctive biological drives. People strive to satisfy these instinctive urges. The most powerful is the sexual drive. This internal push to gratify basic instincts is experienced throughout a person’s life span. Freud described five psychosexual stages of development.

    Erik Erikson (1902-1994). Erikson, like Freud, said personality develops through stages. Erikson’s theory emphasized that conscious choice determines behavior as much as the unconscious instinctual drives. He thought that each stage includes a unique psychological crisis. If that crisis is met in a positive way, the individual develops maturity. He saw development as a process through which people pass in their lifelong search for a mature sense of identity. Parents and other caregivers must be aware of a child’s needs at a particular stage and be sensitive to the child’s needs at that stage.

    Cognitive Child Development Theories

    Jean Piaget (1896-1980). Piaget, the first to study children in a scientific way, focused on how children learned. He said that children go through four stages of thinking that shape how they see and learn about the world. Children should be given learning tasks that are suitable for their stage of thinking.

    Behavioral Child Development Theories

    Behavioral theories of child development focus on how environmental interaction influences behavior and are based upon the theories of theorists such as B. F. Skinner.

    B. F. Skinner (1904-1990). Skinner argued that when a child’s action repeatedly brings positive effects, it will be repeated and learned. When negative results repeatedly occur, the child will eventually stop the action. Parents and other caregivers can use rewards and punishments to try to influence a child’s behavior.

    Social Child Development Theories

    Lev Vygotsky (1898-1934). Vygotsky believed that both biological development and cultural experiences influenced children’s ability to think and learn. He said social contact was essential for intellectual development. Children should have many opportunities for social interaction to develop intellectually. Like Piaget, Vygotsky believed that children learn actively and through hands-on experiences.

    Psychologist Albert Bandura proposed what is known as social learning theory. According to this theory of child development, children learn new behaviors from observing other people. Unlike behavioral theories, Bandura believed that external reinforcement was not the only way that people learned new things. Instead, intrinsic reinforcements such as a sense of pride, satisfaction and accomplishment could also lead to learning. By observing the actions of others, including parents and peers, children develop new skills and acquire new information.

    There is a great deal of research on the social development of children. John Bowbly proposed one of the earliest theories of social development. Bowlby believed that early relationships with caregivers play a major role in child development and continue to influence social relationships throughout life.

    Explanation of Major Theories Using Real World Examples

    Both Freud and Erikson agree that development is the result of a child’s instincts interacting with his or her environment. Stages cannot be satisfactorily completed unless the environment responds in a conducive, consistent manner. Any unresolved issues from earlier stages will carry into later stages and negatively affect an individual’s ability to resolve them. It is this collection of unresolved issues that leads to an abnormal or deviant personality in later life.

    Cognitive theories emphasize the development of thought over other developmental aspects. Piaget realized the similarities in the development of children’s thinking, noticing that all seem to encounter the same mistakes while exploring their world and seem to come to the same conclusions in the end. Piaget believed that some biological developmental force leads children through changes in the quality of their thought. He believed that rather than simply having more thoughts, children begin to think in more depth and with more complexity.

    Behavioral theories credits the environment as the primary source of developmental factors. This approach is behaviorism, and it explains child development as the increasing sum of the responses people learn from their environment. When a person exhibits a particular behavior, he or she is either rewarded or punished for that behavior. Any behavior that is rewarded will be more likely to occur again. Behaviorism focuses on objective, observable behavior (what the organism actually does), not on the thoughts or feelings of an organism.

    Social learning theory supporters believe that new behaviors are learned primarily through observing the behavior of others. This process is called observational learning, or modeling. Common patterns of behavior in a particular age group can be attributed both to shared behavior models and to similar cognitive and motor skills. Two people exposed to the same environmental stimulus will learn different responses if they differ in motor skill and cognitive capacity.

    Critique of Major Theories

    Biological Theory

    Biological theories of development propose that people are born with a genetic plan. This genetic plan determines developmental patterns that all humans have in common, such as the order in which development occurs, as well as patterns that are unique to each individual, such as temperament or hair color. This plan proves a basic framework for development, but development is not considered to be unaffected by environmental influence. All of the circumstances, conditions, and influences that surround and affect the development of a person make up his or her environment. A healthy environment that supports and promotes development is required for the normal unfolding of a predetermined plan of development.

    Psychoanalytic Child Development Theories

    Psychoanalysis is a method of learning about mental processes and of treating some mental disorders through the use of techniques like free association. Free association is a technique in which the patient talks spontaneously and without inhibition about whatever ideas, thoughts, or memories come to mind. The psychoanalytic therapist listens for material to surface that has been hidden or repressed in the patient’s unconscious mind. The therapist then analyzes the findings and tries to make the patient consciously aware of them, thereby helping to resolve or lessen the patient’s conflict between the conscious and the unconscious.

    Cognitive Child Development Theories

    As an individual experiences the childhood and adolescent years, he or she develops ongoing “theories” of the world according to the stage of cognitive development that has been achieved. Piaget’s studies led him to divide the cognitive developmental process into four major stages.

    • Sensorimotor Stage (ages 0-2). The infant interacts with the world primarily through his senses and the actions he can perform on objects. He does not yet have the capacity to represent objects or people to himself mentally.
    • Preoperational Stage (ages 2-6). The child can now represent things to himself internally, but he is still focusing his attention on such external characteristics of objects or people as size, shape, color, and clothing. Still, he uses these features for classifying objects into groups.
    • Concrete Operations Stage (ages 6-12). The child makes a major step forward in the abstractness of thought. He discovers an entire set of basic rules about objects, such as the fact that they can be arrayed in various orders (from small to large or fat to thin, for example) or that aspects of them remain constant even in the face of external change (which Piaget calls conservation). He also develops the ability to use complex mental operations, such as addition, subtraction, or simultaneous classification of one object into two or more categories (a chair is both a piece of furniture and a wooden object, for example).
    • Formal Operations Stage (ages 12+). As a final step, the teenager becomes able to think still more abstractly, using deductive as well as inductive logic and approaching decisions and problems with a systematic fashion. He can now think about ideas as well as objects and imagine objects or events that he has never actually experienced himself.

    Behavioral Child Development Theories

    Behavioral scientists see the difference between child behavior and adult behavior as quantitative rather than qualitative. A qualitative difference means that adult behavior is somehow better or more mature (higher quality) than children’s behavior. A quantitative difference means that adults have a greater number (quantity) of behaviors from which to choose than children do.

    Social Child Development Theories

    Social learning theorists accept the role of some observable processes, such as language and memory, in determining observable behavior. They propose that an individual must have the capacity to mentally process and remember a behavior before he or she can repeat it.

    Use of theory to Predict and Explain Individual and Group Behavior and Guidance Techniques

    Biological Theory

    The ways in which a person’s genetically determined developmental plan unfolds can be altered by environmental experiences. For example, consider a child who has inherited the tendency to be tall. If the child develops throughout childhood without receiving adequate amounts of the nutrients required for growth, he or she will not reach full height potential. The healthy unfolding of the child’s genetic plan would be altered due to an unsatisfactory nutritional environment.

    Another proposition of biological theorists is that environment not only influences individual development, but personal characteristics affect the ways the environment responds to a particular individual. For example, people may respond more negatively to an aggressive child than to a more mild-tempered child. Therefore, a relationship exists in which the child influences the environment and the environment influences the child.

    Psychoanalytic Child Development Theories

    Both Freud and Erikson agree that development is the result of a child’s instincts interacting with his or her environment. Stages cannot be satisfactorily completed unless the environment responds in a conductive and consistent manner. Any unresolved issues from earlier stages will carry over into later stages and negatively affect an individual’s ability to resolve them. It is this collection of unresolved issues that leads to an abnormal or deviant personality in later life.

    Cognitive Child Development Theories

    According to Piaget’s theory, children have inborn methods for interacting with their environment. These fundamental plans provide the basis upon which thinking develops. Cognitive development begins when children have new experiences and so must incorporate what they have learned into their original strategies. This progressive change continues to take place as long as children are actively interacting with their environment. In order to progress to the following stage, the steps of the previous stages must be passed through satisfactorily. The important factor, above the learning of the skills and physical maturation, is a child’s unique view of reality.

    Behavioral Child Development Theories

    Behavioral scientists believe adults have been exposed to more environments. Therefore, they have more possible responses in their behavioral set. Behavioral scientists do not completely reject the effects of biological factors but believe such effects are minimal.

    Social Child Development Theories

    Children have a natural tendency to imitate the behavior that they see modeled, especially behaviors of their parents. Research has shown that children tend to model the behavior of people they regard highly and see as similar to themselves.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Every Education and Training program is different. Below is a list of handouts/graphic organizers you can use or adapt to meet the needs of your Human Growth and Development students.

    Module IV Handouts

    • Children’s Book Project
    • Developing Your Story
    • Domains of Development
    • Moral Character Story Ideas
    • My Temperament Traits
    • Rubric for Storytelling
    • Safety Checklist for Securing Common Household Items
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Storybook Creation Competition
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Storybook Creation Competition (Key)
    • TAFE Storybook Creation Competition
    • Temperament Traits
    • Timeline

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Scenario: You are going to babysit your 1-year-old and 3-year-old cousins for the weekend. You have to child-proof your home. Develop a safety checklist to keep your family safe in your home during their visit.
    • Students will complete Safety Checklist for Securing Common Household Items. Have students work in small groups of two to develop a safety checklist.
    • Distribute Domains of Development. Students will be expected to take notes and complete graphic organizer while viewing the slide presentation.
    • Distribute the graphic organizer Temperament Traits for students to complete. Allow for questions and answers to check for understanding.
    • Distribute the handout My Temperament Traits. Have students complete the handout. Any students who would like to share may do so, but sharing is not a requirement.
    • Distribute handout Timeline. Have students create a timeline showing one of the following:
      • Infant physical development
      • Infant social/emotional development
      • Infant cognitive development
      • Toddler physical development
      • Toddler social/emotional development
      • Toddler cognitive development
    • Have students do a 30-minute observation on a child in one of the following age groups: newborn-two weeks, two-weeks to three months, three months to six months, six months to one year, one year to two years, and complete the Observation Record.
    • Encourage students to “visualize” as they read. Many students are visual learners and will benefit from making sketches or diagrams as they read. Providing students with graphic organizers to help them organize their thoughts is also helpful.
    • Pretend you are the teacher of infants and toddlers at a day care facility. Select one stage of development and write a letter to parents, explaining the stages of development in that domain that they can expect of children in one of the following age groups:
      • Birth to six months
      • Seven months to one year
      • One year to eighteen months
      • Eighteen to twenty-four months
      • Twenty-four months to thirty-six months
    • Allow students to use the Internet to connect to the “Baby Brain Map” of the Zero-to-Three National Center for Infants and Toddlers. This is an interactive graphic that states, “To get started, select an age range from the pull-down menu and click on it. Depending on the age range, different hotspots on the brain will appear. Click on a hotspot to reveal questions to find out how a baby’s brain develops during this period of brain growth. You’ll also learn what you can do to enrich a very young child’s development. Click on the questions to display the answers.”
      http://www.zerotothree.org/baby-brain-map.html
    • Texas AgriLife Extension (Texas A&M University System) offers several free online courses about Infants and Toddlers. Those students particularly interested in this topic may wish to take some of the one or two hour courses. They do require a free registration, but each completer also receives a certificate. http://infanttoddler.tamu.edu/courses/courseListByCatID.php?catid=16
    • Free materials: Order, download, and print fact sheets, milestone checklist, posters, a growth chart, materials in other languages, and more at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/freematerials.html

    Resources and References

    Publication

    • Helping Your Preschool Child
      U.S. Department of Education Office of Communications and Outreach. Helping Your Preschool Child . Washington, D.C., 2005

    Textbooks

    • Berk, L. (2008). Infants and children. (4th ed). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Dacey, J., Travers, J., Fiore, L. (2009). Human development across the lifespan. (7th ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies.

    Websites

    • Best Beginnings: School Readiness – Birth Through Five
      Best Beginnings is a readiness to learn program from birth through age 5.
      http://www.bestbeginnings.us/

    YouTube™

    • Dr. Regina Sullivan Discusses Attachment Learning in Infants and Healthy Development
      Dr. Regina Sullivan is a research professor of child and adolescent psychiatry at the NYU School of Medicine and a member of the Child Mind Institute’s Scientific Research Council.
      http://youtu.be/Tu4LnZI3G1s
    • KERA-TV
      The KERA Kids & Family website is designed to helping parents and caregivers raise children who are socially and emotionally healthy and ready to succeed in school and life.
      http://kera-kids.org/ready-for-life/
    • Safe and Sound for Baby
      The Juvenile Product Manufacturers Association (JPMA) offers parents, families, caregivers and friends guidance for ensuring a Safe & Sound environment and selecting the safest possible products for their little loved ones.
      http://youtu.be/M6F-S4FdA5c

    Human Growth and Development: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Breastfeeding is the best form of nutrition for infants because it:

    • a. is custom made for each infant and cannot be replicated in a lab.
    • b. is laden with antibodies from the mother and is almost never contaminated by bacteria, viruses, or other toxins.
    • c. the sucking that is required for breastfeeding is essential for good development of the facial skeleton and muscles.
    • d. all of the above

    2. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends which of the following to lower an infant’s risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)?

    • a. Wedges and positioners should be used.
    • b. Pregnant woman should receive regular prenatal care.
    • c. Don’t smoke during pregnancy or after birth.
    • d. B and C

    3. _______________ are defined as deaths in infants less than one year of age that occur suddenly and unexpectedly, and whose cause of death is not immediately obvious prior to investigation.

    • a. Sudden unexpected infant disease
    • b. Sudden unexplainable infant deaths
    • c. Sudden unexpected infant deaths
    • d. Sudden unexpected individuals deaths

    4. _____________________ accept the role of some observable processes, such as language and memory, in determining observable behavior.

    • a. Psychoanalysis theorists
    • b. Behaviorist
    • c. Psychologists
    • d. Social learning theorists

    5. According to ______________ theory, children have inborn methods for interacting with their environment.

    • a. Freud’s
    • b. Erikson’s
    • c. Piaget’s
    • d. Maslow’s

  • V. Three to Five

    MP900202010

    TEKS Addressed:

    (4) The student understands the development of children ages three through five years. The student is expected to:

    • (A) analyze the physical, emotional, social, and cognitive development of preschoolers
    • (B) analyze various developmental theories relating to preschoolers
    • (C) discuss the influences of the family and society on preschoolers
    • (D) summarize strategies for optimizing the development of preschoolers, including those with special needs
    • (E) determine techniques that promote the health and safety of preschoolers
    • (F) determine developmentally appropriate guidance techniques for preschoolers

    Module Content

    Three to Five is the fifth module in the Human Growth and Development course. This section contains thirteen units of study that include:

    • A. Physical milestones
    • B. Nutritional guidelines
    • C. Safety and wellness
    • D. Physical fitness
    • E. Impact of social factors on learning
    • F. Stages of emotional development
    • G. Child abuse and prevention
    • H. Family structure changes
    • I. Brain structure
    • J. Major theorists
    • K. Explanation of major theories using real world examples
    • L. Critique of major theories
    • M. Use of theory to predict and explain individual and group behavior and guidance techniques


    Refer to lesson: The Preschool Child for additional resources and activities.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-preschool-aged-child/

    Refer to lesson Stories, Stories and More Stories for additional activities, ideas and resources.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/stories-stories-and-more-stories/

    Refer to lesson: A Look at Theories: Part I for additional resources and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-look-at-theories-part-i/

    Refer to lesson: The Importance of Play: Toddler to School-Age for additional resources and activities.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-importance-of-play-toddler-to-school-age/

    Refer to lesson: Four Areas of Development: Preschool to School-Age for additional resources and activities at http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/fours-areas-of-development-preschool-to-school-age/

    Refer to lesson: Nutritional Needs: Preschool to School-Age for additional resources and activities.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/nutrition-needs-as-children-grow-preschool-to-school-age/

    Refer to lesson Researching Learning Disabilities for more activities, ideas and resources.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/researching-learning-disabilities/

    Module V Handouts

    Physical Milestones

    • Toddlers are busy! One and two year olds are constantly on the move. They are discovering their own independence and individuality.
    • Physical development is still very rapid, but has begun to slow down. The body becomes more proportionate as the trunk, arms and legs begin to catch up with the head. The average one year old is about 20-22 pounds and 28-30 inches tall. The average two year old is about 33-35 inches tall and 25-28 pounds. By their third birthday most toddlers average about 36-38 inches tall and 31-33 pounds.
    • Large motor skills have continued to develop and toddlers learn to stand up and sit down, walk and eventually run. Their balance and coordination improves markedly by the second birthday. Small motor skills focus on the toddler’s ability to manipulate objects he is holding and add gestures to their body language.
    • Another aspect of physical development is life skills. Learning to care for the body, eating, dressing and grooming, is a big step for toddlers toward independence. Offering nutritious meals that are appropriately sized is important as well. Toddlers have smaller appetites and smaller attention spans than adults, so setting some routines for mealtimes is important.
    • Teething is somewhat less traumatic for toddlers than for infants, but can still be a source of discomfort. The focus should be more on the prevention of tooth decay and the establishment of good tooth brushing habits. Flossing should be done once daily after all baby teeth have come in.
    • Toilet training is one of the most anticipated milestones for a lot of parents. It takes several steps and can take over a year to finish. Most children are not ready to begin the process until after their second birthday. Waiting for the child to express an interest is generally the best approach.

    Preschool Children

    The years between three and five years of age are dominated by increases in motor skills and self-care.

    • Physical development continues to slow during the preschool years. Most preschoolers will grow about three inches per year, and girls remain about ½” shorter than boys on average. Weight gain slows to 3-5 pounds per year, with most of that weight due to muscle development. Body proportions begin to look more like those of an adult. The face lengthens, the waist narrows, and the trunk and legs grow more rapidly. Bones, teeth and internal organs continue to mature and the deciduous teeth begin to loosen and fall out. Most of the “baby fat” deposits will have disappeared by the first day of kindergarten.
    • Gross motor skills become more refined and balance is improved. This allows the child to learn body rotation and weight shift as well. Fine motor skills and hand-eye coordination continue to improve as well and by five years of age, a preschooler has a definite hand preference and can easily use tableware to feed himself.

    Nutritional Guidelines

    Meeting the needs of preschoolers is generally a matter of allowing choices while setting consistent and appropriate limits. Nutritionally, offering a wide variety of foods will ensure that preschoolers get the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development. Making food fun often will help many preschoolers to try new foods or increase the amount they eat.

    Nutritious Snacks and Meals

    It is important to offer a variety of foods while monitoring portion size. It is best to start with small portions and then increase portions as requested by the child. During this phase, children are beginning to have their food choices influenced by media. It is important to maintain balance and control of all of the essential nutrients by the parents and child care providers.

    One important responsibility of a parent of a preschool child is seeing that nutritious meals and snacks are served. If the child is enrolled in a child care center, local rules and state licensing standards guide the director in this important task. If a center receives funds from an outside source, the guidelines of the funding agency must also be followed.

    Below are a variety of resources to assist parents and child care centers with planning healthy snacks and incorporating fruits and vegetables into their menus:

    Safety and Wellness

    Safety

    Safety is everyone’s responsibility. ln a child care center or school, all of the adults in the building—child care practitioners, teachers, kitchen personnel, van drivers, and volunteers—should be observant and safety conscious. More than anything else, parents expect their children to be safe while in child care or school. Accidents are the major cause of injury and death among young children. Planning and maintaining safe surroundings is critical. This is accomplished by:

    • following safety regulations, continually monitoring the environment
    • teaching safety information appropriate to their ages
    • safe indoor and outdoor environments for young children require careful planning and constant checking
    • hazards should be eliminated, such as those that could cause burns, electrical shock or fire, suffocation, drowning, poisoning, cuts, and falls
    • transportation safety is an important concern for child caregivers
    • each center should make and follow a plan for the safe arrival and departure of children

    In order to plan and maintain a safe environment, caregivers and teachers need to know which activities are typical of children at different ages. This information is also needed in teaching children safety practices. Various groups that influence safety regulations in child care centers include local and state governmental agencies, funding agencies, insurance companies, and the legal profession.

    Wellness

    It is the parent’s responsibility to ensure a healthy environment for a child. The wellness of the child will reflect the growth and development of the child. Wellness should include:

    • Child’s physical and emotional development
    • Dental exams
    • Developmental milestones
    • Eye exams
    • Hearing exams
    • Immunizations (shots)
    • Plenty of activity and exercise
    • Proper hand-washing techniques to avoid infections
    • Proper nutrition
    • Safety and sanitation guidelines

    Physical Fitness

    A preschooler should be able to:

    Age three

    • Balance is improving and they can stand on one foot for short periods of time
    • Run and jump easily
    • Pedal a tricycle (3-wheel bike)
    • Move to music with movement, such as running, jumping, and galloping
    • Put simple puzzles together and draw with some control
  • Age four

    • Run, leap, climb, push, pull, tug, roll, tumble, hit, wrestle, and chase each other
    • Talk and eat or talk and play at the same time
    • Handle buttons, zippers, and snaps without too much effort

    Age five

    • Walk a straight line and kick a ball toward a target
    • Climb up and down a ladder and catch a ball thrown gently to them
    • Jump rope, march, roller blade, and ride a two-wheel bike
    • Use pencils, crayons and paintbrushes

    Refer to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention “Positive Parenting Tips for Healthy Child Development” for additional information. You can download and print the fact sheet at:
    http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/positiveparenting/pdfs/preschoolers3-5.pdf

    Impact of Social Factors on Learning

    Social development for preschoolers revolves around their feelings about themselves and how they fit into social groups. When they are allowed to ask questions, experiment and explore, children develop initiative. Giving preschoolers simple tasks helps them develop their sense of responsibility. As children become more aware of themselves, they develop gender roles. Gender roles are a result of observing how others are treated and how the child is treated in regards to his or her gender as well as how different cultures the child is exposed to treat the differences between male and females.

    Stages of Emotional Development

    Autonomy is the goal of Social/Emotional development in toddlers. The desire for and development of a certain level of independence is a driving force for most toddlers and should be cultivated carefully. Limits that are appropriate for the child’s abilities and understanding are important, even when this leads to defiance and conflict. Toddlers tend to develop a new round of Stranger Anxiety or shyness as well among new adults, but will begin to interact more with children their own age. They also become better able to detect the emotions of others. Emotions that are most commonly expressed by toddlers are affection, fear, anxiety and anger.

    While preschoolers still depend on the adults in their lives, their social circle becomes wider during preschool. They begin making friends with children outside their families. Common stressors during this stage of childhood include being told no, being separated from caregivers, and things that scare them. Major life changing events such as illness, death or divorce can also create stress for preschoolers. Being able to control the physical actions related to stress is difficult for children if they are not able to verbally express their feelings. Most of the fears preschoolers have are based on their limited understanding of so many new concepts. Anger and aggression are more verbal, in the form of yelling and threatening during this stage and are generally directed at siblings and close friends than casual peers. Jealousy also becomes an issue for preschoolers as they begin to realize they must share with others.

    Child Abuse and Prevention

    Society has a responsibility in protecting children and families against abuse and violence. According to a publication by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the educator has a vital role in identifying, reporting, and preventing child abuse and neglect. Over the last few decades, various organizations have developed programs directed at informing educators that they are a valuable resource. Child care providers and educators must become involved in preventing and responding to child abuse and neglect. These reasons are related to:

    • Community efforts
    • Educational opportunities
    • Legal concerns
    • Professional responsibilities
    • Personal commitments

    Additional information on this publication can be found at: http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/educator/educator.pdf

    Child Protective Services Division of Texas is another organization available to assist families in crisis. The Child Protective Services Division investigates reports of abuse and neglect of children. It also:

    • places children in adoptive homes.
    • places children in foster care.
    • provides services to children and families in their own homes.
    • provides services to help youth in foster care make the transition to adulthood.

    For additional information and legal definitions of abuse and neglect, visit:
    http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Protection/About_Child_Protective_Services/

    Family Structure Changes

    Guidance and parenting toddlers has some special challenges. Physical needs still include feeding, clothing, rest and sleep, hygiene, and safe places. Toddlers have graduated to table foods, but can be very picky eaters. They also still have a narrower entry to the trachea that presents a choking hazard so food shapes and sizes must be considered along with nutrition. Clothing and shoes must be able to hold up to the increased activity of a toddler as well as be easy for the child to dress himself. Toddlers generally need about 10-15 hours of sleep at night, with two naps during the second year. This is generally reducing to one afternoon nap the third year and naps disappearing altogether before the fourth birthday. Most toddlers still love bath-time and play hard enough to need a bath daily. Toilet learning is also a big part of hygiene during the toddler years. Due to intense curiosity of the world around them and their increased strength and mobility, extra effort must be given to keeping a toddler’s spaces safe.

    Brain Structure

    • Intellectual development for toddlers is characterized by intense curiosity about the world around them. They are beginning to understand things they experience with their senses. However, they are not able to think ahead or be able to wait for what they want. By 18 months, most toddlers can remember where things are and connect those objects with actions. By the second year, most toddlers are starting to be able to pretend by imagining new things. This allows them to begin to break away from the egocentric behavior. Choosing toys appropriate for toddlers is helpful to optimize their development. Learning is characterized by the development of problem solving skills, and the beginning of thought.
    • Language development develops faster during the toddler years than at any other time of life. Articulation (the ability to correctly use the muscles of the face and mouth and vocal chords) is the first step and progresses in stages. Assigning meaning to words is a difficult task, but once accomplished is the main component of communication.
    • Intellectual needs of toddlers include activities that stimulate the senses, allow them to learn through play, give them opportunities for problem solving and motor and language development. Sensory stimulation is probably one of the easiest activities to arrange, as it is done almost unconsciously when we make observations about the world around us. The best thing for toddlers is to just let them play, run, and jump, keeping in mind guidance or redirection only when asked for or they approach their safety limits. Language development is enhanced by talking to and being around toddlers. Reading to toddlers and allowing them to read on their own can also develop their language skills.
    • Intellectual development during the preschool years is defined as “preoperational”. This means that children have not yet acquired logical mental actions as described by Piaget in his cognitive development theory. The theory states that children cannot think logically because preschoolers:

    • are egocentric
    • can only focus on one part of an object or event
    • tend to focus on single steps or stages of an event
    • cannot undo actions (such as subtraction)
    • link actions without using logic

    • New abilities that preschoolers are developing are symbolic play, mental imaging, drawing, and language. They can now recognize physical attributes of objects, and can begin classifying objects. They are able to understand numerical, special and temporal concepts. They also now understand the relationship of cause and effect, thanks to continual questioning why things happen. Language development continues with articulation, vocabulary and grammar. Although most five year olds still have trouble with pronouns and how and when to apply grammar rules.

    Major Theorists

    At this age, children are using their cognitive skills for learning new concepts. Learning first occurs through use of the five senses – seeing, hearing, smelling, touching, and tasting. Sensory experiences form the basis for a great deal of learning. Through sight, children learn to compare and identify colors, sizes, shapes, numbers, distances, positions, and other qualities of objects. Through hearing, children are able to communicate with and learn from others. They also learn to distinguish the origin of a certain sound and what it typically represents.

    The development of language is a vital aspect of overall cognitive development. Language is symbolic, which means that a word can be used for an object, place, or idea.

    Explanation of Major Theories Using Real World Examples

    Guidelines to follow when helping children learn about their world include the following:

    • Keep children interested and curious.
    • Teach children when they are ready to learn.
    • Provide surroundings and activities familiar enough for children to feel secure and comfortable.
    • Make learning enjoyable and fun.
    • Teach children skills they can use in real life.
    • Realize that specific needs of individual children affect their ability and motivation to learn.

    Critique of Major Theories

    Early Childhood is perhaps one of the most fascinating stages of human development to watch. An infant transforms from a completely dependent baby who can only cry to communicate a need into a young child who has a unique personality. A child who can use tools, speak in complex sentences and is capable of solving simple problems. Most of these changes occur in the first two years. Many experts agree that this is the most critical time in a child’s life because by the age of five, a child’s basic character is set. This is the time when they will learn to distinguish right and wrong, develop their language and communication skills, and physically grow faster than at any other time.

    Use of theory to Predict and Explain Individual and Group Behavior and Guidance Techniques

    Discipline for toddlers is important because they have no self-restraint nor do they know the rules of acceptable behavior. Physical affection will help a toddler feel loved. Avoiding labels for behavior will cause them to feel lovable which will contribute to their balance of self-assertion and obedience. Learning to balance some freedom with limits set by parents will be met with some conflict and even temper tantrums. As at all other stages, consistency will help the toddler develop an understanding of how to handle emotions and themselves.

    • Preschoolers learn through observing the world around them. They like to compare and contrast objects. Television and computers can be an aid to learning; however, it must be limited and used in such a way that concepts are reinforced by parents and/or teachers. Problem-solving skills are developed as the preschooler learns to classify objects, sequence events, and learning how to reverse and transform actions. Learning to recognize letters and numbers is the advanced part of symbolizing. This begins through learning to play pretend.
    • Children learn best in healthy physical, emotional, and social environments. For example, it is harder for children to explore and learn in a noisy, cluttered, unplanned setting than in a quieter, more organized environment. When children are worried about family problems or about the constant disapproval of their parents, they find it harder to explore and learn than children who do not have those concerns.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Every Education and Training program is different. Below is a list of handouts/graphic organizers you can use or adapt to meet the needs of your Human Growth and Development students.

    Module V Handouts

    • Glogster™EDU Preschool Project
    • KWHL Chart – Preschool-Aged Children
    • Note Taking – Researching Learning Disabilities
    • Observations of the Preschool-Aged Child
    • Researching Learning Disabilities Project Rubric
    • Researching Learning Disabilities Project
    • Reserching Learn Main
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Researching Learning Disabilities Comp
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Researching Learning Disabilities Comp (Key)
    • Students With Disabilities
    • Students With Disabilities

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Have students develop an ongoing newsletter for parents about normal developmental milestones for each stage (this would be repeated for each module in this course). Students can distribute their newsletter to parents in the community.
    • Have students design a new toy for a particular stage of development that will stimulate intellectual development. They must include marketing and packaging that will attract parents.
    • Add the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) “Milestones Quiz” Widget to your website, by copying and pasting the code into your page.
    • Use the “Go Out and Play!” Tool Kit from CDC to design a lesson for observing toddlers/preschoolers at play.
    • Plan a field trip to your school daycare or a daycare facility in the neighborhood for students to observe children in action. Have students make a chart that displays the types of development observed or not observed at all.
    • Have students bring in pictures of themselves ranging in age between three and five years. Instruct the students not to share their photos with other students. You may choose to make a photo copy of the pictures to eliminate the possibility of original photos being damaged. As class begins, instruct students to take out a sheet of paper and number from one to the number of students in the class. Allow students to take a gallery walk and guess the student name and age of each individual’s picture. Students are to write down this information next to the corresponding number on their sheet of paper. After students have had an opportunity to guess each classmate’s picture and age, reveal the answers to the class.
    • Distribute graphic organizer, KWHL Chart – Preschool-Aged Children, and have students fill out the first three columns of the chart. Ask students to write down what they already know about the topic in the first column, what they want to learn about the topic in the second column and how they can locate more information about the topic in the third column. The last column will be completed during lesson closure.
    • Introduce handout Observations of the Preschool-Aged Child. Inform students that they will each be responsible for completing an observation sheet on a preschool-aged child. This can be assigned as a homework assignment or prior arrangements can be with a local daycare/preschool facility. Inform students that they will be practicing how to accurately use an observation sheet. Have students view a video of preschool aged children. As a class, practice recording data on the observation sheet.
    • Distribute handout, Glogster™EDU Preschool Project. Inform students that they will be creating an electronic presentation entitled “Teaching the Preschool-Aged Child”, preferably utilizing http://edu.glogster.com.
    • Students can create flyers and other advertisements to promote the children’s book drive described in the Service Learning Project component. After books are collected and donated to a local early childhood or head start program, students could volunteer to read books to the children enrolled in the program.
    • Ask students to ask their parents about their specific developmental milestones and share their stories with the class as they relate to the lesson.
    • Host a children’s book drive to donate to a local early childhood or head start program.

    Resources and References

    Textbooks

    • Brisbane, H. (2010). The developing child. Columbus, OH: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.

    Websites

    Human Growth and Development: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. By their third birthday, most toddlers average about __________ inches tall and 31-33 pounds.

    • a. 21-25
    • b. 31-33
    • c. 36-38
    • d. 38-40

    2. Planning and maintaining safe surroundings is critical. This is accomplished by:

    • a. following safety regulations, continually monitoring environment.
    • b. teaching safety information appropriate to their ages.
    • c. safe indoor and outdoor environments for young children require careful planning and constant checking.
    • d. all of the above.

    3. By age four, most children can:

    • a. hop and stand on one foot up to two seconds.
    • b. catch a bounced ball most of the time.
    • c. use a fork and spoon and sometimes a table knife.
    • d. a and b

    4. Most of the __________ preschoolers have are based on their limited understanding of so many new concepts.

    • a. changes
    • b. fears
    • c. emotions
    • d. responsibilities

    5. Intellectual development during the preschool years is defined as ______________, meaning that children have not yet acquired logical mental actions, as described by Piaget in his cognitive development theory.

    • a. “predetermined”
    • b. “preguidance”
    • c. “presensorimotor”
    • d. “preoperational”

  • VI. Six to Ten Years

    Boy Playing a Video Game

    TEKS Addressed:

    (5) The student understands the development of children ages six through ten years. The student is expected to:

    • (A) analyze the physical, emotional, social, and cognitive development of children in the early to middle childhood stage of development
    • (B) analyze various developmental theories relating to children in the early to middle childhood stage of development
    • (C) discuss the influences of the family and society on children in the early to middle childhood stage of development
    • (D) summarize strategies for optimizing the development of children in the early to middle childhood stage of development, including those with special needs
    • (E) determine techniques that promote the health and safety of children in the early to middle childhood stage of development
    • (F) determine developmentally appropriate guidance techniques for children in the early to middle childhood stage of development

    Module Content

    Six to Ten Years is the sixth module in the Human Growth and Development course. This section contains twelve units of study that include:

    • A. Physical milestones
    • B. Nutritional guidelines
    • C. Safety and wellness
    • D. Impact of social factors on learning
    • E. Stages of emotional development
    • F. Child abuse and prevention
    • G. Family structure changes
    • H. Brain structure
      • 1. Optimizing developmental stages
      • 2. Addressing special needs
    • I. Major theorists
    • J. Explanation of major theories using real world examples
    • K. Critique of major theories
    • L. Use of theory to predict and explain individual and group behavior and guidance techniques

    Refer to lesson: School-Aged Children for additional resources and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/school-aged-children/

    Refer to lesson Stories, Stories and More Stories for additional activities, ideas and resources.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/stories-stories-and-more-stories/

    Refer to lesson: A Look at Theories: Part I for additional resources and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-look-at-theories-part-i/

    Refer to lesson: The Importance of Play: Toddler to School-Age for additional resources and activities at http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-importance-of-play-toddler-to-school-age/

    Refer to lesson: Four Areas of Development: Preschool to School-Age for additional resources and activities at http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/fours-areas-of-development-preschool-to-school-age/

    Refer to lesson: Nutritional Needs: Preschool to School-Age for additional resources and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/nutrition-needs-as-children-grow-preschool-to-school-age/

    Refer to lesson Researching Learning Disabilities for additional activities, ideas and resources.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/researching-learning-disabilities/

    Module VI Handouts

    Physical Milestones

    During the years between six and twelve, school-age children progress from dependent first graders to independent early adolescents. Their physical, emotional, social, and cognitive skills develop quickly during this time, which is called the school-age years. These years are filled with fun, school, family, friends, and other activities. School-age children enter a period of slow, but continual growth and development. The end of this stage will mark the beginning of the final push to physical maturity.

    • The hallmarks of physical development during the school-age years are continued increases in height and weight, changes in proportion, in the muscular-skeletal systems and organs. School-age children have more adult like proportions and their bones and teeth get stronger. Tooth loss is a constant issue for children during this time as they replace their baby teeth with permanent ones. Muscle growth is slightly behind skeletal growth during the school-age years; so many children appear loose-jointed and awkward. Orthopedic problems can develop during these years as well. Most of the internal organs will be near maturity by the age of ten.
    • Motor development continues to develop during the school-age years and children enjoy playing more active games. Around the age of nine, children’s activities begin to revolve around organized sports, skating, or cycling as these require more motor skill and cognitive development.
    • At ages nine and ten, girls begin to grow faster in height and weight than boys their age. They may actually grow taller than boys in their classes. Girls are more physically mature than same-age boys; that is girls have reached a greater percentage of their adult height than same-age boys. During the later stages of middle childhood, body changes (hips widen, breasts bud, pubic hair appears, and testes develop) indicate that the body is approaching puberty. Girls may also begin to menstruate. It is also referred to as menarche – the beginning of the menstrual function; especially the first menstrual period of an individual.

    Nutritional Guidelines

    • Nutrition and exercise are important to school-age children so that they continue to grow and develop properly. Growth and development of the preschool and school-age child varies significantly between children during this period. Some children will develop slower than others and some will grow quickly. Generally children tend to grow in height more than weight during this period. Height is normally not affected by environmental factors, but on the other hand, weight is associated with nutritional habits and activity levels influenced by the child’s surroundings. Why is nutrition so important during these two periods in a child’s life? What nutrients do children need to help them grow and develop? Parents and caregivers must be familiar with health needs that affect children in order to maintain healthy bodies. These health needs include the following:
    • nutrition
    • rest
    • exercise
    • professional medical care

    View slideshow: Essential Nutrients for Kids A to Z
    http://www.webmd.com/parenting/child-nutrition-11/slideshow-essential-nutrients

    Refer to Kid-Friendly Veggies and Fruits – 10 Tips for Making Healthy Foods More Fun for Children at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/DGTipsheet11KidFriendlyVeggiesAndFruits.pdf

    Safety and Wellness

    Parents and caregivers play an important role in keeping children safe. Visit http://www.cdc.gov/parents/children/safety.html for safety and wellness topics such as:

    • Burns
    • Carbon Monoxide poisoning
    • Child Maltreatment
    • Child Passenger safety
    • and much, much more

    As a teacher, you can assign the students a topic and have the students research and create a presentation on the subject matter.

    Find out what vaccines a child needs and when with the adolescent immunization schedule PDF at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/who/teens/downloads/parent-version-schedule-7-18yrs.pdf

    Record a child’s vaccines, growth, and developmental milestones using the Well Child Visit Tracker PDF at
    http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/downloads/milestones-tracker.pdf

    Physical Fitness

    Children ages nine through twelve develop interests in more specific motor skills. They tend to prefer organized sports, skating, or bicycling other than running or jumping. Older school-age children show improvement in the development of fine motor skills. Improved skills are often evident in art activities, writing, playing musical instruments, and other tasks that may require small muscle precision.

    Some children may find difficulty balancing high energy activities and quiet activities. Intense activity may bring tiredness. Children of this age often need ten hours of sleep each night.

    Children toward the end of middle childhood become almost as coordinated as adults. They show increases in body strength and hand dexterity. There is also a noticeable improvement in coordination and reaction time. Most differences between boys and girls in motor abilities are due to expectations and experiences. Children exposed to the same physical education activities show few gender differences in abilities.

    Impact of Social Factors on Learning

    • Social development during school-age years is dynamic and rapid. Children expand their peer circle dramatically during this time and become much more focused on what others think of them.
    • School-age children show greater social awareness during this stage. Adult and peer relationships deepen. As children gain their independence and are becoming more worldly, they may typically test their growing knowledge with back talk and rebellion. They may begin to see parents and authority figures as fallible human beings. Outbursts of anger are less frequent. At the same time, they have a strong need to feel accepted and worthwhile.

    Also important during the school-age years is learning leisure activities – activities that prepare children to reduce stress and in which others participate just for fun. Clothing standards should remain the same, except for the reduced need for self-dressing features. Allowing the children some choice in selecting clothing is important as they become more concerned with their friends’ opinions.

    Stages of Emotional Development

    The older a child becomes, the more important companionship with friends becomes. Children of this age develop a sense of self and find it important to gain social acceptance and experience achievement. Friends become increasingly important. Popularity, clubs, competition, cruelty, and aggression all become important considerations. Close friends are almost always of the same sex, although children in this age group are usually interested in peers of the opposite sex. There is also an increased interest in competitive sports.

    Children ages nine through twelve are becoming better able to reach out to others. They need more opportunities to develop giving relationships and to understand the world around them. It is important for children to feel a sense of community and to feel connected and accepted.

    Child Abuse and Prevention

    The following are common outcomes of abuse or neglect in school-age children.

    Physical

    The children may show generalized physical developmental delays; may lack the skills and coordination for activities that require perceptual-motor coordination. The child may be sickly or chronically ill.

    Cognitive

    • The child may display thinking patterns that are typical of a younger child, including egocentric perspectives, lack of problem-solving ability, and inability to organize and structure thoughts.
    • Speech and language may be delayed or inappropriate.
    • The child may be unable to concentrate on school work, and may not be able to conform to the structure of a school setting. The child may not have developed basic problem-solving and may have considerable difficulty in academics.

    Social

    • The child may be suspicious and mistrustful of adults or overly solicitous, agreeable, and manipulative, and may not turn to adults for comfort and help when in need.
    • The child may talk in unrealistically glowing terms about her family; may exhibit “role reversal” and assume a “parenting” role with the parent.
    • The child may not respond to positive praise and attention or may excessively seek adult approval and attention.
    • The child may feel inferior, incapable, and unworthy around other children; may have difficulty making friends, feel overwhelmed by peer expectations for performance, may withdraw from social contact, and may be used as a scapegoat by peers.

    Emotional

    • The child may experience damage to self-esteem from degrading or punitive messages from an abusive parent or lack of positive attention in a neglectful environment.
    • The child may behave impulsively, have frequent emotional outbursts, and be unable to delay gratification.

    Family Structure Changes

    Self-care children are school-age children who are left at home without direct adult supervision before and after school or during the summer. These children are sometimes called “latchkey children” because children responsible for “self-care” often wear a house key tied around the neck. The number of self-care children in the United States is growing. It is estimated that 40% of children are left home at some time, but rarely overnight. Refer to Facts for Families by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry for additional information at http://www.aacap.org/App_Themes/AACAP/docs/facts_for_families/46_home_alone_children.pdf

    Brain Structure

    • Intellectual development continues to mature as school-age children move from the pre-operational stage into the concrete operations stage. Children become more logical and their logic is based on their experiences. School-age children develop the ability to see from other’s viewpoints and can focus on multiple aspects of an object or event. They can undo actions and see transformations. All of these skills allow them to develop reasoning skills. Most school-age children will have mastered their language by age 12. Guidance for intellectual development during this period will naturally focus on the routines and procedures that develop around school.

    Major Theorists

    • Freud’s Psychosexual Stage (ages 6-12). Latency stage: Sexual energy is quiescent.
    • Erikson’s Psychosocial Stage (ages 6-12). Industry versus inferiority: Child must learn basic cultural skills, such as school skills.
    • Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory (ages 6-12). Concrete operations stage: The child makes a major step forward in the abstractness of thought. He discovers an entire set of basic rules about objects, such as the fact that they can be arrayed in various orders (from small to large or fat to thin, for example) or that aspects of them remain constant even in the face of external change (which Piaget calls conservation). He also develops the ability to use complex mental operations, such as addition, subtraction, or simultaneous classification of one object into two or more categories (a chair is both a piece of furniture and a wooden object, for example).
    • Lawrence Kohlberg (ages 8-13). He proposes higher levels of moral reasoning cannot be reached if the person has not reached the higher levels of cognitive development.
      • The first of three levels of moral reasoning is the preconvention moral reasoning level. Decisions about moral dilemmas in this stage are motivated either by fear of punishment or desire for reward from authority figures – primarily the parents. This type of reasoning is typical of children under eight years old.
      • The second stage of reasoning, conventional, is characteristic between the ages of eight and thirteen. Groups become the primary source of authority rather than parents. The group in authority may be the family, peers, or community. Children adopt the group’s definitions of right and wrong without questions.
      • The third stage is termed the post conventional moral reasoning stage. In this stage, people make moral decisions based on justice.

    Explanation of Major Theories Using Real World Examples

    School-age children go through similar stages. Yet no two children are exactly alike. Development varies from child to child.

    School-age children are:

    • Growing in uneven spurts and need to learn about good nutrition for sound health
    • Still young and need to feel a sense of security and belonging
    • Creative and need the freedom to create without structure
    • Looking for rules and need a structure or routine to follow
    • Self-conscious and need acceptable and understanding
    • Maturing at different rates so adults need to understand the developmental differences
    • Adventurous so challenge them to hold their interests

    Society teaches children moral behavior through discipline. Discipline is intended to teach children what behavior is acceptable and what behavior is unacceptable according to societal standards. The goal is to motivate children to act in accordance with these standards.

    Critique of Major Theories

    School-age children need freedom to be independent, while having clear limits that define what they can or cannot do. They need affection, caring and acceptance of their individual differences. School-age children want to solve their own problems, but have an adult’s help available when needed. This aligns with Lawrence Kohlberg and Erikson’s Psychosocial Stage theories.

    Use of theory to Predict and Explain Individual and Group Behavior and Guidance Techniques

    School-age children need help in meeting their social and emotional needs. They need to know that adults care about and will listen to what they have to say.

    Be sensitive to children needs:

    • Remember the importance of the family
    • Develop trust and the right to disagree
    • Think about how it felt to be a school-age child
    • Don’t expect all children to act their ages

    Be supportive of the interests and growth of children:

    • Offer them positive ways to use their curiosity
    • Recognize their sense of fair play
    • Give them time to explore
    • Set a good example

    Get children involved at their own pace:

    • Be sensitive to children’s needs to do some things alone
    • Expect friendships to be important in play
    • Let children know that you recognize their abilities

    Be creative in guiding the play of school-age children:

    • Expect wishes, rhymes, and jokes
    • Expect monster stories and games with exact rules
    • Create celebrations for fun and learning
    • Be prepared for and expect children to sometimes be bored

    Guidance for school-age children should focus on modeling the behaviors we expect the child to perform ourselves. Tasks for parents during this stage include:

    • balancing dependence with independence
    • extending gender roles
    • encouraging work and industry
    • expanding child’s horizons
    • keeping communication open
    • providing time for family and for friends
    • recognizing developmental displays

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Every Education and Training program is different. Below is a list of handouts/graphic organizers you can use or adapt to meet the needs of your Human Growth and Development students.

    Module VI Handouts

    • Google Sites Instruction
    • KWHL Chart – School-Aged Children
    • Note Taking Researching Learning Disabilities
    • Observations of the School-Aged Child
    • Researching Learning Disabilities Project Rubric
    • Researching Learning Disabilities Project
    • Researching Learn Main
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Researching Learning Disabilities Competition
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Researching Learning Disabilities Competition (Key)
    • School-Aged Children Project
    • Students With Disabilities
    • Students With Disabilities (Key)

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Have faculty and staff members bring in pictures of themselves ranging in age between six and ten years. Tell the faculty and staff members not to show other students their picture. Hang the pictures of the faculty and staff members around the classroom and assign each picture a number. Have students look through the gallery of pictures and write down their guess for the teacher and teacher’s age in each picture. After each student has had a chance to guess each teacher’s picture and age, reveal the answers to the class.
    • Distribute graphic organizer, KWHL Chart – School-Aged Children, and have students fill out the first three columns of the chart. Ask students to write down what they already know about the topic in the first column, what they want to learn about the topic in the second column and how they can locate more information about the topic in the third column. The last column will be completed during lesson closure.
    • Introduce handout Observations of the School-Aged Child. Inform students that they will each be responsible for completing an observation sheet on a school-aged child. This can be assigned as a homework assignment or prior arrangements can be with a local daycare/preschool facility. Inform students that they will be practicing how to accurately use an observation sheet. Have students view a video of preschool aged children. As a class, practice recording data on the observation sheet.
    • Distribute handout, School-Aged Children Project. Inform students that they will be creating an electronic presentation entitled “School-Aged Children”, preferably utilizing sites.google.com. Alternative electronic presentation options include PowerPoint™ and http://prezi.com. For the purposes of this lesson, a rubric for a Google™ Site presentation has been included, however you may develop a different rubric, see http://cte.sfasu.edu/classroom-essentials/rubrics/.
    • Print, distribute and discuss Friends are important: Tips for parents from http://hillsboroughpeds.com/documents/7%20Year%20Info/Friends%20Are%20Important%20-%20Tips%20for%20Parents.pdf
    • Possible idea: Host a mini children’s health fair. Include a variety of booths that cover specific topics in growth and development of school-aged children. Invite members of the community to take part in the fair such as a local family medical practice or family dentistry practice.
    • Students will play and interactive game “Build a Meal Game for Kids” to determine the portion size and caloric needs of preschool and school-age children by visiting:
      http://www.nourishinteractive.com/kids/healthy-games/6-kevins-build-a-meal-game-balanced-meals
    • Writing Strategy:
      Think about the nutritional guidelines for toddlers. Imagine you are part of a team preparing snacks or meals for toddlers. Write an essay in which you explain and defend how your choice of snack or meal meets the nutritional needs of toddlers. (10th and 11th grade persuasive writing)
    • Students will create a three day menu for a school-age child using the information from MyPlate.gov

    Resources and References

    Textbooks

    • Brisbane, H. (2010). The developing child. Columbus, OH: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.

    Websites

    Human Growth and Development: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. The hallmarks of physical development during the school-age years are continued ___________ in height and weight, changes in proportion, in the muscular-skeletal systems and organs.

    • a. decreases
    • b. stages
    • c. increases
    • d. improvements

    2. Girls may also begin to menstruate. It is also referred to as _____________ – the beginning of the menstrual function; especially the first menstrual period of an individual.

    • a. monomania
    • b. menial
    • c. mensuration
    • d. menarche

    3. __________ vaccine is combination vaccine that is routinely recommended at age 11 or 12 to protect against Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis.

    • a. Tdep
    • b. Tdap
    • c. Tdpt
    • d. Tndp

    4. Children toward the end of middle childhood become almost as coordinated as _________. They show increases in body strength and hand dexterity.

    • a. children their same age
    • b. teenagers
    • c. adults
    • d. athletes

    5. One common outcome of abuse or neglect in school-age children is:

    • a. The child may display thinking patterns that are typical of a younger child, including egocentric perspectives, lack of problem-solving ability, and inability to organize and structure thoughts.
    • b. The child may be suspicious and mistrustful of adults or overly solicitous, agreeable, and manipulative, and may not turn to adults for comfort and help when in need.
    • c. The child may experience damage to self-esteem from denigrating or punitive messages from an abusive parent or lack of positive attention in a neglectful environment.
    • d. All of the above

  • VII. Eleven to Nineteen Years

    Young Girls Operating Cell Phones with a Young Boy (10-14) Standing Behind Them

    TEKS Addressed:

    (6) The student understands the development of adolescents ages 11 through 19 years. The student is expected to:

    • (A) analyze the biological and cognitive development of adolescents
    • (B) analyze the emotional and social development of adolescents
    • (C) discuss various theoretical perspectives relevant to adolescent growth and development
    • (D) discuss the influences of the family and society on adolescents
    • (E) determine appropriate guidance techniques for adolescents

    Module Content

    Eleven to Nineteen Years is the seventh module in the Human Growth and Development course. This section contains ten units of study that include:

    • A. Physical development
      B. Nutritional guidelines
    • C. Safety and wellness
      • 1. Childhood Illness
      • 2. Immunizations
      • 3. Fitness
    • D. Impact of social factors on learning
    • E. Stages of emotional development
    • F. Family structure changes
    • G. Brain structure
      • 1. Optimizing developmental stages
      • 2. Addressing special needs
    • H. Major theorists
    • I. Explanation of major theories using real world examples
    • J. Critique of major theories
    • K. Use of theory to predict and explain individual and group behavior and guidance techniques

    Module VII Handouts

    Refer to lesson: The Teen Years for additional resources and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-teen-years/

    Refer to lesson: A Look at Theories: Part II for additional resources and activities at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-look-at-theories-part-ii/

    Physical Development

    Pre-Adolescence is the approximately two-year period of rapid growth, generally beginning between the ages of 11 and 14, in which children rapidly mature from childhood into early adulthood.

    • The hallmark of puberty is the development of the sex characteristics. Primary sex characteristics are the maturation of the sex organs. In girls, the ovaries begin to produce estrogen and progesterone and mature ova (egg cells) are produced. Menarche (the beginning of menstrual flow) is the end of pre-adolescence for girls. It is important to provide education about puberty and the menstrual cycle before to reassure girls and give a better initial experience. For boys, the testes begin to produce male sex cells, sperm, and testosterone, and the penis grows in length and circumference.
    • Secondary sex characteristics include the development of pubic and axillary hair, as well as oil production from the sebaceous glands in the skin. Boys develop thicker skin and hair on the face, chest, limbs and shoulders. An increase in the size of the vocal chords results in the deepening of the voice. Girls develop breast tissue and the hip and pelvic bones become wider and rounder.
    • Physically, most girls have nearly completed their physical growth. Boys will continue to grow in height and weight. Motor development is complete and the awkwardness of late childhood disappears.

    Nutritional Guidelines

    According to ChooseMyPlate.gov, teens should:

    Balancing Calories

    • Enjoy your food, but eat less
    • Avoid oversized portions
  • Foods to Increase

    • Make half of your plate fruits and vegetables
    • Make whole grains at least half of all your grains
    • Switch to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk

    Foods to Reduce

    • Compare sodium in foods like soup, bread, and frozen meals and choose the foods with lower numbers
    • Drink water instead of sugary drinks (like sodas, juices, sports drinks, flavored milks, specialty coffees, and more)

    Safety and Wellness

    1. Childhood Illness

    Parents and children should practice and encourage good hygiene by following these guidelines:

    • Wash hands throughly with soap and water.
    • Avoid touching the mouth or nose.
    • Use a disinfectant in the kitchen, bathroom, family room and around a contagious family member.

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1 in 4 new HIV infections occurs in youth ages 13 to 24 years. Read the CDC Vital Signs – HIV Among Youth in the U.S. for additional information at
    http://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/HIVAmongYouth/

    Watch the YouTube™ video: CDC Dena’s Story, Let’s Stop HIV Together at
    http://youtu.be/3hrfUqpM7E8

    2. Immunizations

    Find out what vaccines the child needs and when they need them with the adolescent immunization schedule PDF at
    http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/who/teens/downloads/parent-version-schedule-7-18yrs.pdf

    Parents can also use this schedule to see if the teen needs any additional vaccinations before entering college.

    Some missed vaccines can be “caught up” during this time to help protect the preteen.

    3. Fitness

    The 2011 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicates that among U.S. high school students:

    Obesity

    • In the United States, 13% were obese (students who were in the 95th percentile for body mass index, based on sex- and age-specific reference data from the 2000 CDC growth charts).

    • In Texas, 16% were obese (students who were in the 95th percentile for body mass index, based on sex- and age-specific reference data from the 2000 CDC growth charts).

    These factors are due to unhealty dietary behaviors and physical inactivity. Most teens do not eat heathy foods such as fruits and vegetables. They rely on fats, sweets, and empty calorie food choices. In Texas, 64% did not attend PE classes 5 days in an average week when they were in school.

    What are the solutions?

    • Better health education
    • More PE and physical activity programs
    • Healthier school environments
    • Better nutrition services

    For more information, read The Obesity Epidemic and Texas at
    http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/yrbs/pdf/obesity/tx_obesity_combo.pdf

    Impact of Social Factors on Learning

    • Social development for pre-adolescents include trying to find their sense of identity, feelings of awkwardness, increased conflict with parents, desire to be more independent, increased moodiness, rule and limit testing. Pre-adolescents move further away from their families’ influence and allow their peers to have a much greater say in their behaviors, dress, and preferences.
    • Around the age of 14 most teenagers have moved through puberty and the turmoil of middle school social drama. High school tends to be a much more peaceful time for teens as they begin to map out the rest of their future.

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also states that there is a direct correlation between health and academic success in America’s youth. These health-related factors and behaviors can lead to poor school performance:

    • hunger
    • physical and emotional abuse
    • chronic illness
    • early sexual initiation
    • violence
    • physical inactivity

    These factors and behaviors are consistently linked to poor grades and test scores and lower educational attainment. For additional Health & Academics Data & Statistics, visit:
    http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/health_and_academics/data.htm

    Stages of Emotional Development

    Emotional development during pre-adolescence is generally tied to anxiety about the physical changes that are occurring in the child’s body. Appropriate and timely education at home before the onset of puberty is important in relieving these fears. Preparation for sexual relationships and responsibility need to be addressed in an open and honest manner. This will allow teens to be prepared to make wise, informed choices about when to begin sexual activity and to protect themselves from STDs, pregnancy, and rape.

    Autonomy refers to a person’s ability to think, feel, and make decisions on his/her own. One of the most significant responsibilities for all adolescents is learning the abilities that will help them succeed at their own lives and make positive, healthy decisions. Parents and others can aid adolescents advance this sense of self-governance, responsibility, independence, and decision-making, which together are called autonomy.

    There are three types of autonomy:

    • Emotional autonomy – relates to emotions, personal feelings and how we relate to people around us.
    • Behavioral autonomy – relates to behaviors and the decisions we make which affect our behaviors.
    • Value autonomy – means having independent thoughts, attitudes and beliefs petaining to spirituality, morals, and politics.

    Refer to “Development of Autonomy in Adolescence” by University of Nebraska at
    http://www.ianrpubs.unl.edu/epublic/archive/g1449/build/g1449.pdf

    Family Structure Changes

    In 2009, more than one-quarter of all children under age 21 who were living in families had a parent who was not living in the home. Most often, children living with just one parent live with their mothers. These families have a higher likelihood of living in poverty, and child support payments can make an important contribution to total income. See more at: http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=child-support-receipt#sthash.YSCEjjcK.dpuf
    Among custodial parents with a child support award, the percentage who received full payment of all support owed them in the previous year increased from 37 percent in 1994 to 41 percent in 2009.

    In 2011, nearly 60 percent of children (ages 17 and younger) were exposed to violence within the past year, either directly (as victims) or indirectly (as witnesses). See more at: http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=childrens-exposure-to-violence#sthash.mlBwvK09.dpuf

    Except for physical assault, all types of exposure to violence were more common among older children and adolescents. For example, past-year rates for maltreatment were greater for older children: ten percent of children ages two to five reported maltreatment in the past year, compared with 17 percent of children ages 10 to 13 and 21 percent of children ages 14 to 17.

    Brain Structure

    1. Optimizing Developmental Stages

    • Intellectual development is characterized by a shift into the formal operations stage. Teens are capable of looking at all sides of an issue or event. They can think abstractly about the future or past. Most have mastered some reasoning and problem solving skills. However, the influence of their peer group will still supersede their evolving judgment and reasoning skills. School is the major focus of intellectual development during adolescence since this is where they spend the majority of their time.

    2. Addressing Special Needs

    • According to a report by a parent or other household respondent, nearly one in five children ages five to 17 (18 percent) had one or more limitations in 2011. These may include limitations in normal physical activities due to health conditions and impairments, difficulty seeing, difficulty hearing, diagnosed learning disabilities, or difficulty bathing or showering without assistance. Approximately 19 percent of Americans in 2010 had some level of disability, and 13 percent had a severe disability. A larger population of children are classified as having a disability today than in the past, and the primary reasons are increased birth and survival rates among very low birth weight infants (who have a high risk of disability) and increased diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and asthma. – See more at: http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=children-with-limitations#sthash.cakwvkyB.dpuf
    • The Healthy People 2020 initiative has set a number of goals concerning children and youth with disabilities. These objectives include increasing the proportion of youth with special health care needs whose health care provider discusses transition planning from pediatric to adult health care, reducing the proportion of children and youth with disabilities younger than 21 who live in congregate residential care, and increasing the proportion of children and youth with disabilities who spend at least 80 percent of their time in regular education programs.
      More information is available at:
      http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectiveslist.aspx?topicId=9

    Major Theorists

    According to Robert J. Havighurst, he states middle childhood developmental tasks are as follows:

    • learning physical skills
    • building wholesome attitudes toward oneself
    • learning to get along with others of the same age
    • learning appropriate masculine or feminine social role
    • developing fundamental skills in reading, writing, and calculating
    • achieving personal independence
    • developing conscience, morality, and a scale of values
    • developing attitudes toward social groups and institutions

    Freud’s Psychosexual stage for ages 13-18 – Genitals are again focus of stimulation; formation of mature sexual relationship is key task.

    Erikson’s Psychosexual stage for ages 13-18 – Identify versus role confusion: Teenager must figure out who he or she is and who he or she will be.

    Explanation of Major Theories Using Real World Examples

    • Physical development during this period includes rapid increases in height, changes in body proportions, and development of the primary and secondary sex characteristics. Growth rates during this period are second only to the prenatal period. Girls begin the growth spurt first adding anywhere from 2 to 8 inches and boys will add 4 to 12 inches. Most pubescent children will add between 15-55 pounds in body weight.
    • Social development during adolescence is very self-centered and peer-centered. Teens are still worried about being normal. Most would much rather be with friends than with family. They begin to realize that their parents are only human and will question their decisions. This, of course, leads to greater conflict with parents. Risk taking behaviors abound during the teen years, as most teens believe that they are “bullet-proof.” Experimenting with aggressive driving, tobacco, drugs, alcohol, and sex are common among teenagers.
    • Many young people engage in sexual risk behaviors that can result in unintended health outcomes.

    Critique of Major Theories

    Both theories, Freud and Erikson, agree that development is the result of a child’ instincts interacting with his or her environment. Stages cannot be satisfactorily completed unless the environment responds in a conductive, consistent manner. Any unresolved issues from earlier stages will carry over into later stages and negatively affect an individual’s ability to resolve them. It is this collection of unresolved issues that leads to an abnormal or deviant personality in later life.

    Use of theory to Predict and Explain Individual and Group Behavior and Guidance Techniques

    • Guidance and Parenting during pre-adolescence becomes even more important than ever. Parents must balance the growing independence of their children with their need for limits and guidance over the rocky terrain of middle-school politics and relationship drama. This struggle for identity and the development of social hierarchies can be traumatic even for well-adjusted children. Parents must be able to openly and honestly communicate about difficult or uncomfortable subjects such as sexuality or losing friends.
    • Guidance and Parenting during adolescence should focus on building trust and responsibility and fostering independence, while still providing limits to ensure safety and health. Allowing the teen to participate in the establishment of limits, especially those associated with dating and friend selection will help the teen to develop decision-making and communication skills. It will allow the teen to further develop his or her sense of self as well. Removal of privileges is generally the best form of discipline for teens, but as during any other stage, must be enforced consistently.
    • Helping the teen explore his or her career and education options is also a major focus of parenting during adolescence.

    —-

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Every Education and Training program is different. Below is a list of handouts/graphic organizers you can use or adapt to meet the needs of your Human Growth and Development students.

    Module VII Handouts

    • Directions for Go Animate™ Online Presentations
    • KWHL Chart – The Teen Years
    • The Teen Years Project

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Develop a list of resources for teens and their parents that are available in your community.
    • Invite a health educator to the classroom to discuss health issues for adolescents.
    • Distribute graphic organizer, KWHL Chart – The Teen Years, and have students fill out the first three columns of the chart. Ask students to write down what they already know about the topic in the first column, what they want to learn about the topic in the second column and how they can locate more information about the topic in the third column. The last column will be completed during lesson closure.
    • Distribute handout, The Teen Years Project. Inform students that they will be creating an electronic presentation about the topic “The Teen Years”, preferably utilizing http://goanimate.com/. Alternative electronic presentation options include PowerPoint™ and http://prezi.com. Distribute Directions for Go Animate™ Online Presentations so the students understand how create the presentation.
    • Print and discuss maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health: Adolescent development from the World Health Organization at http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/core_competencies/en/
    • Conduct an interview of students ranging in age from 11 – 19 years on one of the following topics:
      • biological development
      • cognitive development
      • social development
      • emotional development
    • Invite guest speakers from the community to speak on teen health issues such as friendships, nutrition, depression, anxiety, parents, and teen pregnancy.

    Resources and References

    Textbooks

    • Brisbane, H. (2010). The developing child. Columbus, OH: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.

    Websites

    —-

    Human Growth and Development: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Which of the following physical changes usually occurs during adolescence?

    • a. Physical development during this period includes rapid increases in height, changes in body proportions, and development of the primary and secondary sex characteristics.
    • b. Menarche is the beginning of pre-adolescence for girls.
    • c. Motor development is complete and the awkwardness of late childhood disappears.
    • d. A and C

    2. In the YouTube™ video, CDC Dena’s Story, Let’s Stop HIV Together, what is the most important message we can pass on to the younger generation?

    • a. Follow good hygiene practices
    • b. Stop having unprotected sex
    • c. Talk and share information
    • d. Visit your doctor twice a year

    3. Parents and children should practice and encourage good hygiene by following these guidelines:

    • a. Wash hands throughly with soap and water.
    • b. Avoid touching the mouth or nose.
    • c. Use a disinfectant in the kitchen, bathroom, family room and around a contagious family member.
    • d. All of the above

    4. The major psychosocial task of adolescence, according to Erikson, is:

    • a. Developing conscience, morality, and a scale of values.
    • b. Genitals are again focus of stimulation; formation of mature sexual relationship is key task.
    • c. Identify versus role confusion: Teenager must figure out who he or she is and who he or she will be.
    • d. Developing attitudes toward social groups and institutions.

    5. Menarche is best defined as:

    • a. a. the development of body hair.
    • b. the first menstrual flow.
    • c. the onset and release of female hormones.
    • d. the development of breasts.

  • VIII. Twenty to Thirty-Nine

    Teenage Girls Using Digital Camera

    TEKS Addressed:

    (8) The student understands the development of adults ages 20 through 39 years. The student is expected to:

    • (A) analyze various development theories relating to early adults, including biological and cognitive development
    • (B) analyze various development theories relating to early adults, including emotional, moral, and psychosocial development
    • (C) discuss the influences of society and culture on early adults
    • (D) discuss the importance of family, human relationships, and social interaction for early adults

    Module Content

    Twenty to Thirty-Nine is the eighth module in the Human Growth and Development course. This section contains ten units of study that include:

    • A. Physical and cognitive development
    • B. Nutritional guidelines
    • C. Safety and wellness
      • 1. Drugs
      • 2. Alcohol
      • 3. Physical fitness
    • D. Stages of emotional, moral, and social development
    • E. Family and social relationships
    • F. Societal and cultural awareness in early adulthood
    • G. Major theorists
    • H. Explanation of major theories using real world examples
    • I. Critique of major theories
    • J. Use of theory to predict and explain individual and group behavior and guidance techniques


    Module VIII Handouts

    Refer to lesson: A Look at Theories: Part II for additional resources and activites at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-look-at-theories-part-ii/

    Refer to lesson No Longer a Teen: Development in Early Adulthood for additional resources and activities.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/no-longer-a-teen-development-in-early-adulthood/

    A. Physical and Cognitive Development

    Adulthood! The long awaited goal of most adolescents has been reached! Most young adults are entering this stage with enthusiasm for their future. Much time is devoted to establishing their independent lives: careers, starting their own families, and expanding social circles.

    • Physical growth is completed in adulthood. Wisdom teeth that fail to come in properly may cause problems for some adults. Peak physical conditions are generally reached between ages 20 and 35 with gradual declines in cardiac output and bone mass beginning to occur at that point. Lung elasticity begins to decrease between 20 and 40 years of age, especially for smokers. Most general declines in abilities are not noticeable for most adults until after age 40, with an exception in the decrease in energy needed (BMR). As the metabolism slows, it becomes easier to gain weight without changing dietary habits. Practicing good health habits of proper nutrition, physical activity, proper amounts of sleep, and non-use of tobacco products will lessen or slow the effects of aging.
    • The reproductive systems are generally at their peak function during early adulthood.
      • Sexual development is as much an issue for young adults as it is for adolescents. “Sexuality is a term that includes anatomy, gender roles, relationships, and thoughts, feelings, and attitudes about sex” (Polan). Young adults must accept their sexuality in order to develop the ability for openness in intimate relationships. Most adults have established patterns of sexual behavior and gender roles by the mid-20s.
    • Cognitive development for adults moves from the dualistic thinking of adolescence to the more flexible thought patterns of adults. Young adults switch emphasis from adding new knowledge to applying the knowledge gained through school and training to their new careers and life experiences.

    B. Nutritional Guidelines

    Refer to the booklet “Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans” at
    http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/

    C. Safety and Wellness

    1. Drugs

    By the time individuals reach this age, many have reduced their use of alcohol and drugs. A recent study showed that only 20 percent of college male students were more likely to take drugs than their female counterparts.

    2. Alcohol

    Two problems associated with drinking are binge-drinking and alcoholism. Binge-drinking can lead to students falling behind in school, drunk driving and having unprotected sex. Binge- drinking peaks at about 21 to 22 years of age and then declines through the remainder of the twenties. One in nine individuals who drink continues the road to alcoholism.

    3. Physical Fitness

    Regular physical activity is one of the most important things you can do for your health. It can help:

    • Control your weight
    • Reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease
    • Reduce your risk for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome
    • Reduce your risk of some cancers
    • Strengthen your bones and muscles
    • Improve your mental health and mood
    • Improve your ability to do daily activities and prevent falls, if you’re an older adult
    • Increase your chances of living longer

    See schedule for recommended immunizations for adults at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/downloads/adult/adult-schedule-easy-read.pdf

    D. Stages of Emotional, Moral, and Social Development

    • Emotional and psychosocial development for young adults is very much connected to their careers. Careers open the door to new social groups, feelings of self-worth and respect, or disappointment and rejection. There is much pressure from the self, family and society at large to be successful, and most young adults expect to move upward in their chosen professions. They are generally optimistic about their ability to do so.

    E. Family and Social Relationships

    • The establishment of home and family is a major task of young adulthood. Most young adults do chose to have meaningful, loving relationships with another person. In the United States, most chose to marry, but many chose to live together. Family sizes have become smaller in the last few decades with most families having only one or two children.
    • Friendships formed in early adulthood are often the friendships that will continue the longest regardless of geographic separations. These relationships are characterized by reciprocity, compatibility, respectability, and proximity. Adult friendships can occur in the home, work, and in the community and are essential in providing the individuals involved with emotional support.
    • Sometimes aging parents are the focus of this type of family. Middle-age has taken on a new image in recent years, partly due to finances. Some sociologists have labeled today’s middle-aged couples as the “sandwich generation.” The couple is often “sandwiched” between caring for their own children and their aging parents.

    F. Societal and Cultural Awareness in Early Adulthood

    • Most young adults have developed the principle and rules by which they will live. Adults are able to develop these rules in relationship to the context of a particular situation. Adults with high morals respect the rights of other individuals. In many families, adults will turn to their religious upbringing to teach their children about religion.

    G. Major Theorists

    Erikson’s Psychosocial Stage: In his sixth stage of his life-span theory Intimacy versus isolation: Adults must form at least one truly intimate relationship. (Ages 19-25)

    Erikson (1968) stated that middle-aged adults face a significant issue – generativity versus stagnation, which is the name Erikson gave to the seventh stage in his life-span theory.

    H. Explanation of Major Theories Using Real World Examples

    Erikson describes intimacy as finding oneself while losing oneself in another person and it requires a commitment to another person. If a person fails to develop an intimate relationship in early adulthood, according to Erikson, isolation results.

    Adult must rear children or perform some other creative act. Adults promote and guide the next generation by parenting, teaching, leading, and doing things that benefit the community.

    I. Critique of Major Theories

    Erikson’s theories are aligned with the way people react with other people. Most people want intimacy, independence, friendships, affection and to be teachers to the next generation.

    J. Use of theory to Predict and Explain Individual and Group Behavior and Guidance Techniques

    Such situations justify for the superficial, almost pitiful attempts of youth to merge themselves with a leader. Many youth want to be novices or supporters of leaders and adults who will shelter them from the harm of the “out-group” world. If this fails – and Erikson points out that it must – sooner or later the individuals retreat into a self-search to realize where they went wrong. This self-examination sometimes leads to agonizing despair and isolation. It also may contribute to a mistrust of others.

    —-

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Module VIII Handouts

    • Civic and Social Groups
    • Cost of Raising a Child
    • Cost of Raising a Child (Key)
    • Developmental Theories Puzzle
    • Double Entry Journal Notes
    • Major Theorists of Biological Development
    • Maslow’s Hierarcy of Needs
    • My Lifestyle and Dream Job
    • My Micro and Meso Systems
    • Recommended Immunizations for Adults
    • Social Media
    • What I’ve Always Wanted to Be

    —-

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • As students enter the classroom distribute and have them complete the handout, What I’ve always wanted to be…. Discuss their answers before the class begins.
    • Distribute the vocabulary words Developmental Theories Puzzle. Allow students to work with a partner to complete activity.
    • Divide students into sub groups of five. Distribute magazines and large sheets of poster paper. Assign one level of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs to each group, who will then create a collage with pictures of people showing the needs of that level. Have students use the markers to title and subtitle, if they wish. Each group will have a shout-out person, responsible for reporting back to the class about the poster collage.
    • Print and distribute to students to read:
    • Distribute the handout My Micro and Meso Systems. In the inner circle, have students add the people in their families (or other close relationships) that touch their lives on a daily basis. These are important two-people relationships. In the outer circle, add the people or entities that are important on a daily or near-daily basis, such as home or school. Discuss these with the class. What are the similarities and differences that are evidenced within the class?

    Resources and References

    Periodicals

    • Mitchell, B.A. (2003) “Life Course Theory,” in J.J. Ponzetti, Jr. (ed). International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, 2nd ed., pp. 1051-1055, New York: Macmillan.
    • Swick, J. and Williams, R. (2006). An Analysis of Bronfenbrenner’s Bio-Ecological Perspective for Early Childhood Educators: Implications for Working with Families Experiencing Stress. Early Childhood Education Journal, Vol. 33, No. 5, April. DOI: 10.1007/s10643-006-0078-y

    Technology

    Textbooks

    • Berk, L. (2008). Infants and children: Prenatal through middle childhood. (6th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Crain, W. (1985). Theories of development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    • Dacey, J., Travers, J., Fiore, L. (2009). Human development across the lifespan. (7th ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies.

    Websites

    YouTube™

    Human Growth and Development: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. At what age do most physical functions peak?

    • a. Peak physical conditions are generally reached between ages 19 and 25 with gradual declines in cardiac output and bone mass beginning to occur at that point.
    • b. Peak physical conditions are generally reached between ages 20 and 40 with gradual declines in cardiac output and bone mass beginning to occur at that point.
    • c. Peak physical conditions are generally reached between ages 20 and 35 with gradual declines in cardiac output and bone mass beginning to occur at that point.
    • d. Peak physical conditions are generally reached between ages 22 and 38 with gradual declines in cardiac output and bone mass beginning to occur at that point.

    2. What is the importance of maintaining good physical condition during early adulthood?

    • a. Practicing good health habits of proper nutrition, physical activity, proper amounts of sleep, and use of tobacco products will stop the effects of aging.
    • b. Practicing good health habits of proper nutrition, physical activity, proper amounts of sleep, and non-use of tobacco products will lessen or slow the effects of aging.
    • c. It will reduce your risk for type 2 diabetes and pre-metabolic symtoms.
    • d. It will open the door to new social groups, feelings of self-worth and respect.

    3. According to Erikson, the major developmental task of young adults is:

    • a. Intimacy versus stagnation: Adults must form at least one truly intimate relationship.
    • b. Intimacy versus isolation: Adults must form at least three truly intimate relationships.
    • c. Intimacy versus generativity: Adults must form at least one truly intimate relationship.
    • d. Intimacy versus isolation: Adults must form at least one truly intimate relationship.

    4. Friendships developed during young adulthood are significant because:

    • a. Adults are able to develop these rules in relationship to the context of a particular situation.
    • b. Friendships formed in early adulthood are often the friendships that will continue the longest regardless of geographic separations.
    • c. Adult friendships can occur in the home, work, and in the community and are essential in providing the individuals involved with financial support.
    • d. None of the above

    5. Binge drinking peaks at about:

    • a. 31 to 42 years of age and then declines through the remainder of the fourties. One in nine individuals who drink continues the road to alcoholism.
    • b. 21 to 32 years of age and then declines through the remainder of the thirties. One in nine individuals who drink continues the road to alcoholism.
    • c. 21 to 22 years of age and then declines through the remainder of the twenties. One in nine individuals who drink continues the road to alcoholism.
    • d. 21 to 22 years of age and then declines through the remainder of the twenties. One in seven individuals who drink continues the road to alcoholism.

  • IX. Forty to Sixty-Five

    MP900443188

    TEKS Addressed:

    (9) The student understands the development of adults ages 40 through 65 years. The student is expected to:

    • (A) analyze various development theories relating to middle adults, including biological and cognitive development
    • (B) analyze various development theories relating to middle adults, including emotional, moral, and psychosocial development
    • (C) discuss the influences of society and culture on middle adults
    • (D) discuss the importance of family, human relationships, and social interaction for middle adults

    Module Content

    Forty to Sixty-Five is the nineth module in the Human Growth and Development course. This section contains nine units of study that include:

    • A. Physical and cognitive development
    • B. Safety and wellness
      • 1. Nutrition
      • 2. Physical fitness
    • C. Stages of emotional, moral, and social development
    • D. Family and social relationships
    • E. Societal and cultural awareness in late adulthood
    • F. Major theorists
    • G. Explanation of major theories using real world examples
    • H. Critique of major theories
    • I. Use of theory to predict and explain individual and group behavior and guidance techniques


    Module IX Handouts

    Refer to lesson A Look at Theories: Part II for additional resources and activites.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-look-at-theories-part-ii/

    Refer to lesson Life in the Middle: Understanding Development in Middle Adulthood for additional resources and activites.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/life-in-the-middle-understanding-development-in-middle-adulthood/

    A. Physical and Cognitive Development

    Physical Development

    Genetic and lifestyle elements play significant roles in whether long-lasting diseases will appear and when. Physical development for middle adults is most noticeable in changes in hearing and vision, as both begin to decline. Most middle adults begin to lose a small amount of height as well. Signs of aging are the other hallmark of physical development in the middle years. However, research shows that proper nutrition and physical activity can slow the effects of aging considerably. Arthritis is the leading chronic disorder in middle age. They also can reduce much of the risk of physical illnesses associated with middle adulthood, such as cardiovascular disease and cancers. In middle adulthood, chronic diseases contributed to the majority of deaths in this age group. Most women will go through the process of menopause between the ages of 42 and 55, marking the end of fertility. Women will experience a range of side effects during this period including, changes in menstrual cycle, hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and sleep disturbances.

    Cognitive Development

    John Horn claimed that crystallized intelligence (gathered information and verbal skills) continues to escalate in middle adulthood, though fluid intelligence (ability to reason abstractly) begins to weaken. The maximum level of four intellectual abilities (vocabulary, verbal memory, inductive reasoning, and spatial orientation) ensued in middle age. Speed of information dispensed, often assessed through response time, continues to drop in middle adulthood. Working memory wanes in late middle age. Memory is more likely to decline in middle age when individuals do not use active strategies. Expertise often surges in the middle adulthood years. Adults in their 40s and 50s are still very capable of mental tasks and have years of experience to complement their knowledge. It may be slightly more difficult to learn new things, but the ability to perform tasks with knowledge already learned is as strong as ever.

    B. Safety and Wellness

    1. Nutrition

    The USDA Food Patterns suggest that people over 50 keep an eye on calories while choosing a variety of healthy foods from five major food groups and limiting solid fats and added sugars. Calories are the way to measure the energy you get from food. How many calories you need depends on whether you are a man or a woman and how physically active you are each day.

    According to the National Institute of Aging, here are some tips for getting adequate nutrients:

    • Eat many different colors and types of vegetables and fruits.
    • Make sure at least half of the grains are whole grains.
    • Eat only small amounts of solid fats and foods with added sugars. Limit saturated fat (found mostly in foods that come from animals) and trans fats (found in foods like store-bought baked goods and some margarines)
    • Eat seafood twice a week.
      - See more at: http://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/healthy-eating-after-50#sthash.vn5X3MlI.dpuf

    Obesity is a problem throughout the population. However, among adults, the prevalence is highest for middle-aged people and for non-Hispanic black and Mexican American women.

    View the YouTube™ video, “Nutrition for the Middle Aged Adult” at http://youtu.be/FXf-rfIU9Wk

    2. Physical fitness

    As you grow older, if you continue eating the same types and amounts of food but do not become more active, you will probably gain weight. That’s because your metabolism (how your body gets energy from food) slows with age. See more at: http://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/whats-your-plate-smart-food-choices-healthy-aging/healthy-lifestyle-next-step#sthash.ciM27MGZ.dpuf

    How much physical activity? Although any amount of regular physical activity is good for you, aim for at least 150 minutes of physical activity each week. Unless you are already that active, you won’t do that much all at once—10-minute sessions several times a day on most days are fine. People over age 65 should be as physically active as their abilities and conditions will allow. Doing anything is better than doing nothing at all.

    See schedule for recommended immunizations for adults at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/downloads/adult/adult-schedule-easy-read.pdf

    C. Stages of Emotional, Moral, and Social Development

    • The suicide rate among older Texans (over age 55) is higher than the rate among younger age groups. In 2007, the latest year in which comparable national data were available, 649 Texans over age 55 committed suicide.
    • Binge drinkers are more likely to take risks like driving while intoxicated, and to experience falls and other accidents. Older people have less tolerance for alcohol. Texas males age 50-64 reported binge drinking while more than 13 percent of those in the 65+ group reported similar behavior.
    • A new survey finds that adults aged 45 and over are more than three times as likely to drink alcohol almost every day as those under 45. This could mean that the middle aged population is ignoring the serious health risks associated with excessive drinking.
    • The encumbrance and health costs related with binge drinking among middle-aged and elderly adults seem to be a disturbing public health issue. Consequently, the problem of binge drinking among older adults indicates the need for reinforced global prevention.
    • Nationally, illicit drug use has nearly tripled among 50-59 year old adults since 2002. In the 50-54 year age group, the rate rose from 2.7 to 6.2 percent. The rate rose from 1.9 to 5.4 percent in the 55-59 year age group. According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), “These patterns and trends partially reflect the aging into these age groups of members of the baby boom cohort, whose rates of illicit drug use have been higher than those of older cohorts.”

    D. Family and Social Relationships

    • Many people have heard the term “midlife crisis,” however, there is little scientific research that supports it’s existence. Emotional development for middle age is generally centered around new family roles as the children begin to establish their independence. Some couples enjoy a second honeymoon period or “empty nest syndrome” in which they rediscover their relationship. This period can be more difficult for women, especially if they had a more traditional role of homemaker. Some families who delayed marriage and childbearing, will still have young children at home during the middle adult years. Others will become grandparents. Many middle-aged adults begin caring for their own aging parents as well.

    E. Societal and Cultural Awareness in Late Adulthood

    • Texas is home to more than 25 million people. Of these, more than 7 million (about 28 percent) are over age 50. Nearly 4 million (more than 15 percent) are over age 60, and nearly 2 million (more than 7 percent) are over age 70. The U.S. Census Bureau estimates that more than 20 percent of Texas’s population will be over age 60 by the year 2030, an increase of close to 25 percent from 2012.
    • More than 4,000 older Texans (age 50+) were admitted to substance abuse treatment in state funded facilities in 2009, a rate of approximately 32 per 100,000 age 50 plus. This rate was lower than both the regional and national averages.
    • While older Texas males were more likely to indulge in binge drinking, females were more likely to report that they had frequent mental distress (14 days or more per 30 day period).
    • Older Americans who experienced frequent mental distress were more likely to report that their physical health was poor or fair (as opposed to good, very good or excellent).
    • Older Americans who experience frequent mental distress, such as symptoms of depression or anxiety, are more likely to report that they had chronic health problems.
    • Another concern for most middle-aged adults is establishing their financial security for retirement. During these years of peak earnings, the strain of paying for children’s college, or parent’s health care and or living arrangements can disrupt plans for retirement savings. Moral and psychosocial development centers around improving the welfare of others.
    F. Major Theorists

    Erikson (1968) stated that middle-aged adults face a significant issue – generativity versus stagnation, which is the name Erikson gave to the seventh stage in his life-span theory. Adults must rear children or perform some other creative act. Adults promote and guide the next generation by parenting, teaching, leading, and doing things that benefit the community.

    G. Explanation of Major Theories Using Real World Examples

    Family members usually sustain interaction across generations. Mothers and daughters have the closest relationships. The middle-aged generation, which has been called the “sandwich” or “squeezed” generation, plays an important role in connecting generations.

    H. Critique of Major Theories

    Research supports Erikson’s theory that generativity is an important factor in middle-age. People enjoy feeling needed by people, they are needed in their community, show appreciation and awareness of older adults and have interests beyond the family life.

    I. Use of theory to Predict and Explain Individual and Group Behavior and Guidance Techniques

    For many people, midlife is a time of consideration, valuation, and assessment of their existing work and what they propose to do in the future. One important concern is whether individuals will continue to do the type of work they presently do or change jobs or careers.

    —-

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Module IX Handouts

    • Double Entry Journal Notes
    • Filmstrip Sequencing Activity
    • How Old Do You Think I Am
    • How Things Have Changed – The Impact of Technology
    • Imagine Who Your Friends Will Be
    • Interview: Common Family Situation in Middle Adulthood
    • Jobs and Technology
    • KWHL Chart – Developments in Middle Adulthood
    • Memory – How Good Is Yours
    • Recommended Immunizations for Adults
    • The Sandwich Generation

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    Resources and References

    Textbooks:

    • Berk, L. (2008). Infants and children: Prenatal through middle childhood. (6th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Crain, W. (1985). Theories of development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    • Dacey, J., Travers, J., Fiore, L. (2009). Human development across the lifespan. (7th ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies.

    Websites:

    YouTube™

    —-

    Human Growth and Development: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Most women will experience what major milestone during middle adulthood?

    • a. They reduce their workload.
    • b. Memory is more likely to increase in middle-age when individuals do not use active strategies.
    • c. Most women will go through the process of menopause between the ages of 42 and 55, marking the end of fertility.
    • d. Women who experienced frequent mental distress were less likely to report that their physical health is affected.

    2. How does the “empty nest” affect most middle-aged couples?

    • a. This period can be more difficult for women, especially if they had a more traditional role of homemaker.
    • b. Some couples enjoy a second honeymoon period.
    • c. Some couples start to resent each other and are very lonely.
    • d. A and B

    3. As you grow older, if you continue eating the same types and amounts of food but do not become more active, you will probably gain weight. This is because:

    • a. your metabolism (how your body gets energy from food) slows with age.
    • b. your methodical processes slows with age.
    • c. of the increased processed agents in food.
    • d. A and C

    4. One concern that many middle adults have is planning for:

    • a. a lavish vacation.
    • b. retirement.
    • c. purchasing homes for their children.
    • d. filling their empty days with minimal work.

    5. Erikson (1968) stated that middle-aged adults face a significant issue –___________________ , which is the name Erikson gave to the seventh stage in his life-span theory.

    • a. generativity versus stamina
    • b. generativity versus stagnation
    • c. generic versus stagnation
    • d. moral versus psychosocial development

  • X. Sixty-Six Plus

    Family Portrait

    TEKS Addressed:

    (10) The student understands the development of adults ages 66 years and older. The student is expected to:

    • (A) analyze various development theories relating to those within the stage of late adulthood, including biological and cognitive development
    • (B) analyze various development theories relating to those within the stage of late adulthood, including emotional, moral, and psychosocial development
    • (C) discuss the influences of society and culture on those within the stage of late adulthood
    • (D) discuss the importance of family, human relationships, and social interaction for those within the stage of late adulthood

    Module Content

    Sixty-Six Plus is the tenth module in the Human Growth and Development course. This section contains nine units of study that include:

    • A. Physical and cognitive development
    • B. Safety and wellness
      • 1. Nutrition
      • 2. Physical fitness
    • C. Stages of emotional, moral, and social development
    • D. Family and social relationships
    • E. Societal and cultural awareness in late adulthood
    • F. Major theorists
    • G. Explanation of major theories using real world examples
    • H. Critique of major theories
    • I. Use of theory to predict and explain individual and group behavior and guidance techniques


    Module X Handouts

    Refer to lesson A Look at Theories: Part II for additional resources and activities.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-look-at-theories-part-ii/

    Refer to lesson Rewards and Challenges: Development in Late Adulthood for addtional resources and activities.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/rewards-and-challenges-development-in-late-adulthood/

    A. Physical and Cognitive Development

    Physical Development

    The Social Security Administration defines old age as individuals who are 65 years of age or older. Old age is usually divided into three periods:

    • the young old, ages 65 to 74
    • the old, ages 75 to 90
    • the very old, ages 90 and older

    Within each of those age divisions is a broad range of individuals with very different abilities and health status. The elderly are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population. In 2003, 1 in 8 Americans were over the age of 65. By 2030, approximately 22% of the population will be over 65 (Polan).

    Fortunately, changes in physical appearance related to aging occur gradually and offer the opportunity to adjust as they happen. As couples grow old together, their roles may change significantly. Illness often causes changes in the role of nurse or caregiver. Retirement can also be a source of stress or conflict as couples adjust to being in each other’s presence more during the day.

    Cognitive Development

    In late adulthood, cognitive development is measured most often in terms of memory, and more specifically memory loss. Working (short-term) memory is the type of memory that is most affected by age. Older adults can generally process and analyze data just as well as they did in their younger years only if they can control the rate and number of forms the data is presented in. Long-term memory is generally less affected by age. In fact, most older people have an easier time remembering events that occurred earlier in life than what they had for breakfast this morning.

    Cognitive development is influenced by several factors: genetics, education, socioeconomics, and health status. Sensory loss can often appear as memory loss, as it appears to interfere with concentration and focus. Maintaining good physical condition through nutrition and physical activity as well as practicing mental exercises can help reduce memory losses.

    B, Safety and Wellness

    1. Nutrition

    Most nutritionists recommend a well-balanced, low-fat diet for older adults. They do not recommend an extremely low-calorie diet. Some researchers question whether vitamin supplements – especially the antioxidants can slow the aging process and improve older adult’s health. Researchers have found a link between taking B vitamins and positive cognitive performance in older adults.

    Two aspects of under nutrition in older adults, especially interested researchers:

    • vitamin and mineral deficiency
    • the role of calorie restriction in improving health and extending life

    According to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), the Eat Smart, Live Strong project is designed to improve fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity among able-bodied, 60-74 year-olds. Participants in or eligible for Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) nutrition assistance programs are included. The intervention is designed to help nutrition educators working with FNS programs and in communities deliver science-based nutrition education to the growing number of low-income older adults.

    The intervention focuses on two key messages of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and utilizes a variety of behavior-focused strategies to promote these behaviors:

    • eat at least 3 ½ cups of fruit and vegetable per day (1 ½ cups of fruits and 2 cups of vegetables)
    • participate in at least 30 minutes of physical activity most days of the week

    A kit to assist your students in presenting this information as a service learning project, can be found at
    http://snap.nal.usda.gov/resource-library/eat-smart-live-strong-nutrition-education-older-adults/eat-smart-live-strong

    The Activity Kit promotes behavior change by involving participants in interactive education and skill-building sessions that allow them to use nutrition skills and practice physical activity exercises. The Kit contains:

    • A Leader’s Guide
    • Four Interactive Sessions
    • Ready to Go Participant Handouts
    • Marketing Flyers

    Read the project overview at http://snap.nal.usda.gov/snap/ESLS/ProjectOverview.pdf

    2. Physical fitness

    The physical benefits of exercise have clearly been demonstrated in older adults. Aerobic exercise and weight lifting are both recommended if the adults are physically capable of them.

    Declines in mobility, sight, hearing, and depth perception may require older adults to seek living assistance. Read
    10 Warning Signs Your Older Family Member May Need Help at http://www.eldercare.gov/ELDERCARE.NET/Public/Resources/Factsheets/Ten_Warning_Signs.aspx

    See schedule for recommended immunizations for adults at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/downloads/adult/adult-schedule-easy-read.pdf

    In addition, due to a decline in mobility, sight, hearing, and depth perception, older adults may need home modifications. Home modifications are changes made to adapt living spaces to meet the needs of people with physical limitations so that they can continue to live independently and safely. Read about Home Modifications at http://www.eldercare.gov/ELDERCARE.NET/Public/Resources/Factsheets/Home_Modifications.aspx

    C. Stages of Emotional, Moral, and Social Development

    Emotional, moral, and psychosocial development for older adults is described by Erikson’s 8th stage called ego integrity. Those who develop ego integrity will have a sense of general satisfaction in the culmination of the events of their lives. They will be able to say that overall, they have been successful and happy. This allows the older adult to adjust to changes in body image, family roles, work and leisure, sexuality and facing the inevitability of death.

    D. Family and Social Relationships

    As humans grow old, they begin to come face to face with the prospect of death. Each year will bring the loss of friends and family. Many older adults seek comfort in their spiritual beliefs and religious community both to find solace and prepare for their own deaths. Reaching out to friends and family to resolve past conflicts often provides relief from guilt. Making legal preparations can also relieve stress both with the older adult and their family members.

    E. Societal and Cultural Awareness in Late Adulthood

    • Widowhood is a highly significant life change. Loneliness and decline in income are two major concerns at this time. Women are more likely to be the surviving spouse. With time and support, they can recover to lead independent lives after the death of their spouse.
    • Retirement, while long-awaited, brings challenges to the older adult. Health status is the best indicator of how well an older person will adjust to the changes retirement brings. Proper financial planning, social support and good self-concept contribute to successful retirement.
    • Although it is often difficult for younger people to understand or contemplate, most older adults are able to continue to enjoy a sexual relationship with their partners. The physical intimacy and warmth are necessary not only for the health of the relationship, but for the self-concept of the individuals as well.

    Influences of society and culture have a great impact on the health and welfare of the elderly due to ethnic variations and language barriers. A dramatic shift in immigration patterns has led to a diverse population. In 2003, the major source of income for those over 65 was Social Security and the median income was $20,363 for men and $11,845 for women (Polan). About 10% of the elderly were classified as living below the poverty level. Importance of family, relationships, and social interactions during old age can reduce or eliminate the effects of isolation and despair. Grandparenting can be a great help to widows and widowers who are adjusting to life without their partners or older adults who are adjusting to the loss of work identity. Ageism, however, can increase negative feelings and experiences during old age.

    According to U.S. Department of Labor division of Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP), it enhances employment opportunities for unemployed older Americans. It also promotes them as a solution for businesses seeking trained, qualified, and reliable employees. Older workers are a valuable resource for the 21st century workforce, and SCSEP is committed to providing high-quality job training and employment assistance to participants. They have an extensive network of service providers in every county in the United States. Refer to the website for additional information
    http://www.doleta.gov/seniors/

    F. Major Theorists

    Biological Development in late adulthood is generally observed in the effects of aging on the body and how they influence life expectancy. There are several theories:

    • Evolutionary Theory: This theory states that natural selection has not excluded many damaging circumstances and nonadaptive characteristics in older adults; therefore the aids discussed by evolutionary theory drop with age because natural selection is related to reproductive ability.
    • Cellular Clock Theory: Cells have an internal clock that is genetically programmed to stop dividing after a certain number of reproductions.
    • Free-Radical Theory: Highly unstable molecules produced by metabolism react with our cells and cause mutations. These mutations cause cells to break down.
    • Mitochondrial Theory: The theory that aging is caused by the decay of mitochondria; tiny cellular bodies that supply energy for function, growth, and repair.
    • Hormonal Stress Theory: The theory that aging in the body’s hormonal system can lower resistance to stress and increase the likelihood of disease.

    G. Explanation of Major Theories Using Real World Examples

    Evolutionary Theory: Consider Alzheimer disease, an irreversible brain disorder, which does not appear until the late middle adulthood or late adulthood years. In evolutionary theory, if Alzheimer disease occurred when we were first developed, it may have been eliminated many centuries ago. If the disease were to attack 20-year-olds, maybe natural selection would been eliminated it eons ago.

    Cellular clock theory is Leonard Hayflick’s theory. He believed that cells can divide a maximum of about 75 to 80 times. As we age, our cells become less capable of dividing.

    With free radical theory, though cleanup systems within cells exist, the damage is cumulative over time. Mitochondria, the engines of cell metabolism, are thought to play a central role because of the disproportionate free radicals they produce. The damage can lead to a range of disorders including cancer and arthritis.

    Mitochondrial Theory – After repeated injury, cells wear out and cease to function. This decay is due to oxidative damage and loss of critical micronutrients supplied by the cell.

    Cellular clock, free-radical, and mitochondrial theories attempt to explain aging at the cellular level. Hormonal stress theory argues that aging in the body’s hormonal system can lower resistance to stress and increase the likelihood of disease.

    H. Critique of Major Theories

    The evolutionary theory is said to have limitations, weaknesses, and critics. Albert Bandura (1998) rejected what he called “one-sided evolutionism,” which sees social behavior as the product of evolved biology.

    The cellular clock theory can be seen in menopausal women or life threatening diseases like cancer. Specific immunity cells decline in number and how well they function with age. This leaves the body more vulnerable to life-threatening diseases like cancer.

    With the free-radical theory, overeating is linked with an increase in free radicals, and researchers recently have found that calorie restriction reduces the oxidative damage created by free radicals.

    Researchers believe that the damage by free radicals initiates a self-perpetuating cycle in which oxidation damage can occur in the cells.

    As people age, their hormonal stressors remain at elevated levels longer than when they were younger. These long, elevated levels of stress-related hormones have been connected to increased risks of certain diseases.

    I. Use of theory to Predict and Explain Individual and Group Behavior and Guidance Techniques

    The evolutionary theory is often misunderstood. Evolution occurs in a gene pool over the course of generations. Thus, individual organisms do not evolve, in the sense of biological evolution. Evolutionary changes are those which affect distinct populations of organisms which constitute a gene pool. If these changes are heritable and passed along, it can be said that this population has evolved. This is why parents with brown eyes might have children with brown eyes but have grandchildren with blue eyes. Evolution is about the changes that happen when life exists and makes no claims about where life may or may not have come from.

    Based on the ways cells divide, Hayflick places the upper limit of the human life-span potential at about 120 to 125 years of age. This will limit the body’s ability to regenerate and to respond to injury or stress. This is one reason why older adults experience more intense injuries and perhaps broken bones.

    The theory that free radicals — the toxic byproducts of cell metabolism or oxidation — are responsible for damaging DNA and therefore a cause of cell death. First proposed in the 1950s, this theory has led to the belief that consuming antioxidants in food would counteract this process.

    Due to the damage of the decay of cells by oxidative damage and the loss of critical micronutrients supplied by the cell, this is linked to cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease and decline in liver functioning.

    In older adults, elevated levels of stress are longer lasting than when they were younger. These long, elevated levels of stress-related hormones have been connected to increased risks of certain diseases. Disease include cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension. This has also been linked to older adults experiencing a decline in immune system functioning.

    —-

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Module X Handouts

    • KWHL Chart – Developments in Late Adulthood
    • Major Theorists for Biological Development
    • PACE Brochure – Retirement Planning for Boomers and Beyond
    • Recommended Immunizations for Adults
    • Rewards and Challenges in Late Adulthood Assessments
    • Rubric for Oral Presentation – Late Adulthood
    • Senior Living Options
    • Sensory Changes in Late Adulthood
    • Slide Presentation Notes
    • Stay in Touch in Crisis Situations
    • What is Trending in Late Adulthood
    • Who are Your Grandparents

    Every Education and Training program is different. Below is a list of activities you can use or adapt to meet the needs of your Human Growth and Development students.

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Interview your parents or grandparents. Develop 5 – 7 questions to ask them about their life course. How do their answers compare to Bronfenbrenner’s Bio-Ecological Theory and Elder’s Life Course Theory?
    • Create a reference list for “end of life” decisions.
    • Learn the requirements for Living Wills/Directive to Physicians, Powers of Attorney, and other documents.
    • Invite a panel of guests (an older adult, lawyer, medical professional, funeral home director) to discuss planning for illness and death.
    • Have students discuss illness and death as they have experienced it and prepare questions for the guest panel.
    • Students may wish to volunteer at a Senior Center as they learn about the ages and stages in older age. Older students with drivers’ licenses may wish to help with a food delivery service, such as Meals on Wheels.
    • Use the Bronfenbrenner Quizlet website for extra credit. Includes flash cards, study help, online quiz, and games. Urie Bronfenbrenner Credited with the Ecological Theory
      http://quizlet.com/16271721/bronfenbrenner-flash-cards/
    • Discuss Bronfenbrenner’s Bio-Ecological Systems Theory. Use Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory YouTube™ video: http://youtu.be/fXqcYXTgpB4?list=PLCA4ED379AEC83CB3
    • Develop and talk about the value of physical activity. Students have the option of leading participants at a nursing home through several simple exercises at the beginning and end of each session.
    • Have students read the PACE Retirement Planning for Boomers and Beyond at http://www.eldercare.gov/ELDERCARE.NET/Public/Resources/Brochures/docs/PACE_Brochure.pdf
    • Analyze the chart Recommended Immunizations for Adults.
    • Create scenarios for crisis situtations using Stay in Touch in Crisis Situations.

    Resources and References

    Periodicals

    • Swick, J. and Williams, R. (2006). An Analysis of Bronfenbrenner’s Bio-Ecological Perspective for Early Childhood Educators: Implications for Working with Families Experiencing Stress. Early Childhood Education Journal, Vol. 33, No. 5, April. DOI: 10.1007/s10643-006-0078-y

    Textbooks:

    • Berk, L. (2008). Infants and children: Prenatal through middle childhood. (6th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Crain, W. (1985). Theories of Development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    • Dacey, J., Travers, J., Fiore, L. (2009). Human development across the lifespan. (7th ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies.

    Websites:

    YouTube™

    —-

    Human Growth and Development: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Older adults can generally process and analyze data just as well as they did in their younger years only if they can ____________ the rate and number of forms the data is presented in.

    • a. determine
    • b. control
    • c. process
    • d. associate

    2. Some researchers question whether vitamin supplements – especially the antioxidants can _______ the aging process and improve older adult’s health.

    • a. damage
    • b. repair
    • c. change
    • d. slow

    3. Emotional, moral, and psychosocial development for older adults is described by ___________ 8th stage called ego integrity.

    • a. Freud’s
    • b. Erikson’s
    • c. Maslow’s
    • d. Bentley’s

    4. According to U.S. Department of Labor division of ____________________ (SCSEP), it enhances employment opportunities for unemployed older Americans and promotes them as a solution for businesses seeking trained, qualified, and reliable employees.

    • a. Senior Community Substance Employment Program
    • b. Senior Community Service Employment Program
    • c. Senior Community Service Employment Providers
    • d. Senior Community Service Empowerment Program

    5. ________________: This theory states that natural selection has not excluded many damaging circumstances and nonadaptive characteristics in older adults; therefore the aids discussed by evolutionary theory drop with age because natural selection is related to reproductive ability.

    • a. Hormonal Stress Theory
    • b. Evolutionary Theory
    • c. Cellular Clock Theory
    • d. Free-Radical Theory

  • XI. Career Preparation

    MP900438475

    TEKS Addressed:

    (11) The student understands the skills necessary for career preparation. The student is expected to:

    • (A) demonstrate skills, characteristics and responsibilities of leaders and effective team members
    • (B) demonstrate effective methods and obligations for securing, maintaining and terminating employment
    • (C) practice human relation skills
    • (D) demonstrate effective verbal, non-verbal, written and electronic communication skills

    Module Content

    Career Preparation is the eleventh module in the Human Growth and Development course. This section contains nine units of study that include:

    • A. Synthesizing multiple sources of information
    • B. Strategies for effective human relationship and communication skills
    • C. Careers found in the Education and Training Cluster
    • D. Exploring career descriptions
    • E. Job skills and responsibilities
    • F. Work ethic
    • G. Advancement opportunities
    • H. Salary and fringe benefits
    • I. Impact on lifestyle

    Module XI Handouts

    Synthesizing Multiple Sources of Information

    Writing a solid investigated paper requires the ability to synthesize—or conglomerate components of numerous sources—to help you make an argument or point. Synthesize is a tool to bring together certain subjects or characters that you perceive in numerous texts and rearranging the material according to characters or subjects which are focused by your paper. We synthesize information logically to assist others to see the relations between subjects. Synthesis is connected to, but not similar as, grouping, dissection, or distinction and difference. Instead of only joining to different groups and trying to discover some sort of resemblance or modification, synthesizing is a matter of drawing numerous foundations together into some kind of accord. It is the capability to pool clearly and articulately the thoughts of more than one basis with your own.

    Strategies for Effective Human Relationship and Communication Skills

    More than ever, because of many societal changes, support for family and community involvement in schools is critical for the success of students. It is also important to value input from communities so schools can prepare students with the skills and abilities they will need as business and community leaders for the future.

    Communication with parents should occur frequently, not just when there are problems. Parents need information, positive reinforcement about their children, and the feeling that they can go to the school for support.

    There are many ways to get in touch with parents. At the beginning of school, it is a good idea to ask parents what will work best for them. Do they want emails, texts, post cards or letters? Do they have Internet service and computers or do they expect the student to bring notes to them?

    The types of communications and ways to send them home will depend on the ages of the students. Calendars of school activities and newsletters may be helpful. Many schools use signs outside the school to announce school events. Small communities effectively use local newspapers. Facebook and Twitter work for parents who use social media.

    Parent Conferences

    When meeting with parents in conferences, teachers should make the parents feel comfortable and welcome. It is necessary to schedule the conference at a time when parents can come.

    Planning and Preparing for a Parent Conference

    • Plan ahead and be prepared
    • Provide documentation of student work
    • Obtain a translator if necessary
    • Accent the positive
    • Give families a chance to talk
    • Be calm, attentive, and positive
    • Listen
    • Use I-statements
    • Ask what they think will help and what they think you could do to help
    • Help the parents know that you are a part of a team with them to help their child
    • Develop an action plan, what are we going to do?
    • End on a positive note
    • Write comments from the conference down for a record
    • Follow-up on the plan in a few days or weeks

    Depending on the age of the students, it may be appropriate for students to also attend the conference. For more information about communicating with parents, refer to Practicum in Education and Training lesson Communicating With Parents at http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/communicating-with-parents/

    Careers Found in the Education and Training Cluster

    The Achieve Texas Education and Training guide can be a valuable tool to determine careers found in the Education and Training Cluster. According to Achieve Texas, there are three specific areas:

    • Teaching and Training
      • Corporate Trainer
      • Early Childhood Educator
      • Teacher
    • Professional Support Services
      • Education Counselor
    • Administration and Administrative Support
      • Education Administrator

    More information concerning Career Clusters Programs of Study Models can be found at
    http://www.achievetexas.org/Education.htm

    Exploring Career Descriptions

    • Teaching and Training
      • Corporate Trainer – Human resources specialists recruit, screen, interview, and place workers. They also may handle human resources work in a variety of other areas, such as employee relations, payroll and benefits, and training.
      • Early Childhood Educator – Preschool teachers educate and care for children, usually ages 3 to 5, who have not yet entered kindergarten. They explain reading, writing, science, and other subjects in a way that young children can understand.
      • Teacher – Kindergarten and elementary school teachers prepare younger students for future schooling by teaching them the basics of subjects such as math and reading. Middle school teachers educate students, most of whom are in sixth through eighth grades. They help students build on the fundamentals they learned in elementary school and prepare them for the more difficult lessons they will learn in high school. High school teachers help prepare students for life after graduation. They teach academic lessons and various skills that students will need to attend college and to enter the job market.
    • Professional Support Services
      • Education Counselor – School counselors help students develop social skills and succeed in school. Career counselors assist people with the process of making career decisions by helping them choose a career or educational program.
    • Administration and Administrative Support
      • Education Administrator – Elementary, middle, and high school principals lead teachers and other members of school staff. They manage the day-to-day operations of elementary, middle, and high schools. They set goals and objectives and evaluate their school’s progress toward meeting them.

    Job Skills and Responsibilities

    SCANS (Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) examined what demands the workplace had for employees and whether or not students were prepared to meet those demands upon entering the workforce. The Commission was asked to:

    • Define skills needed for employment
    • Propose acceptable levels of proficiency
    • Suggest ways to asses proficiency
    • Develop a way to disseminate the information to schools, businesses, and homes in the US
      The results were the development of a 52 page report entitled, What Work Requires of Schools: a SCANS Report for America 2000, published in June, 1991. The Commission determined 5 competencies along with 3 foundation skills and personal qualities that are necessary for success in the workplace.
      The Competencies are:
    • Resources – The ability to use time, money, materials, space and staff.
    • Interpersonal Skills – The ability to work on teams, teach others, serve customers, lead, negotiate, and work with people from culturally diverse backgrounds.
    • Information – The ability to acquire and evaluate data, organize and maintain files, interpret and communicate, and use computers to process information.
    • Systems – The ability to understand social, organizational, and technological systems, monitor and correct performance, and design or improve systems.
    • Technology – The ability to select equipment and tools, apply technology to specific tasks, and maintain and troubleshoot technologies.

    The Foundation (states that competence requires):

    • Basic Skills – reading, writing, arithmetic and mathematics, speaking and listening.
    • Thinking Skills – Thinking creatively, making decisions, solving problems, seeing things in the mind’s eye, knowing how to learn, and reasoning.
    • Personal Qualities – Individual responsibility, self-esteem, sociability, self-management and integrity.
      Incorporating these ideals into career preparation will enhance the students understanding of why they must learn these things in school. Teachers are always taught that a good lesson plan begins with the objectives. If education leads to higher skilled, higher paying jobs, then the number one objective of every single lesson should be how this will help the student find that employment!

    Once students understand what will be expected of them in the workplace they can begin the process of finding employment. The job market is one of the most competitive markets in the world today. Recent economic events have given most employers a wealth of employees to choose from. However, many companies are still doing more with less when it comes to the number of people they can afford to hire. Gone are the days when you find an advertisement in the local newspaper and mail in your résumé and cover letter.

    Many people select a career based on what is available in their area, their parents’ recommendations, or what their friends are doing. While these can be factors in choosing a career, they should not be the primary motivation. Knowing what types of jobs are best suited to a person’s personality, goals and values, interests, and aptitudes is the first step in selecting a career. Researching different industries and the careers they provide will open new opportunities to the job seeker.

    Finding employment begins with knowing where to look. Networking is still the primary method of finding jobs for most. Online job boards, company websites, placement services, are all useful tools during job searches. Having a good résumé and cover letter will be essential to gaining employment.

    The job interview is one of the most stressful moments during a job search. The better prepared the interviewee is, the more manageable that stress becomes. Researching the company and the position will help to prepare a list of questions to ask during the interview. Dressing appropriately for the interview is a must as is arriving on time. It is also helpful to have someone ask common interview questions to practice responding.

    Employability Skills

    • 1. Effective communication skills
    • 2. Effective team members
    • 3. Ethics
    • 4. Leadership
    • 5. Problem solving
    • 6. Technical skills
    • Effective communication skills are important because teachers must be able to talk with parents and colleagues about the progress of the children in their care. They need both good writing and speaking skills to provide this information effectively.
    • Effective team members have people skills. Teachers need to work well with people to develop good relationships with parents, children, and colleagues. Working with children can be physically taxing, so teachers should have a lot of energy.
    • Ethics should address professional responsibilities in four areas: children, families, colleagues, and community and society.
    • Leadership includes having instructional skills. Teachers need to be able to explain things in terms young children can understand.
    • Problem-solving skills include patience. Working with children can be frustrating, so teachers need to be able to respond to overwhelming and difficult situations calmly.
    • Technical skills are important. According to the Fred Rogers Center study “Technology in the Lives of Teachers and Classrooms: Survey of Classroom Teachers and Family Child Care Providers,” most teachers and providers have access to and are comfortable using technology with the children in their settings.

    Work Ethic

    Once hired, it is important to maintain professional behavior. The number one reason employers fire workers, is their inability to get along with their co-workers. Getting to work on time and doing a good job are also expected. Most companies allow or even provide additional training for their employees and it is usually advantageous to participate in such programs.

    Occasionally, it is necessary to change jobs. Usually an employee finds a job that he or she believes will be better for him or her. When this occurs it is important to give the current employer time to find and train a replacement. It is standard practice to give at least two week’s notice. However, it is sometimes necessary for an employer to dismiss an employee. When this is a result of financial cutbacks, a layoff, it is easier to understand. If the employee knows he was not performing the job duties well, he usually knows that he is going to be fired. But occasionally, it is a shock to the employee that they are being let go. When this occurs, it is best for the employee to regroup, examine their work performance, and move on.

    Advancement Opportunities

    In the United States according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, schools employ millions of teachers, including 1.6 million elementary school teachers. School districts must provide opportunities for advancement in order to retain good teachers. Teachers must also look at ways and avenues to advance their careers. Knowing what possibilities are available could open doors for teachers to gain greater professional satisfaction and higher pay.

    Extended Teaching Roles

    School districts and schools sometimes pay teachers more to develop curriculum resources and to serve as model teachers who share lesson plans and teaching techniques with less experienced and less successful teachers. A mentor is a teacher who is willing to share her or his expertise and knowledge with a new colleague.

    Department Head

    Some teachers who display leadership qualities and a strong understanding of their subject areas may become heads of their departments. Some schools hire individuals who serve only as administrative department heads, but many school districts select teachers to serve in dual roles as teacher and department head.

    School Administrator

    Teachers who wish to advance in their careers also may choose to leave the classroom and take jobs as school administrators. Schools employ principals, vice-principals, athletic directors, Special Education directors, CTE directors, and guidance counselors. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, most administrators gain understanding as classroom teachers and advance to administrative positions.

    Professorship

    Colleges and universities are moving away from tenure-track positions and toward adjunct and part-time positions. As a result, there is a lot of competition for tenure-track positions. Still, opportunities should be available for part-time or adjunct professors.

    In addition, a number of post-secondary teachers are expected to retire every year, creating opportunities for new people entering the field.

    Salary and Fringe Benefits

    According to the Texas Education Agency, the base salaries for classroom teachers 2012-2013 are as follows:

    The state minimum salary schedule for classroom teachers, full-time librarians, full-time counselors and full-time nurses (RN) was released in 2012-2013. Salaries range from $27,320 for a beginning teacher to $44,270 for educators with 20 or more years of service. Most Texas districts elect to pay employees more than the state required minimum. The average Texas teacher earned $46,361 during the 2011-2012 school year.

    Teacher salaries and fringe benefits vary from district to district. Some benefits offered could include:

    • Assault Leave
    • Bereavement Leave
    • Cafeteria Plan Benefits (Section 125)
    • Catastrophic Sick Leave Bank (or Pool)
    • Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)—General Provisions
    • Health, Dental, and Life Insurance
    • Jury Duty
    • Local Family and Medical Leave Provisions
    • Local Leave
    • Military Leave
    • On-the-Job Injuries
    • Other Court Appearances
    • Personal Leave
    • State Sick Leave
    • Supplemental Insurance Benefits
    • Teacher Retirement
    • Temporary Disability Leave
    • Travel Expense Reimbursement
    • Unemployment Compensation Insurance
    • Workers’ Compensation Benefits
    • Workers’ Compensation Insurance

    Impact on Lifestyle

    Teachers provide a unified front that has very solid impact on the young generations. The forte of it can only be compared to the impact of parents and closest family members. This means that teachers have to carry the load of great accountability. The lifestyle of a teacher has a vast influence on students. A teacher is a role model of highest significance to the students’ growth not only in terms of professionalism and knowledge but also the way they distinguish the world, values and culture. A teacher should be the one who inspires the pursuit for certainty, good values, and love. A really steadfast teacher is dedicated to students all the time, comprehends their points of view and senses their needs. A teacher also perceives future grown-ups in them and knows how to show them the way to become dynamic and content followers of the society. In other words, a teacher should be a person who is always striving to advance himself or herself in order to enhance and serve younger generations.

    —-

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Module XI Handouts

    • Compare and Contrast SL Articles
    • How People Communicate with Each Other
    • Read about Service Learning Leaders
    • Service Learning in Action
    • The Perfect Service Learner
    • 30 Service Learning Quotes

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Instructions for Creating a Résumé page on Facebook, http://jobmob.co.il/blog/facebook-resume/
    • Explore the job search information at US Department of Labor Education and Training Administration http://www.doleta.gov/jobseekers/
    • Have students prepare and perform a 10-minute skit about proper work place conduct.
    • Allow students to brainstorm and identify several school or community needs. Create a list based on their ideas and post in a visible location of the classroom.
    • Have class members share a service learning project they have participated in. Discuss the correlation between effective communication skills and a successful service learning project. Option: How People Communicate with Each Other.
    • Print and cut out 30 Service Learning Quotes. Distribute a service learning quote to each student as they enter the classroom. Instruct students to individually read their quote and then find a partner. Each partner will take turns reading their quote and share personal thoughts about their quote. Students will then exchange quotes and select a new partner. Have students continue changing partners, reading, sharing and trading quotes. Allow activity to last for 5 minutes. Teacher will call time at one minute intervals. Use a timer to assist in with keeping time.
    • Distribute Read about Service Learning Leaders handout, Allow students to browse through the http://www.ysa.org/projects website and select one service learning project to complete. Allow students to share their findings with the class.
    • Distribute handout Service Learning In Action. Students will practice their communication and service learning skills by:
      • designating, assigning and accepting roles and responsibilities for the project
      • developing a list of needed materials and other resources
      • conducting research on the services provided by the local food bank
      • identifying if their project idea will meet the needs of the community
    • Distribute Compare and Contrast SL Articles. Have students read two articles on service learning and complete handout.
    • Distribute The Perfect Service Learner and have students describe qualities of a service learner.

    —-

    Resources and References

    Textbooks:

    • Armstrong, D. (2009). Teaching today. Saddle River New Jersey: Pearson.
    • Curriculum Center for FCS. Ready, set, teach! Curriculum Guide. 2003.
    • Curriculum Center for FCS. Reaching to teach. 2005.
    • Feeney, S., Moravcik, E., Nolte, S., and Christensen, D. (2009) Who am in the lives of children? Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson.
    • Morrison, G. (2009) Early childhood education today. Upper Saddle Rover, New Jersey: Pearson.
      Powel, S. (2010`). S. Texas Tech University Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences (Ed.), Putting it all together: education and training. Boston. Massachusetts: Pearson.

    Websites:

    • United States Department of Labor
      Employment and Training Administration (ETA) programs, resources and online tools help workers in all stages of the job and career development.
      http://www.doleta.gov/jobseekers/

    YouTube™

    Human Growth and Development: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. The purpose of the SCANS report is ____________.

    • a. to explain reading, writing, science, and other subjects in a way that young children can understand.
    • b. to assist people with the process of making career decisions by helping them choose a career or educational program.
    • c. to examine what demands the workplace has for employees and whether or not students are prepared to meet those demands upon entering the workforce.
    • d. to teach academic lessons and various skills that students will need to attend college and to enter the job market.

    2. Employability skills include:

    • a. effective communication skills
    • b. effective team members
    • c. ethics
    • d. all of the above

    3. In the United States according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, schools employ millions of teachers, including _______million elementary school teachers.

    • a. 11.6
    • b. 1.6
    • c. 1.5
    • d. 1.66

    4. A __________ is a teacher who is willing to share her or his expertise and knowledge with a new colleague.

    • a. menial
    • b. mental
    • c. mercer
    • d. mentor

    5. The average Texas teacher earned ___________ during the 2011-2012 school year.

    • a. $45,630
    • b. $46,981
    • c. $46,361
    • d. $46,100

  • XII. Opportunities in Education and Training

    MP900398749

    TEKS Addressed:

    (12) The student explores opportunities available in education and training. The student is expected to:

    • (A) assess personal interests, aptitudes and abilities as related to the various stages of human growth and development
    • (B) evaluate employment and entrepreneurial opportunities and education requirements in the educational field of interest
    • (C) propose short- and long-term education and career goals

    Module Content

    Opportunities in Education and Training is the twelfth module in the Human Growth and Development course. This section contains five units of study that include:

    • A. Evaluation of self-assessments
    • B. Job opportunities
    • C. Occupational Outlook Handbook
    • D. Personal interests survey
    • E. Self-assessments, aptitudes, interests, abilities


    Refer to lesson Educational Support Staff: Partners in Creating a Strong Learning Community for additional activities, ideas and resources.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/educational-support-staff-partners-in-creating-a-strong-learning-community/

    Refer to lesson How Do I Get That Job? Education Administration for additional activities, ideas and resources.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/how-do-i-get-that-job-education-administration-2/

    Module XII Handouts

    Evaluation of Self-Assessments

    It can be difficult for students to “assess” their strengths and weaknesses. Assess means to evaluate the characteristics one possesses. Some students will be able to identify their personal characteristics. It is helpful to provide ways for them to analyze their strengths and search for strategies to improve in areas where they are weak. The handout Personal Characteristics Assessment will give students an opportunity to assess themselves.

    Personality assessments help provide an insight into people’s work styles and behavior. They are used as part of recruitment and development processes to help employers select the best people. Personality is related to job performance, motivation, absenteeism, and job satisfaction. Teachers can check with the school counselor for assessments that are available for students.

    Students can visit several sites such as Texas Workforce Commission for a personal career assessment. Refer to https://www.texasworkprep.com/jhg.htm This will help the students assess their interests and personalities. Certification is available upon completion.

    Students can take an O*Net Work Importance Locator or Interest Profiler self-assessment test at: http://www.texascaresonline.com/wowmenu.asp

    Job Opportunities

    According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment of childcare workers is expected to grow by 20 percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations. Parents will continue to need assistance during working hours to care for their children. Because the number of children requiring childcare is expected to grow, demand for childcare workers is expected to grow as well.

    In the past decade, early childhood education has become widely recognized as important for children’s development. Childcare workers often work alongside preschool teachers as assistants. This continued focus on the importance of early childhood education, in addition to increases in the number of children in this age group, will spur demand for preschool programs and thus for childcare workers. Workers with formal education should have the best job prospects. However, even those without formal education who are interested in the occupation should have little trouble finding employment due to the need to replace workers who leave the occupation.

    Childcare workers must meet education and training requirements, which vary with state regulations. Some states require these workers to have a high school diploma, but many states do not have any education requirements.

    Employers often prefer to hire workers with at least a high school diploma and, in some cases, some postsecondary education in early childhood education.

    One rapidly expanding field is that of child-related jobs. This is due partially to the increase in mothers who work outside the home. A second influencing factor is the recent wide-spread recognition of the importance of early childhood development. A variety of child-related careers are available and can be categorized according to the amount of contact with children. Careers that directly serve children:

    • Child Care Workers
    • Teachers
    • Mental and Physical Health Services
    • Protective and Social Services
    • Careers that indirectly serve children
    • Information Specialist
    • Child development instructors
    • Family life educators
    • Teacher educators
    • Consultants
    • Children’s Goods and Services Provider
    • Designer
    • Advertising and Marketing
    • Entertainers, Writers, and Artists
    • Entrepreneurship

    Beginning in 2013, workers in Head Start programs must at least be enrolled in a program in which they will earn an associate’s degree in early childhood education or a child development credential.

    Many states require providers to complete some training before beginning work. Often, these requirements can be satisfied by having some college credits or by earning a degree in early childhood education.

    States do not regulate educational requirements for nannies and babysitters. However, some employers may prefer to hire workers with at least some formal instruction in education or a related field, particularly when they will be hired as full-time nannies.

    Some states and employers require childcare workers to have a nationally recognized certification. Most often, states require the Child Development Associate (CDA) certification offered by the Council for Professional Recognition. CDA certification includes coursework, experience in the field, and a high school diploma.

    Some states recognize the Child Care Professional (CCP) designation offered by the National Child Care Association. Candidates for the CCP must have a high school diploma, experience in the field, and continuing education.
    Some employers may require certifications in CPR and first aid.

    Occupational Outlook Handbook

    The Nation’s premier source for career information is the Occupational Outlook Handbook. The profiles featured here cover hundreds of occupations and describe What They Do, Work Environment, How to Become One, Pay, and more. Each profile also includes BLS employment projections for the 2010–20 decade. It helps you make informed decisions about your future work life. The handbook assists you by describing the training and education requirements, earnings, expected job prospects, on the job tasks, and working conditions for over 800 occupations. Peruse the Occupational Outlook Handbook at http://www.bls.gov/ooh/

    Personal Interests Survey

    Students can participate in a survey to determine his or her future career and job interests at this point in his or her life. It can also be used as a guide to help make class choices for high school and post-secondary planning.
    Survey can include questions pertaining to:

    • Activities
    • Interests
    • Qualities
    • School subjects/activities that he or she enjoys or does well
    • Talents
    • Technology expertise
    • What he or she enjoys doing on free time

    Self-Assessments, Aptitudes, Interests, Abilities

    Many various types of assessments are conducted throughout the lifespan. It starts the minute a baby is born with an Apgar score to being assessed for an array of illnesses and conditions in adults ages 66 years and older.

    Newborn to Two Years

    • Apgar Score – Is based on the infant’s heart rate, respiration, reflexes, muscle tone, and color, Two points are the maximum given for each category. It is given during the first minute after birth and again five minutes after birth.
    • Regular medical checkups – Will enable the health care professional to become familiar with the child. Dental checkups and eye examinations also are an important part of maintaining good health. Physicians may also assess children to make sure he or she has mastered the developmental milestones at the appropriate age. Skills such as taking a first step, smiling for the first time, and waving “bye bye” are called developmental milestones. For additional information on developmental milestones, visit http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/index.html

    Ages Three through Five Years

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children be screened for general development using standardized, validated tools at 9, 18, and 24 or 30 months and for autism at 18 and 24 months or whenever a parent or provider has a concern.

    Children Ages Six Through Ten Years

    As children enter school, they may need to be assessed in the following areas:

    • physical handicaps such as vision, hearing and speech impairments
    • mental retardation
    • emotional handicaps
    • learning disabilities
    • special gifts and talents

    Adolescents Ages 11 through 19 Years

    Being overweight is an increasing child health problem. Children may need to be assessed for sleep apnea, diabetes, hypertension, and elevated blood cholesterol levels. Many elementary school-aged children already possess one or more of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    Adolescents at this age may possibly have one of these types of learning disabilities such as dyslexia, dysgraphia, or dyscalculia and may be assessed to determine their level of disability.

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is another way children may be assessed. It is the disability in which children consistently show one or more of these characteristics over a period of time:

    • inattention
    • hyperactivity
    • impulsivity

    Children may also be assessed for:

    • Emotional and behavioral disorders
    • Autism Spectrum Disorders
    • Evaluations and eligibility determination for Special Education programs
    • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition for children and adolescents 6 to 16 years of age

    Adults Ages 20 through 39 Years

    • Genetic Counseling – Is professional, scientific advice about heredity and the risks of genetic defects occurring in offspring. As people enter the child bearing years, they may need genetic counseling.
    • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Third Edition may be used to determine intelligence during the college years.
    • Personality assessments may be used as part of recruitment and development processes to help employers select the best people.

    Adults Ages 40 through 65 Years

    • Career choices and re-assessment of career paths
    • Political views
    • Knowledge assessments
    • Medical tests

    Sixty-Six Plus

    • Assessed for an array of illnesses and conditions such as emotional problems, dementia, and Alzheimer Disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer.
    • Cognitive assessments may be used to determine cognitive processes such as vocabulary, attention, visual and motor memory, discrimination, comparison and categorization.

    Assessments in Education and Training

    Teachers must have evaluations. This could include creating a professional growth plan. Each teacher or student should create personal goals and plan ways to accomplish those goals. A school or school district may also add specific goals.

    Students and teachers could begin to develop a professional growth plan with self-reflection process. This could involve reviewing personal journals they have written about their teaching experiences, feedback from students and parents, collections of plans and other work and analyses from classroom observations made by others.

    When developing plans for the future, students should consider their personal interests, the type of subjects they like to teach as well as what grade level they prefer. Another consideration is the location of an ideal school for them and whether they are interested in working with students of specific cultures or with other special needs.

    The Professional Growth Plan might include:

    1. Self-reflection information
    2. An assessment of their school and leadership accomplishments
    3. The degrees or licenses they would need to reach their goal
    4. Collaboration with other educators for information and suggestions
    5. A timeline for each part of the plan
    6. Plan to review and revise the plan periodically to evaluate progress
    7. Document accomplishments with evidence of progress such as grade reports, awards, diplomas and other projects

    The Professional Development Appraisal System (PDAS) is a teacher evaluation system created by the Texas Education Agency. Its goal is to advance the level of professional practice of teaching in Texas. The evaluation criteria incorporate learner-centered proficiencies and promote continuous professional development. More information is available at:

    http://www4.esc13.net/pdas/

    Students should be aware that this process is a part of most professional careers.

    Another important part of being a professional educator is to be active in organizations that support education. Refer to Professional Development Opportunities and Professional Organizations at
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/teachers-corner/

    Teachers can continue to improve their teaching by participating in professional in-service opportunities. Some of these are:

    • Mentoring with local teachers
    • Attending required in-service opportunities at the district level
    • Obtaining advanced degrees
    • Attending professional conferences
    • Obtaining technology training
    • Organizing subject-area team meetings
    • Organizing grade-level meetings
    • Asking for support from master teachers
    • Preparing with advanced certifications, such as ESL or reading
    • Attending training at the Region Service Centers
    • Accessing online information and activities such as professional readings and videos

    These programs are essential because needs of students and subject matter are constantly changing.

    It is helpful for students in education and training classes to also attend workshops and conferences when possible. One way for them to get training experience is to conduct training for teachers at their school. Teachers will often pay more attention to students than other trainers.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers:

    Module XII Handouts

    • Career Interest Survey
    • Career Research – Education Administration
    • Career Research – Educational Support Staff
    • Job Description of Careers
    • Job Shadowing Project Rubric
    • Job Shadowing Project
    • KWL Chart Education Administration
    • KWL Chart Support Staff
    • Note Taking Support Staff Creating a Strong Learning Community
    • Personal Characteristics Assessment
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Exploring Education Administration Careers Competition
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Exploring Education Administration Careers Competition (Key)
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Exploring Professional Support Services Comp
    • Scavenger Hunt TAFE Exploring Professional Support Services Comp (Key)
    • TAFE Exploring Education Administration Careers Competition
    • TAFE Exploring Professional Support Services Careers Competition
    • Using the Occupational Outlook Handbook

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Survey students of various ages, teachers, parents, and administrators about characteristics teachers should possess. Compare the data and make graphs to compare information from various groups.
    • Research emotional intelligence and ways to develop those attributes. Make presentations using technology to share the information with the class. Role play examples of scenarios of teachers using emotional intelligence strategies.
    • The handout Personal Characteristics Assessment will give students an opportunity to assess themselves.
    • Distribute Career Clusters Interest Survey to help students determine their skills, interests, and possible Career Clusters they may want to explore.
    • View Developmental Milestones Screening at http://es.easterseals.com/site/PageNavigator/ntlc10_mffc_homepageasq.html

    References and Resources

    Textbooks:

    • Armstrong, D. (2009). Teaching today. Saddle River New Jersey: Pearson.
    • Curriculum Center for FCS. Ready, set, teach! Curriculum Guide. 2003.
    • Curriculum Center for FCS. Reaching to teach. 2005.
    • Feeney, S., Moravcik, E., Nolte, S., and Christensen, D. (2009) Who am in the lives of children? Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson.
    • Morrison, G. (2009) Early childhood education today. Upper Saddle Rover, New Jersey: Pearson.
      Powel, S. (2010`). S. Texas Tech University Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences (Ed.), Putting it all together: education and training. Boston. Massachusetts: Pearson.

    Websites:

    • United States Department of Labor
      Employment and Training Administration (ETA) programs, resources and online tools help workers in all stages of the job and career development.
      http://www.doleta.gov/jobseekers/

    YouTube™

    Human Growth and Development Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. An assessment is helpful to provide ways for students to __________ their strengths and search for strategies to improve in areas where they are weak.

    • a. demonstrate
    • b. analyze
    • c. secure
    • d. relate

    2. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment of childcare workers is expected to grow by _____ percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations.

    • a. 19
    • b. 25
    • c. 30
    • d. 20

    3. Beginning in 2013, workers in __________programs must at least be enrolled in a program in which they will earn an associate’s degree in early childhood education or a child development credential.

    • a. high school
    • b. job training
    • c. Head Start
    • d. Kindergarten

    4. The _____________________ assists you by describing the training and education requirements, earnings, expected job prospects, on the job tasks, and working conditions for over 800 occupations.

    • a. Occupational Handout
    • b. Occupational Handbook
    • c. Outlook Handbook
    • d. Occupational Outlook Handbook

    5. The _________________ (PDAS) is a teacher evaluation system created by the Texas Education Agency. Its goal is to advance the level of professional practice of teaching in Texas.

    • a. Professional Developed Appraisal System
    • b. Professional Development Appraisal System
    • c. Professional Development Assessment System
    • d. Professional Development Assessment Service

  • Quiz

    Human Growth and Development Online Course

    Progress:

    1. Which of the following reasons best explain why teachers must understand the theories of human development?

    2. Which of the following best explains the focus of pedagological instruction?

    3. Which of the following is an accepted method of studying human behaviors?

    4. Which of the following is not a reason to have good medical care and health practices prior to and during pregnancy?

    5. Some special considerations in diet are the need for more ____________ and water as well as lower impact physical activity especially in the later stages of pregnancy when the body becomes more unwieldy.

    6. Which of the following organizations or individuals have the responsibility of protecting children who have been abused?

    7. Which of the following is a cause of child abuse?

    8. Where is the best place for parents to go for advice or support?

    9. What is the relationship of guidance and discipline?

    10. What is the advantage of having a village approach to parenting?

    11. Breastfeeding is the best form of nutrition for infants because it:

    12. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends which of the following to lower an infant's risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)?

    13. Why must toddlers have consistent limits?

    14. Why is it important for preschoolers to learn to verbalize their anger and aggression?

    15. Concerns about self-concept and social groups is an example of__________________ in preschoolers.

    16. Which of the following physical changes usually occurs during adolescence?

    17. In the YouTube(tm) video, CDC Dena's Story, Let's Stop HIV Together, what is the most important message we can pass on to the younger generation?

    18. Parents and children should practice and encourage good hygiene by following these guidelines:

    19. The major psychosocial task of adolescence according to Erikson is:

    20. Menarche is best defined as

    21. According to Erikson, the major developmental task of young adults is:

    22. What is the importance of maintaining good physical condition during early adulthood?

    23. According to Havighurst, the major developmental task of young adults is

    24. Friendships developed during young adulthood are significant because:

    25. Which of the following is a hallmark of cognitive development?

    26. _______________ are defined as deaths in infants less than 1 year of age that occur suddenly and unexpectedly, and whose causes of death are not immediately obvious prior to investigation.

    27. _____________________ accept the role of some observable processes, such as language and memory, in determining observable behavior.

    28. According to ______________ theory, children have inborn methods for interacting with their environment.

    29. Planning and maintaining safe surroundings is critical. This is accomplished by:

    30. Most of the __________ preschoolers have are based on their limited understanding of so many new concepts.

    31. Intellectual development during the preschool years is defined as ______________, meaning that children have not yet acquired logical mental actions, as described by Piaget in his cognitive development theory.

    32. __________ vaccine is combination vaccine that is a routinely recommended at age 11 or 12 to protect against Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis.

    33. The hallmarks of physical development during the school-age years are continued ___________ in height and weight, changes in proportion, in the muscular-skeletal systems and organs.

    34. At what age do most physical functions peak?

    35. What is the importance of maintaining good physical condition during early adulthood?

    36. Friendships developed during young adulthood are significant because:

    37. Most women will experience what major milestone during middle adulthood?

    38. How does the "empty nest" affect most middle-aged couples?

    39. As you grow older, if you continue eating the same types and amounts of food but do not become more active, you will probably gain weight. This is because:

    40. Emotional, moral, and psychosocial development for older adults is described by ___________ 8th stage called ego integrity.

    41. ________________: This theory states that natural selection has not excluded many damaging circumstances and nonadaptive characteristics in older adults; therefore the aids discussed by evolutionary theory drop with age because natural selection is related to reproductive ability.

    42. The purpose of the SCANS report is ____________.

    43. A __________ is a teacher who is willing to share her or his expertise and knowledge with a new colleague.

    44. The _________________ (PDAS) is a teacher evaluation system created by the Texas Education Agency. Its goal is to advance the level of professional practice of teaching in Texas.

    45. Beginning in 2013, workers in __________programs must at least be enrolled in a program in which they will earn an associate’s degree in early childhood education or a child development credential.

    46. CTE stands for:

    47. There are _____________ Career Clusters.

    48. CTE equips students with

    49. Human Growth and Development is part of the __________________________ career cluster.

    50. The suggested scope and sequence for this course is divided into __________ modules.

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