Hospitality Services Part I (TEKS 1-9) Online Course

  • Hospitality Services Part I (TEKS 1-9) Online Course Introduction

    Hospitality Services

    Hospitality Services provides students with the academic and technical preparation to pursue high-demand and high-skill careers in hospitality related industries. The knowledge and skills are acquired within a sequential, standards-based program that integrates hands-on and project-based instruction. Standards included in the Hospitality Services course are designed to prepare students for nationally recognized industry certifications, post-secondary education, and entry-level careers. In addition, Hospitality Services is designed so that performance standards meet employer expectations, enhancing the employability of students. Instruction may be delivered through laboratory training or through internships, mentoring, or job shadowing. Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

    Students will identify this course as part of a Career and Technical Education (CTE) program of study, understand that CTE in Texas is organized around 16 career clusters and 79 career pathways, and that Hospitality Services is one of 9 courses in the Hospitality and Tourism career cluster that equips students with:

    • core academic skills
    • employability skills
    • job specific technical skills

    Articulated Credit
    This course is also available for the Advanced Technical Credit (ATC) Program (1 credit) that gives high school students a chance to receive credit at participating community colleges across Texas for taking certain enhanced technical courses during high school.

    For more information, visit:

    Important
    This online course consists of an introduction and nine (9) modules. Carefully read all course content to become familiar with the TEKS, student expectations, published lessons, and suggested activities. Names of handouts, graphic organizers, slide presentations appear in bold letters. Refer to attachments at the end of each module for additional information. Each module ends with seven multiple choice statements.

    After completing the course you will be required to complete a 50 question quiz and submit your name and email address. You will receive a certificate of completion at that address.

    The certificates for the successful completion of the online courses are NOT automatically computer generated and are reviewed individually. Certificates will be generated Monday through Friday between the hours of 8:00am and 5:00pm.
    For questions, contact: sfacte@gmail.com

    As approved by the Texas Education Agency, a passing score of 80 is required to receive a certificate equalling six (6) Continuing Professional Education (CPE) credits.
    —-
    Refer to Introductory Lesson: Hospitality Services for an introduction to Career and Technical Education, Career Clusters™, coherent sequence of courses, and programs of study.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/introductory-lesson-hospitality-services/

  • I. World of Hospitality

    service

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student gains additional academic knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of career and post secondary education opportunities within the the hospitality services industry.

    • (A) apply advanced reading, writing, and mathematical skills necessary to perform job tasks in the hospitality industry
    • (B) explain the effects that supply and demand have on the hospitality industry

    Module Content

    World of Hospitality is the first unit of study in the Hospitality course. This section contains three TEA units of study that include:

    • A. What is Hospitality?
    • B. Role of Travel
    • C. Trends: past, present, and future

    A. What is Hospitality?
    Hospitality is defined as the friendly and generous reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers. It means meeting the needs of the guests with kindness and goodwill. The hospitality industry provides services to people away from home.

    These services include:

    • food
    • lodging
    • recreation
    • travel

    B. Role of Travel
    Travel is the basis for much of the hospitality industry. If there is a decrease in travel, there is a decrease in hospitality business.

    There are two main types of travel:

    • pleasure travel
    • business travel

    The types are based on the reasons people travel.

    The travel industry consists of businesses that physically move people from one place to another. It is also called the transportation industry.

    Modes of transportation include:

    • airplane
    • automobile
    • bus
    • ship
    • train

    Travel includes trips of various lengths, from short to long. A short trip may be a drive to a nearby resort. A long trip may be to another country requiring several weeks of travel.

    Travel industry businesses include:

    • business services
    • car rentals
    • taxi services

    C. Trends: Past, Present, and Future
    Hospitality is one of the oldest businesses. The first written records of travel were recorded on cave walls about 6,000 years ago. The inventions of money, writing and the wheel helped make it easier to conduct business and to travel.
    The hospitality industry probably began with the Sumerians.
    In 4,000 B.C. the Sumerians built the first taverns which served beer to people in the surrounding areas. The taverns were some of the first hospitality businesses.

    Three countries played an important role in the early days of the hospitality industry.

    • Egypt
    • Greece
    • The Roman Empire

    Ancient Egypt began the tourism trade. The beauty and majesty of the ancient pyramids attracted tourists in 2700 B.C.

    Greece also played an important role. Greeks love to travel. They made two major contributions to the hospitality industry. The first was language as Greek became the universally accepted language of international trade. The second was money. Greek money became the standard monetary exchange. Common money and common language made travel and business easier.

    After the Romans defeated the Greeks, Romans became the major world power. The Romans developed the road system which made travel throughout Europe quicker and easier.

    Hospitality today has many challenges such as:

    • delivering consistent service
    • diversity of the workforce
    • accommodating special needs
    • impact of seasons

    In the eyes of the guest, hospitality businesses fail or succeed based on the quality of service they receive. Making sure that guests receive quality service is difficult to do. Delivering quality service always involves people.

    Managers must have two ways to ensure good service:

    • procedures
    • training.

    First, they can develop procedures that ensure good service.
    Second, they must train all employees in the procedures. Employees must be customer focused.

    The face of Hospitality is changing because the face of our world is changing.
    In the past, white males made up the largest part of the workforce. More women and minorities are entering the workforce in greater numbers.

    Minorities include:

    • African Americans
    • Hispanics
    • Asians
    • many other smaller groups

    These people are also bringing in their:

    • cultures
    • religions
    • beliefs
    • languages

    In order to be successful, the hospitality business must meet the various needs of all of these employees. They must help develop ways to help all employees succeed.

    There are many factors that affect success in the hospitality industry.
    There are four that a manager cannot control:

    • weather
    • political conditions
    • economic conditions
    • globalization.

    The weather has a major impact because bad weather can damage hospitality business. If you have a seaside business and it starts raining, you will lose customers.

    Political condition is important because bad or dangerous situations can discourage travel. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 had a major impact on the hospitality industry.

    Another condition to consider is economic. Many hospitality industries rise and fall with the economy. During a recession, the hospitality industry is the first one to suffer. One of the first things customers will cut is spending on travel and recreation.

    Last is globalization. Before globalization, each country’s economy was separate from the others. If one country had an economic problem, it had little effect on another country. Now, each country’s economy is dependent on the economies of other countries.

    No one can predict the future. If you study trends, you can make fairly good predictions. Information gathered from newspapers, professional organizations, the internet, and professional colleagues can keep you up-to-date on the trends. Trends can help hospitality managers decide which services to offer.

    A trend is a general direction in which something is moving. A trend in the hospitality business refers to the direction in which customer preferences are moving. A trend is different from a fad. A fad is something extremely popular in the short-term.

    Handout/Graphic Organizers

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Have your students create a timeline that shows the development of the hospitality industry.
    • Assign students different events in the history of hospitality on the timeline and write and design a poster using http://edu.glogster.com.

    References and Resources

    Textbooks

    • Reynolds, Johnny Sue. (2003). Hospitality Services. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox Company.

    World of Hospitality Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. When did the hospitality industry probably begin?

    • a. 4,000 B.C.
    • b. 5,000 B.C.
    • c. 6,000 B.C.
    • d. 7,000 B.C.

    2. What were the contributions of Egypt to the development of the hospitality industry?

    • a. Tourism
    • b. Money
    • c. Language
    • d. Roads

    3. What were the contributions of Greece to the development of the hospitality industry?

    • a. Tourism
    • b. Money
    • c. Souvenirs
    • d. Roads

    4. What were the contributions of the Romans to the development of the hospitality industry?

    • a. Tourism
    • b. Money
    • c. Language
    • d. Roads

    5.There are four factors that affect the success of the hospitality industry and that managers cannot control: weather, political conditions, economic conditions, and what?

    • a. Diversity
    • b. Money
    • c. Trends
    • d. Globalization

    6.How is a fad different from a trend?

    • a. A fad is something extremely popular in the short-term.
    • b. A trend in the hospitality business refers to the direction in which customer preferences are moving.
    • c. A trend is a general direction in which something is moving.
    • d. All of the above are true.

    7.Managers must have two ways to ensure good service: procedures and training. How do they achieve these goals?

    • a. They can develop procedures that ensure good service.
    • b. They must train all employees in the procedures.
    • c. Employees must be customer focused.
    • d. All of the above are true.

  • II. Overview of the Lodging Industry

    no vacancy

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student gains additional academic knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of career and post secondary educational opportunities within the hospitality services industry.

    • (A) apply advanced reading, writing, and mathematical skills necessary to perform job tasks in the hospitality industry

    (3) The student researches career opportunities and qualifications to broaden awareness of careers available in the hospitality industry.

    • (I) describe the types of facility ownership and determine the advantages and disadvantages for each

    (5) The student uses information technology tools specific to hospitality service careers to access, manage, integrate, and create information.

    • (B) research website information on hospitality service operations

    Overview of the Lodging Module Content

    Overview of the Lodging Industry is the second unit of study in the Hospitality Services course. This section contains three TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Types of lodging businesses
    • B. Levels of service
    • C. Ownership and management

    Refer to lesson: Take a Byte: Technology in the Hospitality Services Industry (focus on hotel industry) for additional resources, ideas and activities.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/take-a-byte-technology-in-the-hospitality-industry

    A. Types of lodging businesses
    The lodging industry consists of all businesses that provide overnight accommodations. A business that provides overnight accommodations is often a lodging property. Many lodging businesses offer food and beverages as part of their services.

    Full-service Hotels

    • Hotel is usually two or more stories high with over 3,000 rooms
    • Provide a range of full range services such as:
      • luggage assistance
      • concierge services
      • one or more restaurants
      • one or more bars
      • room service
      • meeting and banquet space
      • spa services
      • recreational facilities

    • Five categories of full-service hotels:
      • convention
      • luxury
      • resort
      • extended-stay
      • condominium

    Limited-Service properties:

    • smaller, provides fewer services
    • less expensive
    • usually offer a continental breakfast, or food that does not need to be cooked
    • parking is close to the room
    • room entry is from the outside

    Two categories of limited-service properties:

    • limited-service hotels
    • budget hotels

    Specialty Accommodations
    This category provides less personal service than a hotel but more than a motel. Some provide unique experiences. They also include some of the least expensive service accommodations.

    The five groups can be divided into:

    • Conference Centers
    • Lodges
    • Bed-and-Breakfast Operations
    • Hostels
    • Campgrounds

    Institutional Housing

    P(tight). Institutional housing is provided for those in:

    • schools
    • universities
    • hospitals
    • prisons
    • military

    Institutional housing is usually dormitory-style. A large room is shared along with a bathroom. Senior housing is also included in this category which provides a place to live for people over 55.

    B.Levels of service

    There are three main levels of service:

    • excellent customer service
    • acceptable customer service
    • poor customer service

    Every service could have a large impact on the hotels business. Customer expectation is what they want to get while customer perception is what they really feel. It could be an excellent service that has positive impact on hotel complex. With customer satisfaction, they will be a re-booking guest. More customer loyalty would bring a good reputation in the industry and keep a large number of customers. This could help the hotel build up competitive advantages.

    The majority of unsatisfied customers will never come back and the hotel loses both the customer and their loyalty. A bad hotel reputation would lead to a loss o f revenue and loss of profits which leads to less and less market share. The hotel may eventually be bankrupt.

    C. Ownership and management
    Lodging properties can be classified by the type of ownership.

    Like restaurants, lodging properties can be:

    • independent
    • chains
    • franchises

    Independent businesses usually have one owner.

    Hotel Chains:

    • Multiple-unit that have the same brand name and same ownership
    • Chains can help customers earn points
    • Brand identity
    • Ability to buy in large quantities
    • Central reservations center

    Hotel Management
    Hotel operation is another name for hotel management which is the day-to-day running of the hotel. A corporation may own the hotel and hire a management company to run the hotel. There are also hotel management companies that are not part of a major chain. You could buy a franchise and hire a management company to manage the hotel for you.

    Handout/Graphic Organizers

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Have students compare and contrast the types of lodging.
    • Students can research a popular location and describe which type of lodging a customer might choose.
    • Students can plan a trip within a budget that targets one of the types of lodging using http://www.kayak.com
    • Have students use the website http://www.TripAdvisor.com to research reviews on hotels in the area. Students should pick and respond to several bad reviews as a hotel manager should.
    • Students should use http://www.tripadvisor.com to write about the impact of online reviews to the lodging industry.

    References and Resources

    Textbooks

    • Reynolds, Johnny Sue. (2003). Hospitality Services. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox Company.

    Websites

    • Trip Advisor
      Provides unbiased hotel reviews, photos, and travel advice for hotels and vacations – Compare prices with just one click.
      http://tripadvisor.com
    • Kayak
      Find and book cheap flights, hotels, vacations and rental cars with Kayak.com Hotel, flight and travel deals. Search hundreds of travel sites at once.
      http://www.kayak.com

    Overview of Lodging Industry Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Schools, universities, hospitals, prisons and the military are considered what type of housing?

    • a. Institutional
    • b. Bed and Breakfast
    • c. Limited-service
    • d. Full service

    2. There are five categories of Full-service hotels, one of the categories is convention, what are the other four?

    • a. luxury, resort, extended-stay, and condominium
    • b. luxury, resort, full-time stay, and condominium
    • c. luxury, institutional, extended-stay, and condominium
    • d. luxury, institutional,full-time stay, and condominium

    3. On the website, TripAdvisor, what are the levels of reviews a customer can give?

    • a. Very Good, Average, Poor, and Awful
    • b. Excellent, Average, Poor, and Awful
    • c. Excellent, Very Good, Average, Poor, and Terrible
    • d. Excellent, Very Good, Average, Poor, and Awful

    4. On the website Kayak, what are the searches a customer can make?

    • a. Car, Resort, Flight
    • b. Car, Resort, Flight
    • c. Car, Resort, Restaurant
    • d. Car, Hotel, Flight

    5. What is another name for hotel management?

    • a. hotel corporation
    • b. hotel management
    • c. hotel operation
    • d. hotel day to day

    6. The majority of customers will not return to a hotel if their experience was negative.

    • a. True
    • b. False

    7. Which hotel type offers complimentary continental breakfast?

    • a. Full service
    • b. Institutional
    • c. Limited Service
    • d. Lodges

  • III. Hotel Department Organization

    Telephone and flower vase beside a bed

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student gains additional academic knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of career and post-secondary education opportunities within the hospitality services industry.

    • (A) apply advanced reading, writing, and mathematical skills necessary to perform job tasks in the hospitality industry

    (3) The student researches career opportunities and qualifications to broaden awareness of careers available in the hospitality industry.

    • (M) use organizational charts to analyze workplace operations
    • (N) research the major duties and qualifications for hospitality managerial positions
    • (O) review the functions, skills, and tasks of essential departments within a hospitality operation

    Hotel Department Organization Module Content

    Overview of the Hotel Department Organization is the third unit of study in the Hospitality Services course. This section contains five TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Organizational chart
    • B. Overview of management positions
    • C. Department descriptions
    • D. Job descriptions
    • E. Front and back of the house

    A. Organizational chart
    The organization of a business is recorded in its organizational chart. An organizational chart shows how the tasks of the business are organized and who performs those tasks.

    The organizational chart also shows the levels of authority and responsibility.

    • General manager (responsible for whole company)
      • Manager department A (responsible for all department A tasks)
        • Worker A-1 (responsible for all A-1 tasks)
        • Worker A-2 (responsible for all A-2 tasks)
        • Worker A-3 (responsible for all A-3 tasks)
      • Manager department B (responsible for all department B tasks)
        • Worker B-1 (responsible for all B-1 tasks)
        • Worker B-2 (responsible for all B-2 tasks)
        • Worker B-3 (responsible for all B-3 tasks)
      • Manager department C (responsible for all department C tasks)
        • Worker C-1 (responsible for all C-1 tasks)
        • Worker C-2 (responsible for all C-2 tasks)
        • Worker C-3 (responsible for all C-3 tasks)

    B. Overview of management positions
    Managers have different amounts of responsibility. Some managers have more responsibility and more authority than other managers. For example, look at that organizational chart above. This chart shows two levels of management. The general manager has the most responsibility and authority. The second level of management in this chart is the manager at each department.

    In general, there are three levels of management:

    • upper management
    • middle-management
    • supervisory management

    Upper management

    • the top level of management
    • often called executive management or senior management
    • responsible for the entire company
    • provide the five management functions for the whole company
      • set measurable goals
      • measure results
      • compare results of goals
      • if results fall short of goals, find out why
      • take corrective action

    Supervisory management

    • Closest to the workers
    • Also called managers or supervisors
    • Responsible for specific department or area of work
    • Perform five functions of management for their specific department or area
      • set measurable goals
      • measure results
      • compare results of goals
      • if results fall short of goals, find out why
      • take corrective action

    Middle-management

    • One or more levels of management between top-level and supervisory level
    • Another name is regional vice president
    • Responsible for all hotels in their region

    C. Department descriptions

    Each lodging business is unique, yet each one has to perform the same functions.

    • Front office
      • Handle all activities involved with guestrooms
      • Making reservations
      • Checking guests in and out
      • Helping guess while they are on property
    • Housekeeping
      • Prepare rooms for guests
      • Do laundry
      • Make sure building, furniture, floors, and all public areas are clean
    • Purchasing and receiving
      • Buy the right quality and quantity of supplies at the best price
      • Make sure supplies arrive when needed
      • Make sure all supplies are stored properly once received
      • Establish good relationships with reliable suppliers
      • Inventory
    • Management
      • Oversee all functions of the business
      • Make sure the business is operating profitably and meeting customer needs
    • Marketing and sales
      • Learn what customers want
      • Develop marketing plans
      • Advertise
      • Sell lodging services
    • Human resources
      • Manage all employee issues, including pay, benefits, hiring, firing, and training
    • Accounting
      • Keep track of all money that flows into and out of the business
      • Monitor costs
      • If costs are running too high, let management know so that costs can be controlled
    • Security
      • Prevent harm to business property, employees, guests, and guests’ property
    • Safety and Emergency Procedures
      • Make sure the workplace is safe and meets all government safety requirements
      • Make sure that plans are in place in case of emergency
    • Engineering
      • Make sure that all equipment, plumbing, electricity, and building facilities are working properly
      • Maintenance and groundskeeping

    D. Job descriptions
    A job description is a document that lists essential functions and requirements for a job. HR usually develops job descriptions with the manager. Many companies advertise their job descriptions on their website.

    What goes on a job description?

    • Job title
    • Reports to
    • Purpose of the job
    • Essential functions
    • Qualification standards
    • Physical requirements

    E. Front and back of the house

    Front of House
    Refers to the area in a hospitality business the guests usually see. People who work in Front of House (FOH) departments typically have face-to-face contact with guests every day. A friendly and caring personality is important here, along with a commitment to providing guests with an exceptional level of personal service.
    Hotels never close, so if you work Front of House, you may be asked to work a variety of shifts, including nights, weekends and public holidays.

    Front of House departments include:

    • Food & Beverage – restaurants / room service / conferencing / bar
    • Front Office – reception / guest services / concierge / Spa / Recreation

    Back of House
    These departments are the engine room of any hotel. The Back of House works hard behind the scenes to bring in business, keep the hotel maintained to a high standard and ensure that guests enjoy every aspect of their stay.

    Back of House departments include:

    • Finance & Business Support / Accounts
    • Revenue Management
    • Reservations
    • Sales & Marketing / Public Relations
    • Human Resources
    • Maintenance & Engineering
    • Kitchen
    • Conference and Event Sales
    • Housekeeping
    • Security
    • Information Technology

    Handout/Graphic Organizers

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Have students imagine that they’re creating a job description to hire an employee at a hotel. Give the job a title and write a job description.
    • Have students develop an organizational chart for a local hotel.
    • Have students research a front of the house and a back of the house job on the website http://www.indeed.com

    References and Resources

    Textbook:

    • Reynolds, Johnny Sue. (2003). Hospitality Services. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox Company.

    Hotel Department Organization Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Which of the three levels of management is responsible for the entire company?

    • a. upper management
    • b. middle-management
    • c. supervisory management

    2. Which of the three levels of management is closest to the workers?

    • a. upper management
    • b. middle-management
    • c. supervisory management

    3. Which of the three levels of management is the top level of management?

    • a. upper management
    • b. middle-management
    • c. supervisory management

    4. Which hotel department is responsible for laundry?

    • a. Human resources
    • b. Engineering
    • c. Housekeeping
    • d. Front office

    5. Which hotel department is responsible for inventory of supplies?

    • a. Human resources
    • b. Purchasing and receiving
    • c. Accounting
    • d. Front office

    6. Which of the following does not go on a job description?

    • a. Job title
    • b. Salary
    • c. Reports to
    • d. Essential functions

    7. Which hotel department is responsible for writing job descriptions?

    • a. Human resources
    • b. Purchasing and receiving
    • c. Accounting
    • d. Front office

  • IV. Customer Relations and Quality Services

    customer

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student gains additional academic knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of career and postsecondary educational opportunities within the hospitality services industry.

    • (A) apply advanced reading, writing, and mathematical skills necessary to perform job tasks in the hospitality industry
    • (F) examine cultural differences of other areas, regions, and countries

    (2) The student uses listening, oral, written, and media communication skills in creating, expressing, and interpreting information and ideas, including technical terminology and information.

    • (A) interpret verbal and nonverbal communication
    • (B) recognize and respond to guest needs
    • (D) exhibit public relations skills
    • (E) apply alternate communication services to assist customers with specialized needs

    (4) The student examines and reviews ethical and legal responsibilities related to guests, employees, and conduct within the establishment to maintain high industry standards.

    • (A) formulate improvements for customer service from guest comments

    (5) The student uses information technology tools specific to hospitality service careers to access, manage, integrate, and create information.

    • (C) evaluate current and emerging technologies provided by the hospitality industry to improve guest service

    (6) The student applies leadership and teamwork skills in collaborating with others to accomplish organizational goals and objectives.

    • (A) model qualities in employee retention by creating a pleasant working atmosphere for staff members
    • (B) formulate staff training plans to create an effective working team
    • (C) apply conflict-management skills to facilitate solutions

    (7) The student solves problems using critical-thinking skills independently and in teams.

    • (C) devise strategies for maximizing customer satisfaction
    • (D) resolve unexpected situations

    Module Content

    Customer Relations and Quality Services is the fourth unit of study in the Hospitality Services course. This section contains seven TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Importance of quality service
    • B Communication
    • C. Critical moments of service
    • D. Teamwork
    • E. Handling customer complaints
    • F. Guest comment feedback
    • G. Cultural and special needs differences

    Refer to lesson: Leaving on a Jet Plane for additional resources, ideas and activities.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/leaving-on-a-jet-plane

    Refer to lesson: Take a Byte: Technology in the Hospitality Services Industry (focus on hotel industry) for additional resources, ideas and activities.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/take-a-byte-technology-in-the-hospitality-industry

    Refer to lesson Let’s Work It Out – Applying Conflict Resolution Skills for additional resources, ideas and activities.
    For lesson ideas http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/lets-work-it-out-applying-conflict-resolution-skills-2

    Module IV Handouts

    A. Importance of quality service
    Hospitality companies meet the needs of their customers through quality service. Quality service is achieved by thoroughly training employees in the art of customer service. Quality service is service that meets or exceeds customer expectations. Customers’ expectations change with the situation. Customer expectations at a fast-food restaurant will probably be different from expectations at a fancy restaurant.

    Quality Service:

    • Universal Customer Expectations
    • To be treated with dignity and respect
    • To have their requests be handled accurately and efficiently
    • Honesty in menu descriptions
    • Money transactions to be handled honestly and accurately

    Quality service is the key to establishing and maintaining a successful business. Service always depends on the employee who provides the service.

    Customers frequently compliment the following service elements:

    • cleanliness and attractiveness of the facilities and grounds
    • employees who respond quickly to requests
    • employees who anticipate customer needs.

    Each of these service elements is based on good training and the attitude of employees.

    B. Communication
    Communication is the transmission of information and feelings from one person to another. The ability to communicate clearly and positively is one of the most important skills in work and in life. Good communication skills enable you to work well with others on the job. Communication skills enable you to meet customer needs. Communication skills are a very important part of interpersonal skills. Interpersonal skills consist of the ability to interact smoothly and productively with other people.

    There are two types of communication skills:

    • verbal
    • nonverbal

    Verbal
    Verbal means using words.

    There are two aspects of verbal communication:

    • the language you choose to use
    • the choice of words in the language

    Nonverbal
    Nonverbal means without words. Over 70 percent of communication is nonverbal.

    Nonverbal communication includes:

    • body language such as
      • facial expressions
      • posture
      • hand gestures
      • tone of voice

    Many people are not aware of their nonverbal communication skills. So, it is helpful to practice these skills, possibly with another person. That person can give you feedback on both your verbal and nonverbal communication. It is also important to note that nonverbal communication can change the meaning of the words.

    C. Critical moments of service
    All service encounters are important. However, certain service encounters have a greater impact on customer satisfaction than others. These important service encounters are called critical moments. A critical moment is a time when the customer’s experience makes a bigger impact on customer satisfaction than at other times.

    Eleven Critical Moments

    • First phone call to the business
    • First view of the building entrance
    • Interaction with the greeter
    • Wait for a table or room
    • First moments at the table or in the hotel room
    • First encounter with bussers and servers
    • Encounter with the manager
    • Arrival of food
    • Visit to the restroom
    • Presentation of the check or bill
    • Last interaction with server or front office staff

    The employees appearance and communication are key to the success of the company. First impressions are very important and the company wants to make a positive one. Make sure the grounds, building and interior of the company are clean and litter free, as well.

    D. Teamwork
    An attitude of teamwork is essential to success on the job.

    An attitude of teamwork includes:

    • cooperation, the ability to work with others
    • commitment to the team and its members

    Cooperation is willingness to do what it takes to get the job done. A cooperative worker follows instructions and asks questions when he or she doesn’t understand what to do.

    Someone who has the ability to work with others is:

    • pleasant
    • agreeable
    • does not create conflict or angry situations

    Such a person understands and respects diversity. He or she can work with people from all kinds of backgrounds and points of view. He or she also knows how to resolve a difference of opinion or conflict in a positive way.

    Commitment to the team and its members means that you feel an obligation to do your part for the sake of the team and your project. Teamwork on the job is much like being part of a football team.

    The success of the whole team depends on your:

    • individual attendance
    • punctuality, good attitude
    • skills

    If one person does not perform well on a team, the entire team will suffer. The same is true of teamwork on the job.

    E. Handling customer complaints
    There will always be customer complaints. The key is to resolve these complaints to the customer’s satisfaction.

    The following seven techniques will help you resolve customer complaints in almost any situation:

    • Listen with empathy
    • Allow the customer to vent
    • Be supportive
    • Do not blame someone else
    • Have a positive attitude
    • Offer solutions
    • Follow through on the solution

    The best way to handle customer service complaints is to listen and have empathy for the customer’s feelings. Most customer complaints can be settled with an apology and quick action. If the complaint is handled poorly, the customer will probably never come back. If a complaint is handled in a positive way, you may gain a loyal customer.

    F. Guest comment feedback
    Guest comments and feedback are an important gauge for a business. The sooner a business receives customer feedback the better. Businesses must have a mechanism in place that allows their customers to give them feedback instantly and at times it’s convenient for them.

    Positive feedback reinforces their exceptional service and negative feedback alerts them to issues and areas they can improve. When measuring customer feedback, it’s important to focus on the specific requests and actionable items found within this feedback, rather than on the scores themselves.

    It is important that company managers and executives have insight into customer feedback. These team leaders may not need to know every detail of each customer interaction, but it’s crucial they have an overall sense of customer sentiment and important issues that need attention.

    This information should encourage team leaders to use customer feedback for coaching, not just evaluating – ultimately helping employees meet their personal, team and company goals.

    G. Cultural and special needs differences
    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was passed to make sure that people with disabilities are treated fairly. The Act requires that public buildings be accessible to people with disabilities. Businesses have developed features that enable people in wheelchairs to easily enter and use their businesses.

    These features include:

    • ramps
    • automatic doors
    • special bathroom facilities

    People with special needs are traveling more, and hospitality businesses are working to meet their needs. In addition, more people with special needs are in the workforce.

    Special needs include:

    • medical conditions
    • physical disabilities
    • mental disabilities

    Examples are guests with:

    • special diets
    • in wheelchairs

    An employee with a mental disability may need special training and supervision. Many senior citizens also have special needs due to physical and medical conditions. They may need physical help or a great deal of patience.

    Special needs also include:

    • needs
    • preferences based on religion
    • health
    • circumstances.

    Hospitality workers must use problem-solving and communication skills to meet these needs. For example, some religions do not allow the use of electricity on certain holy days. At these times, elevators and cannot be used. The hospitality worker may have to show the guest where the stairs are.

    Many people have good preferences based on:

    • health
    • taste
    • religious restrictions

    Handout/Graphic Organizers

    Module IV Handouts

    • Conflicts in the Workplace – Scenarios
    • Hospitality Services Careers O*Net Flashcards
    • Let’s Work It Out Notes
    • Let’s Work It Out Notes (Key)
    • Methods Used to Resolve Conflicts
    • Rubric for Teamwork and Conflict Resolution Activities
    • Training Plan Example
    • Training Plan

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Have students use the website http://www.TripAdvisor.com to research reviews on hotels in the area. Students should pick and respond to several bad reviews as a hotel manager should.
    • Students should use http://www.tripadvisor.com to write about the impact of online reviews to the lodging industry.

    References and Resources

    Textbook:

    • Reynolds, Johnny Sue. (2003). Hospitality Services. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox Company.

    Websites:

    • The Americans with Disabilities Act
      Provides access to Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) regulations for business and State and local governments, technical assistance materials.
      http://www.ada.gov/

    Customer Relations and Quality Services Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. According to the ADA checklist for New Lodging Facilities lodging built after what date must be built for persons with disabilities?
    http://www.ada.gov/

    • a. January 1993
    • b. January 1994
    • c. February 1993
    • d. February 1994

    2. According to the ADA checklist for New Lodging Facilities, if a parking lot has 100 spaces, how many handicapped spaces should the facility have?

    • a. 1 van
    • b. 1 van and 1 standard
    • c. 1 van and 2 standards
    • d. 1 van and 3 standards

    3. According to the ADA checklist for New Lodging Facilities, if a hotel has 300 rooms, how many handicapped accessible rooms should the facility have?

    • a. 3
    • b. 5
    • c. 7
    • d. 9

    4. There are eleven critical moments in a customers experience, which of the following is not considered one of them?

    • a. First phone call to the business
    • b. First view of the building entrance
    • c. Interaction with the groundskeepers
    • d. Wait for a table or Arrival of food

    5. Teamwork on the job is much like being part of a football team. The success of the whole team depends on several qualities. Which of these is not considered one of them?

    • a. individual attendance
    • b. punctuality
    • c. good attitude
    • d. interaction with management

    6. What is the best way to handle customer service complaints?

    • a. Blame someone else
    • b. Listen and have empathy for the customer’s feelings
    • c. Have positive support
    • d. Don’t allow the customer to vent

    7. Who should have insight into customer feedback?

    • a. Employee
    • b. Manager
    • c. Company leader
    • d. All of the above

  • V. Front Office

    Smiling Receptionist

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student gains additional academic knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of career and postsecondary educational opportunities within the hospitality services industry.

    • (A) apply advanced reading, writing, and mathematical skills necessary to perform job tasks in the hospitality industry

    (5) The student uses information technology tools specific to hospitality service careers to access, manage, integrate, and create information.

    • (A) examine types of technology used to manage hospitality service operations

    (8) The student reviews the importance of health, safety, and environmental management systems in organizations and their importance to organization performance and regulatory compliance.

    • (C) explain how key control procedures protect guests and minimize risks
    • (D) explain how cash control procedures are used to protect funds
    • (E) explain how guests and property are protected to minimize losses or liabilities

    (9) The student understands roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, inter- organizational systems, and the larger environment.

    • (M) use guidelines for access control to determine guest and group admission procedures
    • (N) apply traffic control procedures to facilitate movement of people and vehicles

    (11) The student uses technological knowledge and skills required to pursue careers in hotel services.

    • (A) describe the necessary information collected during the registration process to correctly register guests
    • (B) explain how room rates are established with arriving guests to assign the appropriate rate
    • (C) explain how availability, room status, and other standard operating guidelines are used to assign rooms to arriving guests
    • (D) explain how methods of payment are established with arriving guests to clarify payment procedures
    • (E) explain how a hotel’s computer system is used to create guest accounts
    • (F) summarize correct check-out procedures to prevent oversights or errors
    • (G) examine the account settlement procedures on different types of payment

    Module Content

    Overview of the Front Office is the fifth unit of study in the Hospitality Services course. This section contains six TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Room division
    • B. Front desk
    • C. Reservations
    • D. Uniformed services
    • E. Telecommunications
    • F. Guest cycle

    Refer to lesson: Take a Byte: Technology in the Hospitality Services Industry (focus on hotel industry) for additional resources, ideas and activities.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/take-a-byte-technology-in-the-hospitality-industry

    A. Room division
    A room division is the part of the hotel that handles all tasks involved in preparing and selling sleeping rooms.

    A room division has three main functions:

    • selling rooms
    • helping guests while they are at the hotel
    • cleaning rooms

    The manager in charge of the rooms division is the rooms director.

    In smaller hotels, room divisions consist of only a few people, while larger hotels’ rooms divisions are divided among departments.

    • Each department has several employees that handle various tasks.
    • The front office department handles the duties of selling rooms and helping guests.
    • The housekeeping department takes care of cleaning rooms.

    Security and engineering are both sometimes part of the rooms division; and sometimes one or both are not.

    The racking system is another major function of the room division.

    The racking system consists of:

    • Number of guests occupying the hotel.
    • Knowing which rooms are occupied.
    • Knowing who is in each room.
    • Knowing when new guests are expected in which rooms.
    • Tracking which rooms are ready to be cleaned.
    • Being aware of how many rooms are available to sell.
    • Tracking which guests have checked out.
    • Knowing which workers in different parts of the hotel need information.

    The term ‘racking system’ refers to the physical racks that were used before computers existed. These racks often held files and pockets with information about each room, and was used to track the above information about each room. They have mostly been replaced by computerized systems called property management systems.

    The property management system (also called a PMS) is a computerized information system that has mostly replaced the racking system. The racks that remain can sometimes be used to hold messages and/or mail for guests.

    Property management systems are usually networked and track all information that applied to racking systems, making them available to all computers on the hotel’s network. Both the housekeeping and the front office department (and all of its departments in a larger hotel) can access the same PMS to track needed information.

    The property management system can also be used for:

    • electronic key systems
    • guest records
    • accounting
    • inventory
    • purchasing
    • receiving

    Most of them also include e-mail, which enables communication between all departments.

    B. Front desk
    Handles everything related to selling sleeping rooms and interacting with guests.

    The manager of this department is usually called the front office manager.

    In large hotels, the duties of this manager are usually divided among four departments.

    These four departments are typically referred to as:

    • Reservations department
    • Front desk department
    • Uniformed services department
    • Telecommunications department

    C. Reservations
    Handles all things relative to a reservation, which is a promise to hold a room for a specific guest, on a specified date and time.

    The reservation is based upon two dates:

    • Arrival date: The date that the guest is expected to arrive.
    • Departure date: The date upon which the guest is expected to check out.

    There are two different types of reservations:

    • Non-guaranteed reservations – a reservation that expires at a specific time on the arrival date, usually 6 PM, at which time it may be sold to another guest.
    • Guaranteed reservations – The room is held until guest arrives, and is typically paid in advance by the guest.

    In the guaranteed reservations situation, if the guest does not show up, they still pay for the room. If the room is no longer available when the guest arrives, the hotel will find a room at another hotel for them for that night. Typically, one night’s lodging is paid, along with one long-distance phone call (to let relatives know of the new hotel), and transportation to the new hotel. This process is referred to as ‘walking the guest’ to another hotel.

    Hotels can take reservations by:

    • mail
    • phone
    • fax
    • internet

    Most guests still reserve by phone.

    The hotel’s reservations agent takes the call.

    The typical questions asked by this agent are:

    • How many guests are in the party?
    • What size room is wanted?
    • Which dates are wanted for the stay?
    • Do you have any special requests (common requests are for non-smoking room or a handicapped-accessible room).

    Because these agents are also responsible for selling the property itself, they are often referred to as ‘reservations sales agents’.

    In ‘selling the property’, their duties include:

    • Describing the hotel with enthusiasm.
    • Knowing the property that they are selling.
    • Knowing the differences in the rooms, and which amenities are offered at each property.
    • Knowing about entertainment and other activities nearby.

    On some occasions, reservations sales agents are located in a ‘central reservations center’ for the entire hotel chain. For this reason, they are often sent on ‘fam tours’.

    A ‘fam tour’ (familiarization tour) is an all expenses-paid trip to the hotel properties to learn about them. These trips are offered to travel agents, travel writers, and tour directors to help them become familiar with the property.

    Once the agent knows what the guest wants, he or she will provide information on room availability and rates. If the guest decides to reserve a room, the agent will reserve the room.

    When the agent reserves the room, a reservation record is made in the property management system (PMS).

    That record includes:

    • the guest’s name
    • address
    • phone number
    • dates of the reservation
    • room(s) assigned
    • special requests

    If the guest would like a guaranteed reservation, a credit card number is taken and a confirmation number is provided to them.

    Hotel chains and affiliation groups have central reservations centers. These are offices that handle reservations for all of the hotels in a chain or affiliation group.

    Common attributes of central reservations centers are:

    • Toll-free number used by guests to call for any hotels in the chain or affiliation group.
    • Reservations are entered into the PMS and are immediately available at the specific hotel through the system.
    • When guests reserve by fax, the agents at the central reservations center enter their information into the PMS.

    Guests are increasingly using the internet to make reservations.

    On websites, guests can view:

    • pictures of the property
    • read about features and amenities
    • take virtual tours before sending their information directly into the PMS

    The reservations manager is responsible for keeping an accurate room inventory.

    A room inventory is a count of the number of rooms sold and the number of rooms available each day. The PMS can help with this process by subtracting rooms sold from the total number of rooms available automatically. In the case of some smaller properties, this process is done by hand.

    Monitoring room inventory accurately is essential, because it contributes to changes in rates.

    • Rates tend to increase as the hotel sells out of rooms.
    • Rates tend to decrease when the hotel has more vacancy.

    Larger properties usually have a ‘reservations staff’ that consists of a reservations manager and several reservations sales agents.

    Smaller properties may have the front desk and/or the telecommunications staff handle reservations.

    D. Uniformed services
    The name ‘uniformed services’ is given because the staff typically wears uniforms. It may also be called ‘guest services’. It was initially developed in 1928 for the Tremont House in Boston, where there were four stories and no elevator. A bellhop was employed to assist guests with their heavy luggage when going up the stairs.

    The term ‘bellhop’ came from a bell being rung, and the attendants knowing that it is time to ‘hop to it.’ Today, they are typically called ‘bell attendants’. They are typically headed by a supervisor called the ‘bell captain’.

    Door attendants take care of all guest needs as guests arrive at a hotel. The door staff are generally considered the coordinators of the front drive.

    Bell attendants today remain responsible for helping guests with luggage into the hotel and to the front desk. In addition, it is typically a duty of theirs to ensure that the room is in order. Typically they describe the hotel’s amenities and features and encourage guests to make use of them.

    Typically, the ‘bell attendant’, the ‘door attendant’, or another member of uniformed service are the first and last impressions of the hotel, making them (and their appearance) a vital part of the hotel and its operations.

    Parking and transportation departments are featured at many larger first-class hotels. Many luxury hotels provide valet parking, and hire drivers who take shuttle vans to and from airports.

    A concierge is typically found in the information and arrangements department.

    Their duties include:

    • Providing information about entertainment, sports, amusements, transportation, tours, and babysitting.
    • Being familiar with the hotel and its surrounding area.
    • Making reservations at local restaurants and/or theaters.
    • Being available at a concierge desk or station.

    Larger hotels may have two or more concierges on staff.

    E. Telecommunications

    This department consists of:

    • the telephone system
    • the computer software that runs it
    • the telecommunications staff

    The telecommunications system is typically connected to the PMS, and is used as a vital part of running the hotel as a business.

    Full- and limited-service hotels have at least one phone per room. Specialty properties and institutional properties may or may not have phones in each room (for example, a bed and breakfast or a dormitory).

    Luxury and full-service hotels may have a telephone operator, sometimes called PBX (private branch exchange) operators. This handles calls within the hotel, often from room-to-room.

    PBX operators often handle wake-up calls, which are placed by hotel operators to the guest room at a specific time by request.

    Many properties now have an automated phone system, which allows guests to place calls without help from the operator (PBX).

    F. Guest cycle

    Prearrival stage:

    • The guest cycle consists of all experiences that a guest will encounter between reservations through check-out.
    • Reservations are typically made in advance, via telephone, internet, or fax. On some occasions, it is started at the front desk.

    Arrival stage:

    • Front desk
      • agent oversees greeting and check-in
    • Greeting – The welcome phase
      • guests are greeted
      • assisted with any questions
      • provided keys and other necessary items
      • referred, if necessary, to concierge or other services
    • Check-in – the process of:
      • registering guests
      • assigning rooms
      • distributing keys
    • Registration – the process of keeping a list of everyone who is staying at the hotel. A registration record contains information about the guest’s:
      • method of payment
      • arrival and departure dates
      • special requests
    • Methods of payment are typically:
      • credit or debit cards
      • but typically include cash and personal checks as well
    • Room Assignment – The type of room requested is assigned based upon availability, and also based upon factors like disability and preference.
    • Guests with disabilities must be assigned a ‘barrier-free’ room in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act. This means that barriers like stairs cannot hinder a wheelchair or other assisting device, and that access rails to places like restroom facilities must be available.

    Occupancy stage

    Guest Transactions:
    A financial transaction occurs any time a person buys something and pays for it. Outside of the purchase of the room, several other transactions often take place for each guest on the hotel property. These transactions may take place within the guest’s room, or even in an on-site store. On both occasions, the guest may pay for it on site or bill to their room.

    When a guest checks in, a guest folio is started (also called a guest account). A guest folio records all charges that the guest makes after check-in.

    This may include things like:

    • mini-bar purchases
    • internet access
    • room service.

    PMS is typically used to track such transactions, but they can also be tracked manually as well.

    Night Audit – an audit is a careful examination of the financial records of a person or company. Every night, an audit is done of all financial transactions done at the hotel for that day.

    During this process:

    • Balancing daily financial transactions.
    • Compare cash, checks, and credit card receipts on hand with records in the PMS.
    • Make sure that no money was lost or stolen.
    • Post charges and taxes to guest folio.
    • Correct any errors found and/or report to a supervisor or head auditor.

    Departure stage

    Checkout is the final portion of the cycle. The first part is bill presentation.

    During the bill presentation, the final copy of the bill is given to the guest.

    It includes:

    • all room charges
    • taxes
    • other transactions carried out during the stay

    With PMS systems being used these days, bills are often printed out in advance and slipped under the guest’s door early on the final morning of their stay. The next portion of the checkout is the account settlement.

    The account settlement is the process of correcting any errors in the bill, then taking the final payment from the guest. Many hotels do this on an automated basis, using the credit card on file in the PMS, unless otherwise directed by the guest. After this is done, keys are collected.

    During the key collection, the front desk agent ensures that the guest has left nothing in safes or the safe deposit box. Many keys are now considered ‘disposable’, but are collected and recycled in the system when possible.

    Processing payment is the next step. In this step, the payment is recorded and a record is made of all charges being covered. A guest history record is also made at this time.

    A guest history record is kept by a lodging property that records information about each guest each time they stay at the property (or chain). This can be used by agents for reference on future stays.

    Finally, the room status is updated. Typically, it is shown as ‘occupied’ or ‘vacant’. Statuses are also kept for housekeeping, who is in need of knowing which rooms are in need of cleaning before the next occupancy.

    Handout/Graphic Organizers

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    References and Resources:

    Textbook:

    • Reynolds, Johnny Sue. (2003). Hospitality Services. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox Company.

    Websites:

    http://www.historichotels.org

    Front Office Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. A rooms division is the part of the hotel that handles all tasks involved in preparing and selling sleeping rooms. What are the three main functions of the rooms division?

    • a. selling rooms
    • b. helping guests while they are at the hotel
    • c. cleaning rooms
    • d. All of the above

    2. The term ‘racking system’ refers to the physical racks that were used before computers existed. The racking system is another major function of the rooms division. What does the racking system consist of?

    • a. Number of guests occupying the hotel and knowing which rooms are occupied.
    • b. Knowing who is in each room and knowing when new guests are expected in which rooms.
    • c. Tracking which rooms are ready to be cleaned and being aware of how many rooms are available to sell.
    • d. All of the above

    3. In large hotels, the duties of the front desk manager are usually divided among four departments. What are the four departments?

    • a. Reservations, Front desk, Uniformed services and Telecommunications department
    • b. Reservations, Front desk, Armed services and Telecommunications department
    • c. Reservations, Front desk, Armed services and Online department
    • d. Reservations, Front desk, Uniformed services and Online department

    4. A Non-guaranteed reservation is a reservation that expires at a specific time on the arrival date and may be sold to another guest. What time does the room usually expire?

    • a. 6 PM
    • b. 7 PM
    • c. 3 PM
    • d. 4 PM

    5. For a guaranteed reservation, the room is held until guest arrives, and is typically paid in advance by the guest. If the guest does not show up, do they still pay for the room?

    • a. Yes
    • b. No

    6. The name ‘uniformed services’ is given because the staff typically wears uniforms. It may also be called ‘guest services’. What hotel was guest services initially developed for?

    • a. Hilton
    • b. Marriott
    • c. Tremont House
    • d. Waldorf-Astoria New York

    7. Guest services came about in a hotel where there were four stories and no elevator. A bellhop was employed to assist guests with what?

    • a. Heavy luggage when going up the stairs
    • b. Restaurant choices
    • c. Laundry
    • d. Cleaning rooms

  • VI. Housekeeping

    Housecleaning Cart

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student gains additional academic knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of career and postsecondary educational opportunities within the hospitality services industry.

    • (A) apply advanced reading, writing, and mathematical skills necessary to perform job tasks in the hospitality industry

    (9) The student understands roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, inter-organizational systems, and the larger environment.

    • (F) summarize the importance of housekeeping standards to assure guest satisfaction
    • (G) prepare a staffing guide to schedule various staff positions to assure guest satisfaction
    • (H) investigate how operations manage inventories to maintain adequate quantities of recycled and non-recycled items
    • (I) explain how a status report is used to ensure housekeeping standards
    • (J) outline the factors to consider when determining the size of an inventory purchase to maintain desired quantities based on varying occupancy levels

    Module Content

    Housekeeping is the sixth unit of study in the Hospitality Services course. This section contains five TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Cleanliness
    • B. Guest rooms
    • C. Public areas
    • D. Laundry
    • E. Contract services

    A. Cleanliness
    Guest rooms and public washrooms must be both clean and sanitary. Clean is the state of being free of dirt and bad odors. Sanitary is the state of being free from the disease-causing pathogens or having a safe level of pathogens.

    Cleaning
    A major goal of housekeeping is to prevent the growth of mildew. Mildew causes bad odor and stains linens.

    Mildew can grow on:

    • towels
    • shower curtains
    • sheets
    • bathroom fixtures
    • floors

    Housekeeping must make sure mildew does not grow by cleaning surfaces and taking linens to the laundry. Washing linens properly will prevent mildew.
    Another major cause of dirty rooms is dust.

    Dust can

    • irritate the eyes
    • noses
    • throats of guests

    Dust can be controlled by daily dusting and vacuuming.

    Sanitation
    A pathogen is a living substance that can cause disease.

    Pathogens include:

    • bacteria
    • viruses
    • fungi
    • parasites

    Guest rooms often provide good places for pathogens to grow. Many different people use guest rooms and hotel facilities every day. These people can bring pathogens with them, even when the guest is not sick. These pathogens can spread diseases.

    Sanitation consists of actions taken to prevent and control disease.

    Sanitation includes the processes of:

    • cleaning
    • sanitizing

    Cleaning is the physical removal of dirt from surfaces. Sanitizing is the treatment of a clean surface with heat or chemicals to reduce the number of disease-causing microorganisms to safe levels. The items that must be sanitized are the bathrooms and linens.

    B. Guest rooms

    The staff who are responsible for the guest rooms are:

    • executive housekeeper
    • assistant housekeeper
    • inspectors
    • room attendants

    Entering Guest Rooms
    Room attendants should do their jobs without bothering guests. There is often conflict between when the room attendants’ work and when guests are in their rooms. Many guests stay more than one night and as a result, the guests belongings will be all around the room when it is cleaned. Due to this, a room attendant must learn how to properly enter guest rooms and how to work around guest belongings.

    The assistant housekeeper gives the attendant a list of rooms to clean. The room attendant must knock on the door and say “housekeeping”. If there is no answer, the room attendant should repeat the process one more time. If there is still no answer, the room attendant should unlock the door and slowly enter the door. If there are guests still in the room, the room attendant should apologize for coming in. Then he or she should ask when a good time to come back would be.

    Cleaning Guest Rooms
    The main job of a room attendant is cleaning the room.

    It is the attendant’s responsibility to maintain the hotel’s standards of:

    • cleanliness
    • sanitation
    • appearance

    A room attendant cleans an average of 15 to 16 rooms a day. Approximately 18 to 25 minutes are allowed for cleaning each room.

    Within this short amount of time, attendants must perform the following tasks:

    • empty trash
    • dust all furniture
    • clean mirrors
    • change sheets and make beds
    • vacuum carpet
    • clean and sanitize the bathroom
    • provide guest room supplies

    Attendants must be efficient and organized. Following a specific order and procedure helps room attendants to maintain standards of cleanliness, sanitation, and appearance.

    C. Public areas

    The public areas include:

    • hallways
    • stairs
    • lobby
    • lounges
    • public restrooms
    • restaurants
    • meeting rooms
    • banquet halls
    • recreation areas

    Retail stores and the offices of the hotel staff are also considered public areas. The public areas are also known as “the house”, and the workers responsible for cleaning them are known as house attendants or house staff. These workers may also be known as public area attendants, public area housekeepers, or lobby attendants. The house attendants are assigned daily cleaning tasks in the public areas. In addition, they are responsible for deep cleaning projects in the public areas and the guest rooms.

    Some house attendants work along with the room attendants. They gather dirty linens from the carts and take them to the laundry. They also empty the carts’ trash bags and vacuum cleaner bags. Some house attendants are responsible for keeping the cleaning supplies in stock in the storeroom.

    Other house attendants clean the public areas. They:

    • vacuum hallways during the day
      clean and supply the public restrooms
    • clean windows
    • polish metal or wood surfaces such as railings.

    Often, meeting and banquet rooms must be cleaned between events. Some public areas are cleaned at night when fewer people are around.
    Most hotels have a deep cleaning program for both guest rooms and public areas. The manager assigns special cleaning projects so that each guest room or public area is deep cleaned once a quarter (that is, every three months).

    D. Laundry
    The laundry department is part of housekeeping. The laundry department is responsible for the cleaning and maintenance of all linens.

    The staff of the laundry usually includes:

    • the laundry supervisor
    • laundry attendants
    • seamsters

    The laundry supervisor supervises the attendants and seamsters. The supervisor is also responsible for keeping track of all linens and replacing linens when necessary. In a small property, the executive housekeeper performs the duties of the laundry room supervisor. The laundry attendants perform all the tasks involved in washing laundry. The seamsters repair worn or torn linens. Seamsters used to be called seamstresses.

    The laundry department has three major tasks:

    • washing laundry
    • care of linens
    • inventory of linens

    E. Contract services

    There are two types of housekeeping services:

    • in – house housekeeping services
    • contract housekeeping services

    Hotels use the type of service that best fits their budget, staffing, and available space.

    In – House
    In house – housekeeping services are done by housekeepers who are employees of the hotel. Hotel facilities, equipment, and supplies are used.

    Advantages

    • The employees work for the hotel.
    • The employees have to wear the hotel’s uniform and follow the rules and standards

    The hotel management has control over the employees.

    P(tight). Disadvantages

    • can be expensive to operate
    • takes a great deal of space to set up a hotel laundry facility
    • must fill all job positions to operate

    There are certain tasks that require specialized knowledge, experience, and equipment.

    Contract
    Contract housekeeping services are performed by a company that is not part of the hotel. The outside company hires the staff and owns the equipment used. The outside company provides all supplies needed.

    Advantages

    • more cost effective
    • the company will pick up laundry and sort, wash, dry and fold the laundry before bringing it back
    • the company will pick up and deliver every day except Sundays and holidays

    Do not have to pay for employee salaries, benefits, and training for contract services

    Disadvantages

    • security problems
    • possibility of poor cleaning
    • lack of flexibility when emergency cleaning needs occur

    Handout/Graphic Organizers

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Ask a local hotel for a tour their facility to show students the housekeeping facilities.
    • Have students develop a checklist of housekeeping duties.
    • Have students research pathogens such as viruses, bacteria and fungus using the website http://www.fightbac.org/

    References and Resources

    Textbook:

    • Reynolds, Johnny Sue. (2003). Hospitality Services. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox Company.

    Housekeeping Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. How many rooms does a room attendant clean per day?

    • a. 10-12
    • b. 12-15
    • c. 15-16
    • d. 18-19

    2. How many minutes does the room attendant spend cleaning each room?

    • a. 15-20
    • b. 18-25
    • c. 20-25
    • d. 25-30

    3. The major cleaning goal of the housekeeper is to prevent growth of what?

    • a. Fungi
    • b. Bacteria
    • c. Mildew
    • d. Dust

    4. What is the difference between being clean and being sanitary?

    • a. There is not a difference. They are the same thing.
    • b. Sanitary is the state of being free of dirt and bad odors. Clean is the state of being free from the disease-causing pathogens or having a safe level of pathogens.
    • c. Clean is the state of being free of dirt and bad odors. Sanitary is the state of being free from the disease-causing pathogens or having a safe level of pathogens.
    • d. Clean is the state of being free of dirt and bad pathogens. Sanitary is the state of being free from the disease-causing odors or having a safe level of odors.

    5. How should a room attendant then enter the room they need to clean?

    • a. Open the door
    • b. Knock and open the door.
    • c. Knock, say housekeeping, and wait.
    • d. Knock, say “housekeeping”, wait, and knock again.

    6. What room cleaning tasks should the housekeeper complete?

    • a. dust some furniture, clean mirrors, leave the dirty sheets and make beds, vacuum carpet, clean and sanitize the bathroom, and provide guest room supplies
    • b. empty trash, dust all furniture, clean mirrors, change sheets and make beds, vacuum carpet, clean and sanitize the bathroom, and provide guest room supplies
    • c. empty trash, wipe mirrors, leave dirty sheets and make beds, light vacuum, only clean the bathroom, and provide guest room supplies
    • d. empty trash, change sheets and make beds, clean and sanitize the bathroom, and provide guest room supplies

    7. The laundry department has three major tasks: washing laundry, care of linens, and what?

    • a. Cleaning rooms
    • b. Maintenance of the washing machines
    • c. Making beds
    • d. Inventory of linens

  • VII. Human Resources

    Man Filling out Tax Form

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student gains additional academic knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of career and postsecondary educational opportunities within the hospitality services industry.

    • (A) apply advanced reading, writing, and mathematical skills necessary to perform job tasks in the hospitality industry

    (2) The student uses listening, oral, written, and media communication skills in creating, expressing, and interpreting information and ideas, including technical terminology and information.

    • (A) interpret verbal and nonverbal communication

    (3) The student researches career opportunities and qualifications to broaden awareness of careers available in the hospitality industry.

    • (C) manage work responsibilities and life responsibilities
    • (F) explain what is needed to achieve job advancement
    • (L) develop written organizational policies to ensure successful hospitality operations, guest satisfaction, and employee success
    • (N) research the major duties and qualifications for hospitality managerial positions

    (4) The student examines and reviews ethical and legal responsibilities related to guests, employees, and conduct within the establishment to maintain high industry standards.

    • (B) examine laws regarding hiring, harassment, and safety issues
    • (C) determine legal responsibilities and employer policies
    • (D) analyze ethical considerations

    Human Relations Module Content

    Overview of the Human Relations is the seventh unit of study in the Hospitality Services course. This section contains six TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Recruitment
    • B. Compensation and benefits
    • C. Policies and procedures
    • D. Performance management
    • E. Training and development
    • F. Employment law compliance

    Module VII Handouts

    A. Recruitment
    Recruitment is the process of finding candidates for job openings. Recruitment can sometimes be called staffing. When a worker leaves a business, they leave a job open. The manager must fill this position as soon as possible. Human Resources (HR) works with the manager to find the best worker as quickly as possible.
    Recruitment is one of the main responsibilities of HR.

    Recruitment also:

    • finds candidates
    • screens candidates
    • performs reference checks
    • does testing

    There are many ways to find candidates. The typical way is to place an advertisement. HR works with the manager to write the ad. HR then takes care of the placing the ad and collecting the resumes that come in. There are also other ways to look for candidates. Many company websites have a section for career opportunities. HR may be responsible for maintaining that part of the website. Career fairs, employment agencies, and executive search firms are other ways to find candidates.

    Once HR has a group of candidates, the process typically follows a plan.

    • The group of candidates must be screened, or determined which candidates will be good for the job
    • The manager will interview the candidates and select two to four best candidates
    • HR will check references for these candidates or talk to the person who is willing to speak about the candidates abilities
    • HR will handle any testing that may be required for the job
    • HR will then present all the information gathered about the candidate for the manager to select one to hire

    B. Compensation and benefits

    Compensation consists of the money paid and benefits provided to a person for his or her work.

    • wage is the term used for the amount of money that a person is paid per hour
    • salary is an annual amount of money that a person is paid

    Managers and professionals are usually paid a salary. People who are paid a salary are eligible for bonuses.

    Another part of compensation is benefits. Benefits include all forms of compensation other than salary and wages. One benefit that most employees get is social security. Social security is a federal program that ensures workers will get some income after they retire. Social security was established through Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA). Through FICA, the federal government takes a small percentage of every worker’s paycheck and puts it in the social security fund. The benefit part is the employers contribution. For each employee, the employer contributes to the social security fund an amount equal to the amount of money that the employee paid.
    Another benefit that employers must offer is worker’s compensation. Worker’s compensation requires that the employer must provide medical and salary coverage for an illness or injury that an employee experiences as a result of the job. Each state has developed its own workers’ compensation laws.

    There are other benefits that an employer may provide such as:

    • paid vacation
    • paid sick days
    • health insurance
    • life insurance
    • disability insurance
    • saving plans
    • retirement plans

    A company may also pay educational benefits to help employees get a college degree. They may also pay benefits such as a wellness program.

    C. Policies and procedures
    Every company must have policies and procedures that ensure the safe and efficient running of the company. HR usually works with management to develop these policies and procedures. Once the policies and procedures are established, HR develops an employee handbook which is a document that explains all of these policies and procedures.

    Companies need policies and procedures for many areas such as:

    • attendance
    • appropriate dress
    • employee conduct
    • personal phone calls
    • smoking

    In addition, most companies have a formal discipline policy. This is to ensure fair treatment of all employees. It is usually used when employee behavior is causing serious problems in job performance or to other employees and customers. Minor problems are handled by the employee’s direct supervisor. Minor problems include occasional lateness and minor problems in job performance.

    Serious problems are covered in the discipline policy. It usually requires that the employee receive several warnings about the problem. The first warning is usually verbal. The second warning is usually written. There are also specific steps to be taken if the behavior is serious enough to lead to suspension or termination from the job. These steps usually include documentation by the supervisor of the employee’s behavior and work.
    There are certain behaviors that a company cannot tolerate from employees while they are at work. These behaviors are grounds for immediate dismissal from the job.

    Examples of this are:

    • fighting
    • insubordination
    • consuming or being under the influence of drugs or alcohol
    • possession of firearms
    • theft
    • damaging company property
    • violation of safety rules

    D. Performance management
    The manager or supervisor of each employee has the major responsibility for each employee’s training and performance. However, HR does some training and provides support to managers.

    One of the major tasks of HR is to develop a job description for each job. A job description is a document that lists the essential functions and requirements for a job. HR usually develops job descriptions with the managers. Many companies list their job descriptions on their Websites.

    Another major responsibility of HR is to coordinate performance reviews. HR often uses the job descriptions to develop performance review forms. HR works with managers that reviews are done in a timely fashion.

    E. Training and development
    HR is involved in new employee orientation and training. HR usually has orientations for new workers to learn the many things about the company. HR also provides training in a variety of areas, such as safety. HR also works with the managers to help them provide the training that their workers need.

    F. Employment law compliance
    There are many local, state, and federal laws that employers must follow. The laws change frequently and are often very complex. In addition to the laws themselves, many regulations based on these laws must be followed. One of the major responsibilities of HR is to make sure that the company knows the laws and regulations and follows them. Following appropriate laws and regulations is called regulatory compliance. HR is involved if the company is sued.

    Laws and regulations that affect HR can be organized into three groups:

    • equal opportunity
    • worker’s rights
    • safety laws

    Equal Opportunity
    In the workplace, people should be evaluated based on their work performance. All workers should be treated with dignity and respect. Discrimination is treating people unfairly, based on irrelevant characteristics.
    Over the years, national, state, and local governments have passed a variety of laws to ensure that workers are treated fairly.

    Workers’ Rights
    Protected by a variety of laws and regulations.

    • Fair Labor Standards Act (http://www.dol.gov/whd/flsa/) main provisions are minimum wage, overtime pay, restrictions on employment of children, and record keeping.
    • Equal Pay Act (http://www.eeoc.gov) maintains that men and women must be paid equal amounts if they doing the same job or substantially similar jobs.
    • Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) (http://www.dol.gov/whd/fmla/) entitles eligible employees up to 12 weeks of unpaid, job-protected leave in a 12-month period for specified family and medical reasons.

    Safety Laws
    The major safety law is the federal Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA). The purpose of OSHA is to assure safe and healthful working conditions for all workers. OSHA also established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) (http://www.osha.gov/ ) This agency makes sure that the laws and regulations in the OSHA are carried out.

    Handout/Graphic Organizers

    Module VII Handouts

    • Social Studies Assessment Questions
      h4. Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas
    • Have students create a job description for a hospitality job. Then, they can act as the manager looking to hire for the specific job.
    • Have students research reasonable accommodations that could be made for employees with disabilities using http://www.ada.gov and create a Prezi (http://www.prezi.com) to present.
    • Have students create a Glogster http://www.glogster.com about one of the laws that affects HR.
    • Assign students the Social Studies Assessment Questions to review ethical and legal responsibilities in the hospitality industry.

    References and Resources

    Textbook:

    • Reynolds, Johnny Sue. (2003). Hospitality Services. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox Company.

    Websites:

    • The Americans with Disabilities Act
      Provides access to Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) regulations for business and State and local governments, technical assistance materials.
      http://www.ada.gov/
    • The Civil Rights Act of 1964
      The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is the nation’s benchmark civil rights legislation, and it continues to resonate in America. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin.
      http://www.justice.gov/crt/about/cor/coord/titlevi.php
    • Equal Pay Act
      The Equal Pay Act requires that men and women in the same workplace be given equal pay for equal work. The jobs need not be identical, but they must be substantially equal. Job content (not job titles) determines whether jobs are substantially equal.
      http://www.eeoc.gov
    • Fair Labor Standards Act
      US Department of Labor: The wage and hour mission is to promote and achieve compliance with labor standards to protect and enhance the welfare of the Nation’s workforce.
      http://www.dol.gov/whd/flsa/
    • Glogster
      Express yourself with the ultimate GLOG (™) – graphic blog. Mix Web, Images, Text, Music and Video.
      http://www.glogster.com
    • OSHA
      Provides information related to job related safety and health issues, as well as compliance related resources.
      http://www.osha.gov/
    • Prezi
      A presentation tool that helps you organize and share your ideas.
      http://www.prezi.com

    Human Resources Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. According to the US Department of Government FMLA, which situation is covered by this act?

    • a. A new tattoo
    • b. Caring for a sibling with a serious health condition
    • c. Birth of a child up to two years
    • d. Placement of an adopted child up to one year

    2. What is FICA?

    • a. It was passed to make sure that people with disabilities are treated fairly in public places and in the workplace.
    • b. The federal government takes a small percentage of every worker’s paycheck and puts it in the social security fund.
    • c. It maintains that men and women must be paid equal amounts if they doing the same job or substantially similar jobs.
    • d. It bans employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

    3. What is The Equal Pay Act?

    • a. It was passed to make sure that people with disabilities are treated fairly in public places and in the workplace.
    • b. The federal government takes a small percentage of every worker’s paycheck and puts it in the social security fund.
    • c. It maintains that men and women must be paid equal amounts if they doing the same job or substantially similar jobs.
    • d. It bans employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

    4. What is The Americans with Disabilities Act?

    • a. It was passed to make sure that people with disabilities are treated fairly in public places and in the workplace.
    • b. The federal government takes a small percentage of every worker’s paycheck and puts it in the social security fund.
    • c. It maintains that men and women must be paid equal amounts if they doing the same job or substantially similar jobs.
    • d. It bans employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

    5. There are certain behaviors that a company cannot tolerate from employees while they are at work. These behaviors are grounds for immediate dismissal from the job. Which of these would NOT be grounds for dismissal?

    • a. fighting
    • b. insubordination
    • c. consuming or being under the influence of drugs or alcohol
    • d. reporting a theft

    6. Which act was President Kennedy involved in its proposal to the House?

    • a. Osh Act
    • b. Fair labor standards act
    • c. Civil Rights Act
    • d. American disabilities act

    7. According to OSHA’s website, http://www.osha.gov/oshstats/commonstats.html out of the “fatal four”, which is the most deadly?

    • a. Electrocution
    • b. Falls
    • c. Struck by an object
    • d. Caught-in/between

  • IX. Food and Beverage Industry

    Restaurant Table

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student gains additional academic knowledge and skills required to pursue the full range of career and postsecondary educational opportunities within the hospitality services industry.

    • (A) apply advanced reading, writing, and mathematical skills necessary to perform job tasks in the hospitality industry
    • (C) develop marketing techniques

    (9) The student understands roles within teams, work units, departments, organizations, inter-organizational systems, and the larger environment.

    • (A) implement a set of operating procedures to comply with company requirements
    • (B) evaluate prepared foods for quality and presentation to set quality standards in accordance with company standards
    • (C) practice basic nutrition skills by planning, preparing, and presenting quality foods
    • (D) evaluate types of kitchen equipment to match equipment with correct cooking methodology
    • (E) use detailed processes to provide customer service in accordance with company policy

    (10) The student uses technological knowledge and skills required to pursue careers in food service.

    • (A) use technology to develop a set of operating procedures to comply with company requirements
    • (B) analyze prepared foods for quality and presentation according to company standards
    • (C) provide customer service by following appropriate industry standards

    Food and Beverage Industry Module Content

    Food and Beverage Industry is the ninth unit of study in the Hospitality Services course. This section contains eleven TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Types of food service businesses
    • B. Functions of food service
    • C. Types of menus
    • D. Food production
    • E. Food presentation
    • F. Front of the house functions and staff
    • G. Back of the house functions and staff
    • H. Purchasing and receiving
    • I. Banquets
    • J. Room service
    • K. Beverage department

    A. Types of food service businesses
    There are many ways to categorize food and beverage businesses. Customers tend to categorize them by the price.

    Price categories are usually

    • budget
    • moderate
    • expensive
    • very expensive

    Types of service include

    • self-service
    • sit-down service

    The food and beverage industry categorizes food service businesses into two main groups:

    • commercial
    • institutional.

    A third category, food service within a consumer business, has aspects of commercial and institutional food service.

    Organization of the food and Beverage Industry

    • Commercial
      • Quick Service
        • Fast-food
        • Cafeterias
        • Buffets
        • Carryout
      • Full Service
        • Fine dining
        • Casual
      • Catering
        • On-premise
        • Off-premise
      • Hotel and Club
    • Institutional
      • School
      • Health Care
      • Business and Industry
      • Institutional Food Contractors
    • Foodservice Within a Consumer Business
      • Recreation
      • Retail
      • Transportation

    B. Functions of food service
    Each food and beverage business is unique yet each one has to perform the same functions. In a small business, one person may perform several of these functions. In a large business, there is usually a separate department for each function.

    Below are the 12 functions in Foodservice Businesses.

    • Function
      • Menu Planning
      • Production
      • Service
      • Purchasing and Receiving
      • Food Safety and Sanitation
      • Management
      • Marketing and Sales
      • Human Resources
      • Accounting
      • Security
      • Safety and Emergency Procedures
      • Engineering and Maintenance

    C. Types of menus
    Menus are classified according to how frequently the same foods are offered.

    The four classifications of menus are

    • fixed
    • cycle
    • market
    • hybrid

    Fixed menus

    • The same foods are offered every day
    • It hardly ever changes
    • Found in fast-food restaurants, ethnic restaurants and steakhouses

    Cycle menu

    • Foods change daily for a set period of time
    • At the end of that period of time, the menu repeats itself
    • Common cycle lengths are every week, every two weeks, or every month
    • Provide some variety for people who eat in the same place every day
    • Found in schools, hospitals, and other institutions

    Market menu

    • Changes with the availability of food products
    • Takes advantage of foods that are in season, inexpensive, and easy to get
    • Becoming more and more popular with chefs and customers
    • Challenge the chef’s creativity to use fresh and seasonal products
    • Often change each day

    Hybrid menu

    • Combination of two types of menus
    • A popular combination is the fixed menu with a cycle menu or a market menu
    • Part of the menu remains the same, and part of the menu changes
      • An example is a restaurant may have a special every night that features fresh foods in season

    D. Food production
    Food production is the process of changing raw foods into menu items. The major difference between food production in your home and food production in a food and beverage operation is quantity.
    Most foodservice operations serve large numbers of people every day.

    A major challenge in the foodservice industry is consistency or producing the same result every time. Every time a food item is made, the result is exactly the same in terms of quality and quantity (amount produced).

    The major tool in consistency is the standardized recipe which has been tested for consistency. It includes detailed instructions so that anyone with basic cooking skills can make the recipe. Cooks should used these recipes exactly as they are written.

    A standardized recipe should include the following items:

    • each ingredient, including spices
    • precise amounts of each ingredient
    • preparation instruction in detail
    • portion size
    • yield (number of portions)

    Items are prepared for final cooking in the preparation area.

    The food preparation area is often divided into six areas:

    • meat/fish/poultry
    • vegetable
    • salad
    • sandwich
    • bread
    • dessert

    The goal of these preparation areas is to prepare quality items in quantities that can meet customer demands. Preparing too much can be expensive if the extra food must be thrown away.
    The standardized recipe will specify the type of cooking method to use. Cooking methods are chosen that produce the desired menu item.

    There are three basic cooking methods:

    • moist heat
    • dry heat
    • dry heat with fat

    E. Food presentation
    Food presentation is the art of making food look attractive and appetizing. Many of the design concepts in food presentation are from the study of graphic art. When food is arranged on a plate, it should have balance, proportion, and contrast. When a guest sees attractive food, it causes the digestive system to get ready for eating by secreting digestive juices. This reaction to food is summarized in the facial expression.

    Food presentation consists of three aspects:

    • plating
    • portion control
    • art

    Plating is the placing of food on a plate. The plate is like a canvas for a painter. The food is like the paint. However, there is more to plating than painting with food. The cook or chef must take care that the food is handled properly. Portion control is also an important part of plating.

    Food is not the ideal artistic medium. Food usually is moist and greasy. If wet and greasy foods are put on a plate, the liquids will run together. As a result, the food becomes soggy, and the appearance is unappetizing. Therefore, food must be removed from the cooking utensil in a way that drains as much liquid as possible. In addition, hot foods should be served on hot plates. Cold foods should be served on cold plates.

    Plate rims must be clean. There should be no drips or spots. The food on the plate should look neat. Many restaurants have someone who performs quality control. This person looks at each plate before it is served. The quality control person makes sure that the food looks good and that the plate rims are clean. Any plates not meeting the standard are sent back to the kitchen.

    Portion control is another important part of food presentation. Portion control is making sure that each portion of a food item is always the correct size.

    Portion control is important for two reasons:

    • customers
    • cost control

    Each customer must be served the same amount of food. If you see that another customer is getting a larger portion, you will feel cheated. Portion control also helps the food service control costs. If the portion sizes vary, the amount of food used in portion varies. It is difficult to control costs if portion sizes vary.

    Once the preparation and portion issues are settled, the chef or cook can work on the artistic appearance of the food. The shapes, sizes, textures, and colors of the food on the plate should balance each other. When planning the menu, the chef has to look on the plate. It is always appealing to have something colorful. However, many foods are not that interesting in color.

    Another way to add color and interest to a plate is to add a garnish. To garnish means to decorate a food or a plate of food. Garnishes should always be edible. The garnish should also harmonize with the taste of the food.

    F. Front of the house functions and staff
    Front-of-the-house refers to the area a hospitality business that guests usually see. In a restaurant, the front of the house usually includes the lobby or entrance, the hosts/hostess stand, and the dining room. Front of the house employees are the employees who work directly with guests.

    The front of the house is responsible for the following six functions:

    • seating guests
    • selling food
    • transmitting orders to the kitchen
    • serving customers
    • bussing tables
    • obtaining payment from customers

    Seating is the process of finding seats for customers in a restaurant. When customers enter a restaurant, they are seated by a host or hostess. Customers should be seated as soon as possible after they enter the restaurant. Customers should be seated so that they will be served in the most efficient way.

    There are many ways a restaurant can give tables. The first is a reservation, which is the promise of a table in a restaurant. The restaurant holds the table until the customer needs it. The customers can call ahead to reserve a table for a specific number of people for a particular day and time.

    The second way is for customers that walk-in. The customers walk in the door and expect to be seated. Many casual restaurants do not take reservations. This is also called open seating. Customers are seated in a first come first serve basis.

    The next step the customer sees is sales. This is when the server takes the customers food order. Servers use a process called suggestive selling which is recommending menu items a customer might like. Often, customers know exactly what food they want.

    Desserts are a way servers can increase their sales. Many restaurants display their desserts so that customers can view them before beginning their meals. This suggestive selling technique has been used successfully by many restaurants. Another excellent way to highlight desserts is to bring out a sample tray of all the desserts that are offered. This sample tray often tempts people into purchasing dessert and after dinner drinks.

    A critical part of the restaurant business is getting the customers orders to the kitchen, then getting the correct orders back to the correct customers. Each restaurant develops its own system for the process. The steps in this process are an important part of training a new server. This process can be broken into five steps. Three steps are done by the server. The other two are done by the kitchen staff. It is essential that the servers and the kitchen staff work together as a team.

    The five steps are:

    • taking the order
    • transmitting the order
    • preparing the order
    • checking the order
      retrieving the order

    Front of the House staff consists of one or more

    • managers
    • host or hostess
    • servers
    • bussers
    • cashiers

    Restaurants that serve alcoholic beverages will have bartenders. Large restaurants will often have trainers, workers whose major responsibility is to train new employees. The exact job titles and responsibilities often vary from restaurant to restaurant.

    G. Back of the house functions and staff
    The back of the house (BOH) is the area in a hospitality business that guests usually do not see. It is also called the heart of the house.

    In a restaurant these areas include:

    • the kitchen
    • receiving and storage areas
    • business offices

    BOH employees include all employees whose work does not directly involve interaction with guests.

    The BOH is responsible for the 7 functions

    • food production
    • purchasing and receiving
    • marketing and sales
    • human resources
    • accounting
    • security
    • engineering and maintenance

    The BOH staff consists of one or more managers, staff responsible for cleaning and maintaining dishes, and food production staff such as chefs. The executive chef is responsible for the menu and the kitchen operations. Without the steward and the dishwashing crew, a restaurant would come to a complete standstill.

    H. Purchasing and receiving
    Purchasing is the buying of goods and services for use in a business.

    Before a restaurant can make menu items, it must purchase:

    • raw foods
    • equipment
    • utensils

    A hotel must have guest room furniture and linens to meet guests’ needs.

    In addition, many items get used up or worn out and must be replaced on a regular basis.

    • Raw foods are used up when menu items are made and sold.
    • Guest room linens wear out and must be replaced.
    • Cleaning supplies are needed for daily maintenance of a hotel or restaurant.

    The businesses from whom goods and services are purchased are called suppliers.

    Receiving is the process of making sure that the items delivered are the items that were ordered. Usually, more items are purchased and received than can be used immediately. The items that are not used immediately must be stored.

    Storage is the process of placing items in a safe, secure place until they are needed. Once you start storing items, you need to know how much you have in storage. Inventory is the process of counting and keeping track of all the items in storage.

    Most businesses perform purchasing, receiving, storage, and inventory. However, the demand on food and beverage business is especially high. Foods are used up at a higher rate than many other products that businesses purchase. Food items also have a higher risk of being delivered spoiled or in unusable condition.

    I. Banquets
    A banquet is a large meal or feast, complete with main courses and desserts.

    It usually serves a purpose such as:

    • a charitable gathering
    • a ceremony
    • a celebration

    It is often preceded or followed by speeches in honour of someone.

    Today, banquets serve many purposes from training sessions, to formal business dinners. Business banquets are a popular way to strengthen bonds between businessmen and their partners. It is common that a banquet is organized at the end of an academic conference. A luau is one variety of banquet originally used in Hawaii.

    J. Room service
    Room service is the delivery of food and beverages to guests in their hotel rooms. The room service department manages room service deliveries. The amount of room service offered varies. Some hotels offer 24-hour room service, while others have limited room service hours. The room service department is usually located in the hotel kitchen.

    Guests usually order room service from a room service menu in the hotel room. The guest calls room service on the phone and places the order. Some hotels use a doorknob menu for ordering breakfast.

    In some hotels, meals are delivered on fancy carts. Guests can use these carts as their dining table. In other hotels, room service meals are delivered on trays. The food is covered by a plate cover to keep hot food hot and cold food cold.

    The size of the room service staff depends on the size of the hotel, room service hours, and the number of guests who usually order room service. The room service staff usually consists of a room service manager and service servers.

    K. Beverage department
    The beverage department includes all of the bars in the hotel.

    The three types of bars are:

    • front bars
    • service bars
    • special-purpose bar

    A front bar has one or more bartenders who serve the public face-to-face. In a service bar, servers take customer orders, then give them to the bartender. The bartender makes the drinks which the servers then serve to the customers. A special-purpose bar is usually set up for one particular event, such as a banquet. Portable bars are placed in the hall outside the banquet room to serve guests while they wait.

    The beverage department usually has four types of employees:

    • the beverage manager
    • bartenders
    • bar backs
    • beverage servers

    The beverage manager reports to the food and beverage director. The beverage manager supervises the department and creates finished menu products to serve to the guests. The beverage manager also oversees all the bars, hires and trains the staff, and does all the purchasing and inventory in order to control beverage costs.

    The bartender concentrates on alcoholic-beverage production and service to guest. A beverage server takes orders for beverages, then gives the orders to the bartender who makes them. The server will take the payment. The bar back is responsible for keeping the bar stocked with liquor, ice, glassware, and supplies. The bar back works the back of the bar.

    One of the major responsibilities of bartenders and beverage servers is to monitor the alcohol consumption by guests and to prevent alcohol-related problems. There is usually a policy developed that helps prevent problems from occurring. All bartenders and beverage servers must be trained to prevent problems before they occur.

    Handout/Graphic Organizers

    • Attach “Rubric for Plating Presentation” from SFA website

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Have students refer to the FCCLA website. The event ‘Serving Up Success’ is a great way for students to understand the front of the house (FOH) principles.
      http://www.texasfccla.org/34%20SERVING%20UP%20SUCCESS.pdf
    • Have students explore the concept of plating. Purchase cheesecake and put it on a plate for each student to demonstrate their plating skills. Teachers and staff can judge.
    • Have students choose one of the four types of menus and with a partner create that menu on the computer to present to the class.

    References and Resources

    Textbook:

    • Reynolds, Johnny Sue. (2003). Hospitality Services. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox Company.

    Food and Beverage Industry Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Which of the four classifications of menus provides some variety for people who eat in the same place every day?

    • a. fixed
    • b. cycle
    • c. market
    • d. hybrid

    2. Which of the four classifications of menus challenges the chef’s creativity to use fresh and seasonal products?

    • a. fixed
    • b. cycle
    • c. market
    • d. hybrid

    3. Which of the four classifications of menus hardly ever changes?

    • a. fixed
    • b. cycle
    • c. market
    • d. hybrid

    4. Which of the following is not included in a standardized recipe?

    • a. vague amounts of each ingredient
    • b. preparation instruction in detail
    • c. portion size
    • d. yield (number of portions)

    5. Which of the following is not a type of cooking method?

    • a. moist heat
    • b. dry heat
    • c. dry heat with fat
    • d. chemical heat

    6. True or False? Food is not the ideal artistic medium because food usually is moist and greasy.

    • a. True
    • b. False

    7. Which of the following is not a function of the back of the house staff?

    • a. transmitting orders to the kitchen
    • b. purchasing and receiving
    • c. marketing and sales
    • d. human resources

  • References and Resources

    References and Resources

    Textbooks:

    • Reynolds, Johnny Sue. (2003). Hospitality Services. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox Company.

    Websites:

    • The Americans with Disabilities Act
      Provides access to Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) regulations for business and State and local governments, technical assistance materials.
      http://www.ada.gov/
    • The Civil Rights Act of 1964
      The civil rights act of 1964 is the nation’s benchmark civil rights legislation, and it continues to resonate in America. The Civil rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin.
      http://www.justice.gov/crt/about/cor/coord/titlevi.php
    • Equal Pay Act
      The Equal Pay Act requires that men and women in the same workplace be given equal pay for equal work. The jobs need not be identical, but the must be substantially equal. Job content (not job titles) determines whether jobs are substantially equal.
      http://www.eeoc.gov
    • Fair Labor Standards Act
      US Department of Labor: The wage and hour mission is to promote and achieve compliance with labor standards to protect and enhance the welfare of the Nation’s workforce.
      http://www.dol.gov/whd/flsa/
    • Glogster
      Express yourself with the ultimate GLOG (™) – graphic blog. Mix Web, Images, Text, Music and Video.
      http://www.glogster.com
    • Kayak
      Find and book cheap flights, hotels, vacations and rental cars with Kayak.com Hotel, flight and travel deals. Search hundreds of travel sites at once.
      http://www.kayak.com
    • OSHA
      provides information related to job related safety and health issues, as well as compliance related resources.
      http://www.osha.gov/
    • Trip Advisor
      Provides unbiased hotel reviews, photos, and travel advice for hotels and vacations – Compare prices with just one click.
      http://tripadvisor.com
  • Quiz

    Hospitality Services Part I (TEKS 1-9) Online Course

    Progress:

    1. When did the hospitality industry probably begin?

    2. What were the contributions of Egypt to the development of the hospitality industry?

    3.What were the contributions of Greece to the development of the hospitality industry?

    4.What were the contributions of the Romans to the development of the hospitality industry?

    5. There are four factors that affect the success of the hospitality industry and that managers cannot control: weather, political conditions, economic conditions, and _________________.

    6. How is a fad different from a trend?

    7. Managers must have two ways to ensure good service: procedures and training. How do they achieve these goals?

    8. Schools, universities, hospitals, prisons and the military are considered what type of housing?

    9. There are five categories of Full-service hotels, one of the categories is convention, what are the other four?

    10. What is another name for hotel management?

    11. The majority of customers will not return to a hotel if their experience was negative.

    12. Which hotel type offers complimentary continental breakfast?

    13. Which of the three levels of management is responsible for the entire company?

    14. Which of the three levels of management is closest to the workers?

    15. Which hotel department is responsible for laundry?

    16. Which hotel department is responsible for inventory of supplies?

    17. Which of the following does not go on a job description?

    18. Which hotel department is responsible for writing job descriptions

    19. There are eleven critical moments in a customers experience, which of the following is not considered one of them?

    20. Teamwork on the job is much like being part of a football team. The success of the whole team depends on several qualities. Which of these choices is not considered one of them?

    21. What is the best way to handle customer service complaints?

    22. A rooms division is the part of the hotel that handles all tasks involved in preparing and selling sleeping rooms. What are the three main functions of the rooms division?

    23. The term ‘racking system’ refers to the physical racks that were used before computers existed. The racking system is another major function of the rooms division. What does the racking system consist of?

    24. In large hotels, the duties of the front desk manager are usually divided among four departments. What are the four departments?

    25. A Non-guaranteed reservations are a reservation that expires at a specific time on the arrival date and may be sold to another guest. What time does the room usually expire?

    26. For a guaranteed reservation, the room is held until guest arrives, and is typically paid in advance by the guest. If the guest does not show up, do they still pay for the room?

    27. The name ‘uniformed services’ is given because the staff typically wears uniforms. It may also be called ‘guest services’. What hotel was guest services initially developed for?

    28. Guest services came about in a hotel where there were four stories and no elevator. A bellhop was employed to assist guests with what?

    29. How many rooms does a room attendant clean per day?

    30. How many minutes does the room attendant spend cleaning each room?

    31. The major cleaning goal of the housekeeper is to prevent growth of what?

    32. What is the difference between being clean and being sanitary?

    33. How should a room attendant then enter the room they need to clean?

    34. What room cleaning tasks should the housekeeper complete?

    35. The laundry department has three major tasks: washing laundry, care of linens, and __________________.

    36. According to the US Department of Government FMLA, which situation is covered by this act?

    37. What is FICA?

    38. What is The Equal Pay Act?

    39. What is The Americans with Disabilities Act?

    40. There are certain behaviors that a company cannot tolerate from employees while they are at work. These behaviors are grounds for immediate dismissal from the job. Which of these would NOT be grounds for dismissal?

    41. There are four types of promotion methods, advertising, sales promotion, public relations, and _____________.

    42. Creating goodwill usually has two parts. The first part is doing something good or newsworthy. The second part is making sure the public knows about it.

    43. Which of the four classifications of menus provides some variety for people who eat in the same place every day?

    44. Which of the following is not included in a standardized recipe?

    45. Which of the following is not a type of cooking method?

    46. Which of the following is not a function of the back of the house staff?

    47. Hospitality Services is part of the __________________________ career cluster.

    48. There are _____________ Career Clusters.

    49. Career and Technical Education (CTE) equips students with

    50. CTE stands for

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