Culinary Arts Online Course

  • Culinary Arts Online Course Introduction

    Chef Chopping Vegetables at Restaurant

    Culinary Arts begins with the fundamentals and principles of the art of cooking and the science of baking and includes management and production skills and techniques. Students can pursue a national sanitation certification, a Texas culinary specialist certification, or any other appropriate industry certification. This course may be offered as a laboratory-based or internship course. Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

    Students will identify this course as part of a Career and Technical Education (CTE) program of study, understand that CTE in Texas is organized around 16 career clusters and 79 career pathways, and that Culinary Arts is one of 9 courses in the Hospitality and Tourism career cluster that equips students with:

    • core academic skills
    • employability skills
    • job specific technical skills

    Articulated Credit
    This course is also available for the Advanced Technical Credit (ATC) Program (1 credit) that gives high school students a chance to receive credit at participating community colleges across Texas for taking certain enhanced technical courses during high school.

    Enhancement:

    • ServSafe® certification MUST be obtained during this course for credit to be granted at the college level.

    For more information, visit:

    Important
    This online course consists of an introduction and nine modules. Carefully read all course content to become familiar with the TEKS, student expectations, published lessons, and suggested activities. Names of handouts, graphic organizers, and slide presentations appear in bold letters. Refer to attachments at the end of each module for additional information. Each module ends with seven multiple choice statements.

    After completing the course, you will be required to complete a 50 question quiz and submit your name and email address. You will receive a certificate of completion at that address.

    The certificates for the successful completion of the online courses are NOT automatically computer generated and are reviewed individually. Certificates will be generated Monday through Friday between the hours of 8:00am and 5:00pm.
    For questions, contact: sfacte@gmail.com

    As approved by the Texas Education Agency, a passing score of 80 is required to receive a certificate equalling six (6) Continuing Professional Education (CPE) credits.
    —-
    Refer to Introductory Lesson: Culinary Arts for an introduction to Career and Technical Education, Career Clusters™, coherent sequence of courses, and programs of study.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/introductory-lesson-culinary-arts/

    End of Course Project Options Lesson for Culinary Arts.
    An excellent way to end the semester or school year is with a culminating course project.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/end-of-course-project-options-culinary-arts/

    Culminating activities at the end of the course give students an opportunity to reflect and apply all of their knowledge and skills into an end of course project.

    Culinary Arts Course Outline
    The lessons in this course may be used in any sequence. The suggested sequence order is based on the Scope and Sequence.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/2013/02/10/culinary-arts-course-outline/

  • I. History

    Showcase Dinner 111

    TEKS Addressed

    (6) The student understands the history of food service and the use of the professional kitchen.

    • (A) research famous chefs from history and note their major accomplishments
    • (C) summarize historical entrepreneurs who influenced food service in the United States
    • (D) analyze how current trends in society affect the food service industry

    Module Content

    History is the first unit of study in the Culinary Arts course. This section contains three TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Research Famous Chefs
    • B. Entrepreneurial Influence
    • C. Current Trends


    Refer to lesson Famous Chefs and Entrepreneurs in the Food Service Industry for more information.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/famous-chefs-and-entrepreneurs-in-the-food-service-industry/

    Refer lesson Current Trends in the Food Industry: Gluten-Free for lesson ideas.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/current-trends-in-the-food-industry-gluten-free/

    Module I Handouts

    A. Research Famous Chefs

    The term chef is a mark of respect and distinction that describes a professional cook who has reached the position through hard work and dedication to quality.
    The culinary profession is one of the oldest in existence and like many professions, when you excel as a chef, the notoriety will come.

    The first world acclaimed chef is 18th century’s Antoine Careme, known as the
    “King of Chefs and the Chef of Kings.”
    Careme became not only famous for his cooking skills (he cooked for King George IV of England, Czar Alexander I of Russia and numerous other high profile people) but also known for his five-volume masterpiece, L’Art de la Cuisine Francaise (The Art of French Cooking).

    These books were a combination of:

    • French cooking history
    • hundreds of French recipes
    • instructions for table settings
    • menu planning

    Careme is credited with being the father of haute cuisine or the high art of French cooking.

    Since Careme’s rise to fame, many members of the profession have become influential members of the industry.

    Influential chefs in history and some of their accomplishments include:

    • Auguste Escoffier – a legendary figure among chefs.
      • One of Escoffier’s biggest contributions to cooking was to elevate it to the status of a respected profession by introducing organized discipline to his kitchens.
    • Paul Bocuse – one of the most prominent chefs associated with the nouvelle cuisine, which is less opulent and calorific than the traditional cuisine classique and stresses the importance of fresh ingredients of the highest quality.
      • Since 1987, the Bocuse d’Or has been regarded as the most prestigious award for chefs in the world (at least when French food is considered), and is sometimes seen as the unofficial world championship for chefs.
    • James Beard – an American chef and food writer. He is the central figure in the story of the establishment of a gourmet American food identity.
      • His legacy lives on in twenty books, numerous writings, his own foundation, and his foundation’s annual Beard awards in various culinary genres.
    • Jacques Pepin – an internationally recognized French chef, television personality, and author working in the United States.
      • At the end of the 1980s and the start of the 1990s, he appeared on French and American television and wrote an array of cookbooks that became best sellers.
    • Marco Pierre White – a British celebrity chef, restaurateur and television personality. He is noted for his contributions to contemporary international cuisine.
      • White has been dubbed the first celebrity chef of the UK restaurant scene and the Godfather of modern cooking.
      • White was, at the time, the youngest chef ever to have been awarded three Michelin stars.
      • He has trained chefs such as Gordon Ramsay, Heston Blumenthal and Curtis Stone.
    • Julia Child – an American chef, author, and television personality.
      • She is recognized for bringing French cuisine to the American public with her debut cookbook, Mastering the Art of French Cooking, and her subsequent television programs, the most notable of which was The French Chef, which premiered in 1963.
    • Thomas Keller – an American chef, restaurateur, and cookbook writer who has won multiple awards from the James Beard Foundation, notably the Best California Chef in 1996, and the Best Chef in America in 1997.
      • His restaurant, The French Laundry, is a perennial winner in the annual Restaurant Magazine list of the Top 50 Restaurants of the World.
      • In 2005, he was awarded the three star rating in the inaugural Michelin Guide for New York for his restaurant Per Se, and in 2006, he was awarded three stars in the inaugural Michelin Guide to the Bay Area for The French Laundry making him the only American chef to have been awarded simultaneous three star Michelin ratings for two different restaurants.

    B. Entrepreneurial Influence

    One of the most important influences of a food service entrepreneur is the invention of the
    Kitchen Brigade System.

    The brigade system was instituted by Auguste Escoffier to streamline and simplify work in hotel kitchens.

    It served to eliminate the chaos and duplication of effort that could result when workers did not have clear-cut responsibilities. Under this system, each position has a station and defined responsibilities.

    In smaller operations, the classic system is generally abbreviated and responsibilities are organized so as to make the best use of work space and talents. A shortage of skilled personnel has also made modifications in the brigade system necessary.

    The introduction of new equipment has helped to alleviate some of the problems associated with smaller kitchen staffs.

    Positions in a classic brigade include:

    • Chef – responsible for all kitchen operations including:
      • ordering
      • supervision of all stations
      • development of menu items
        • He or she also may be known as the chef de cuisine or executive chef
    • Sous chef – second in command, answers to the chef, and may be responsible for:
      • scheduling
      • fills in for the chef
      • assists the station chefs (or line cooks) as necessary
        • Small operations may not have a sous chef.
    • Sauté chef (Saucier) – responsible for all sautéed items and their sauces
      • This position is often considered the most demanding, responsible, and glamorous on the line.
    • Fish chef (Poissonier) – responsible for fish items, often including fish butchering, and their sauces.
      • This position is sometimes combined with the saucier position.
    • Roast chef (Rôtisseur) – responsible for all roasted foods and related jus or other sauces.
    • Grill chef (Grillardin) – responsible for all grilled foods.
      • This position may be combined with that of rôtisseur.
    • Fry chef (Friturier) – responsible for all fried foods.
      • This position may be combined with the rôtisseur position.
    • Vegetable chef (Entremetier) – responsible for hot appetizers and frequently has responsibility for soups, vegetables, and pastas and other starches.
      • In a full, traditional brigade system, soups are prepared by the soup station or potager, vegetables by the legumier.
      • This station may also be responsible for egg dishes.
    • Roundsman (Tournant) or swing cook works as needed throughout the kitchen.
    • Cold foods chef (Garde-Manger), also known as the Pantry chef – responsible for preparation of cold foods, including salads, cold appetizers, pâtés, and the like.
      • This is considered a separate category of kitchen work.
    • Butcher (Boucher) – responsible for butchering meats, poultry, and, occasionally, fish.
      • The boucher may also be responsible for breading meat and fish items.
    • Pastry chef (Pâtissier) – responsible for baked items, pastries, and desserts.
      • The pastry chef frequently supervises a separate kitchen area or a separate shop in larger operations.
      • This position may be further broken down into the following areas of specialization:
        • Confiseur – prepares candies, petits fours
        • Boulanger – prepares unsweetened doughs, as for breads and rolls
        • Glacier – prepares frozen and cold desserts
        • Décorateur – prepares showpieces and special cakes
    • Expediter or Announcer (Aboyeur) accepts orders from the dining room and relays them to the various station chefs.
      • This individual is the last person to see the plate before it leaves the kitchen.
      • In some operations, this may be either the chef or sous chef.
    • Communard prepares the meal served to staff at some point during the shift (also called the family meal).
    • Commis, or Apprentice, works under a station chef to learn how the station operates and its responsibilities.

    C. Current Trends

    Foodservice trends may be influenced by:

    • society
    • culture
    • ethnic diversity
    • population changes
    • the economy

    The foodservice industry has changed as the needs and wants of its customers has changed.

    Trends in foodservice include restaurants that offer:

    • themes
    • a family friendly atmosphere
    • ethnic foods
    • operations in sport facilities
    • special events and private parties
    • more healthful food options
    • environmentally friendly
    • prepared and packaged ready-to-eat meals

    View short YouTube™ videos on the latest trends in the food industry.

    • Top Ten Dessert Trends for 2011
      The Food Channel® presents its Top Ten Dessert Trends for 2011. The list is based on research conducted by The Food Channel in conjunction with CultureWaves®, the International Food Futurists® and Mintel International.
      http://youtu.be/vHg6IGISCPM

    • Top Ten Food Trends for 2012
      The Food Channel has released our 2012 Trends Forecast — the top ten food trends we see for the coming year. This report is put together in conjunction with CultureWaves®, the International Food Futurists® and Mintel International. Here’s a look at what we see happening in the world of food for 2012.
      http://youtu.be/ES7zw1SL2Cc
    • What’s Hot in 2012
      The National Restaurant Association surveyed nearly 1,800 professional chefs – members of the American Culinary Federation – on hot trends on restaurant menus in 2012. Local sourcing and children’s nutrition are among the hottest trends.
      http://youtu.be/cUSJcp2Jd-8

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module I Handouts

    • Celiac Disease Chart
    • Current Trends in the Food Industry: Gluten-Free Notes
    • Current Trends in the Food Industry: Gluten-Free Notes (Key)
    • Famous Chefs and Entrepreneurs Research
    • Ingredients Label (Box)
    • Ingredients Label (Can)
    • Julia Child’s Kitchen at the Smithsonian Storyline
    • KWL – Gluten-Free Diets
    • Rubric for Community Leadership and Teamwork Experience
    • Rubric for Electronic Display Glogster™ EDU Poster
    • Rubric for Multimedia Presentation Prezi™
    • Rubric for PowerPoint™ Presentation

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Students often only know about chefs that are currently popular. Focus on chefs such as Paul Bocuse (who the world’s most revered cooking competition is named after), James Beard, Jacques Pepin, Antoine Careme, Marco Pierre White, Thomas Keller and Auguste Escoffier. These chefs helped shape the industry as we know it and your students will be better chefs for learning about their influences.
    • Have your librarian work with your students if you decide to assign a research project. This will help your students retrieve relevant information as well as help bolster their research techniques.
    • Explore the Michelin Red Guide system with your students. This is an excellent lesson to complete with your students on computers if that is an option. View video so they understand the history behind the guide and it’s purpose today.
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dEQnCo5GIXQ
    • The James Beard Foundation probably does more for the advancement of the culinary arts than any organization operating today. The JBF Website is an excellent resource for:
      • recipes
      • scholarships
      • industry news
      • information on JBF award winners

    Visit the JBF website with your students to stay up on current industry info.
    http://www.jamesbeard.org/

    References and Resources

    Images

    • Hollenstein Career and Technology Center
      Eagle Mountain – Saginaw ISD
      Fort Worth, Texas

    Textbooks

    • Culinary essentials. (2010). Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw Hill.
    • Foundations of restaurant management & culinary arts: Level one. (2011). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
    • Foundations of restaurant management & culinary arts: Level two. (2011). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
    • Introduction to Culinary Arts. (2007). Boston, MA. Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • The Professional Chef. (2011). Hoboken, NJ. John Wiley & Sons Inc.

    Websites

    YouTube™:

    • Top Ten Dessert Trends for 2011
      The Food Channel® presents its Top Ten Dessert Trends for 2011. The list is based on research conducted by The Food Channel in conjunction with CultureWaves®, the International Food Futurists® and Mintel International.
      http://youtu.be/vHg6IGISCPM

    • Top Ten Food Trends for 2012
      The Food Channel has released our 2012 Trends Forecast — the top ten food trends we see for the coming year. This report is put together in conjunction with CultureWaves®, the International Food Futurists® and Mintel International. Here’s a look at what we see happening in the world of food for 2012.
      http://youtu.be/ES7zw1SL2Cc
    • What’s Hot in 2012
      The National Restaurant Association surveyed nearly 1,800 professional chefs – members of the American Culinary Federation – on hot trends on restaurant menus in 2012. Local sourcing and children’s nutrition are among the hottest trends.
      http://youtu.be/cUSJcp2Jd-8

    Module I: History Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. The first world acclaimed chef known as the “King of Chefs and the Chef of Kings” is:

    • a. Paul Bocuse
    • b. Antoine Careme
    • c. Auguste Escoffier
    • d. James Beard

    2. The brigade system used to streamline and simplify work in hotel kitchens was instituted by:

    • a. Paul Bocuse
    • b. Antoine Careme
    • c. Auguste Escoffier
    • d. James Beard

    3. In the classic brigade, this chef is responsible for all sautéed items and their sauces.

    • a. Sauté chef
    • b. Sous chef
    • c. Roast chef
    • d. Grill chef

    4. The Garde-Manger is also known as the Pantry chef and is responsible for preparation of cold foods, including salads, cold appetizers, pâtés, and the like.

    • a. True
    • b. False

    5. Foodservice trends may be influenced by:

    • a. society and culture
    • b. ethnic diversity
    • c. population changes and the economy
    • d. all of the above

  • II. Leadership (and CTSOs)

    FCCLA taglinelogo

    TEKS Addressed

    (8) The student demonstrates leadership, citizenship, and teamwork skills required for success.

    • (A) apply team-building skills
    • (B) apply decision-making and problem-solving skills
    • (C) determine leadership and teamwork qualities in creating a pleasant working atmosphere
    • (D) participate in community leadership and teamwork opportunities to enhance professional skills

    (3) The student demonstrates an understanding that personal success depends on personal effort.

    • (A) demonstrate a proactive understanding of self-responsibility and self-management
    • (B) explain the characteristics of personal values and principles
    • (C) demonstrate positive attitudes and work habits
    • (D) demonstrate exemplary appearance and personal hygiene
    • (E) evaluate the effects of exercise and nutritional dietary habits and emotional factors such as stress, fatigue, or anxiety on job performance

    SkillsUSA

    Module Content

    Leadership is the second unit of study in the Culinary Arts course. This section contains twelve TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Team Building Skills
    • B. Decision Making
    • C. Problem Solving
    • D. Community Leadership
    • E. Teamwork
    • F. Participation
    • G. Understanding of Self-Responsibility and Management
    • H. Personal Values and Principles
    • I. Attitudes and Work Habits
    • J. Appearance and Personal Hygiene
    • K. Effects of Exercise and Nutritional Dietary Habits
    • L. Emotional Factors That Impact Job Performance

    Refer to lesson Back to the Future – An Introduction to Sustainability in Food Service for additional activities, ideas and resources.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/back-to-the-future-an-introduction-to-sustainability-in-food-service

    Refer to lesson Successful Culinary Lab Management Guidelines for for additional activities, ideas and resources.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/successful-culinary-lab-management-guidelines

    Module II Handouts

    A. Team Building Skills
    As employees in the foodservice industry, your students will often find themselves as part of a team. A successful team is more than just a collection of talented individuals.

    A team can be defined as a group of individuals that come together to achieve a common goal. Establishing and growing this team is crucial in the culinary environment.

    It can be an uphill battle if your culinary class does not behave as a team. Conversely, a culinary class that works as a team can accomplish more than one that works as a group of individuals. Those last two statements also hold true for a culinary kitchen.

    Often times, team building is confused with “teamwork” when, in fact, they are entirely different.

    Team building can, however, make team work easier and vice versa.

    One aspect of team building that many overlook is team chemistry. This is addressed in the Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas below, but it’s important to remember that chemistry is not best created during peak work periods. In fact, those are the times that chemistry faces it’s greatest challenge.

    Chemistry is best forged during times of play, relaxation, and “down” time. Take advantage of this and allow some natural chemistry to form in your classroom. Often times, it’s our inclination as teachers to try to get as much done in the time we have allotted with our students; but any time you spend building chemistry with your students (and allowing them to become a team) you will certainly get back once you see the increase in productivity.

    Sharing these times with your students will also help them to grow their team building skills, allowing them to become better employees once they enter the workplace.

    The following video from TEDTalks is an excellent video that can help you understand the nature of collaboration and team building. This is an activity that you may want to do with your students. You will have a better understanding of successful collaboration and successful problem solving. You may also want to share this video with your students after the activity.

    • Tom Wujec: Build a tower, build a team
      Tom Wujec from Autodesk presents some surprisingly deep research into the “marshmallow problem” — a simple team-building exercise that involves dry spaghetti, one yard of tape and a marshmallow. Who can build the tallest tower with these ingredients? And why does a surprising group always beat the average?
      http://youtu.be/H0_yKBitO8M

    B. Decision Making
    We say it all the time: “These students have no idea what it’s like in the real world” and “Just wait until you have stuff to really worry about.” Today’s high school students are faced with MANY decisions on a daily basis. Their decisions are not that different from the ones we make as adults.

    Some decisions high school students make:

    • social
    • do the right thing (or not)
    • time management
    • resource management
    • financial
    • relationships
    • family dynamics

    They are making more decisions at this stage in their lives than we were when we were their age. All this to say… teaching decision making to high school students is EASY. Take advantage of their familiarity with decision making and use that familiarity to teach them how decision making relates to the culinary industry.

    Ask the following questions:

    • What type of decisions are there to be made in the culinary industry?
    • What are some effects of improper decision making in the food and beverage industry?
    • Who is making these decisions in the culinary workplace?
    • What processes must you go through before making these decisions?
    • Who should you involve in the decision making process in the culinary workplace?
    • What things should you consider when you make decisions in the culinary workplace?
    • What sorts of timelines are common when making decisions in the culinary workplace?

    C. Problem Solving
    Problem solving is a continuous process – and an opportunity to grow.

    Read the problem solving article for more information:

    View YouTube™ video:

    • Culinary Labs – Effective Problem Solving
      Making the Millpond fruit butters project required the expertise of George Brown food scientists and students researchers in order to make the industry partner’s start-up goals feasible.
      http://youtu.be/yqUx5AxbMYQ

    D. Community Leadership
    One of the things that employers look for first in employees, after they feel that employees have qualifying skills and work ethic, are their leadership abilities.

    Leadership is defined as the ability to motivate others to cooperate in accomplishing a common task.

    As imperative as leadership is in the culinary workplace, it is shockingly rare. The common task part is easy. As culinary professionals we know that we want to put out high quality food that meets or exceeds the customer’s expectations. Simple. But the leadership aspect of it can be hard to find. A good motivator in the kitchen is invaluable and you should encourage your students to practice leadership in the kitchen.

    One way to encourage the development of leadership qualities in the culinary arts environment is to put students into positions of leadership in the lab environment.

    Consider creating leadership positions such as:

    • executive chef
    • sous chefs
    • chef-for-a-day
    • group leaders
    • lead sanitarians

    The key is to give students a responsibility and let them use that position of leadership to practice their leadership.

    But don’t throw the students into “sink or swim” style. Give them some leadership coaching before you ask them to be leaders. This can be an excellent classroom activity. Make sure students understand that you can’t wait until they’re employed before they develop leadership skills. You’ll find an excellent resource for this in the Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas section.

    While it is possible to achieve results, teaching leadership within the scope and structure of your class, the best way to help students develop their leadership skills is to start and promote an active CTSO chapter.

    SkillsUSA and FCCLA are two of the most popular CTSOs available for culinary arts students.

    FCCLA is a national organization of middle and high school students enrolled in Family and Consumer Sciences courses.
    FCCLA activities and skills events provide opportunities for leadership development. Students can also participate in challenging competitions such as the STAR (Students Taking Action with Recognition) events.

    Members may compete in such areas such as:

    • culinary arts
    • entrepreneurship
    • interpersonal communications

    Visit the following website to incorporate FCCLA in your classroom.

    SkillsUSA is a national organization of high school and college students enrolled in training programs for technical, skilled and service occupations.
    SkillsUSA programs partner students with industry professionals to provide the SkillsUSA Championships.

    Foodservice students can participate in contests for culinary arts and commercial baking.

    Students are judged on:

    • technical skills
    • sanitation and food safety practices
    • quality of prepared food items
    • creative presentation

    Restaurant Service is another competition that demonstrates skills in:

    • table setting
    • greeting guests
    • taking reservation
    • menu presentations
    • meal service

    E. Teamwork

    Working in the culinary environment, students will be a part of a team and should learn skills to communicate, resolve conflicts and negotiation skills to be able to work with others.

    Food service employees should have a positive attitude and contribute to the team.

    A great team building resource:

    Use as many of these activities to promote the “bonding” of the teams.

    F. Participation
    Participation in the culinary arts classroom is imperative to the students learning process but can be a bad word in the culinary education world. Yes, we want students to participate but we don’t want them to think that’s the extent of the course.

    The answer to this dilemma is structure. Such as:

    • structured rubrics on lab days
    • structured groups
    • clear expectations
    • established systems

    All of the above can help ensure students are participating and learning while doing so.

    G. Understanding of Self-Responsibility and Management
    Being responsible is one of the most important qualifications for success in any job. Think of responsibility as your ability to respond – to be aware of what a particular situation demands of you. In the culinary workplace being responsible means many things.

    A few examples include:

    • showing up to work on time
    • doing, at minimum, your assigned tasks
    • accepting consequences for your choices instead of blaming others
    • following through on assigned tasks and completing those tasks according to standards
    • self analyzing your behavior and performance and taking necessary actions to be the best employee/employer that you can be for your company

    Students should already be practicing being responsible on some level. Challenging your students can be an excellent way to teach them self-responsibility and management.

    H. Personal Values and Principles
    There are certain intangibles that cannot be taught. As a teacher you cannot make a student have values and solid personal principles. However, you can help them understand the importance of personal values and principles and possibly influence their views on these principles.

    Principles that are increasingly valuable in today’s work place are:

    • self-worth
    • confidence
    • honesty
    • reliability
    • compassion
    • respect
    • patience
    • loyalty
    • mercy
    • humility
    • courage

    See the Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas section for an idea on helping students with personal values and principles.

    I. Attitudes and Work Habits
    In addition to basic skills, employers look for certain key qualities in their employees. Demonstrating these qualities shows a strong work ethic – a personal commitment to doing your very best as part of a team. These qualities are often acquired and developed through practice and experience in work-like situations.

    Much like personal values, work ethic is difficult to force upon someone, but it’s easy to get students to see the importance of work ethic. One of the best things you can do to encourage students to develop positive work habits is for you to exhibit them yourself.

    Modeling proper attitudes and positive work habits such as:

    • responsibility
    • flexibility
    • honesty
    • reliability
    • teamwork
    • commitment (perhaps most important)

    These skills will go a long way in teaching students.

    J. Appearance and Personal Hygiene

    Refer to Are You a Cook or a Culinarian? for lesson ideas.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/are-you-a-cook-or-a-culinarian-2/

    One thing that is unique about the foodservice industry is that it is a world built upon standards.

    Standards in our industry often dictate among other things, recipe yields, safe food temperatures, cooking times, and table settings.

    Another standard in our industry is appearance and personal hygiene. Personal cleanliness is an important part of personal hygiene. Pathogens can be found on hair and skin that aren’t kept clean. These pathogens can be transferred to food and food equipment. All foodhandlers must bathe or shower before work and keep their hair clean.

    Staff who wear dirty clothes at work make a bad impression on customers. More importantly, dirty clothing may carry pathogens that cause food borne illnesses.

    The following are guidelines designed to prevent foodhandlers from spreading foodborne illnesses:

    • Foodhandlers should always cover their hair. Tie long hair back. Wear a clean hat or other hair covering.
    • Wear clean clothing every day. This includes chef coats and uniforms.
    • Remove aprons and store them in the right place when leaving prep areas. For example, when taking out the garbage or using the restroom, be sure to remove your apron.
    • Change any apron that becomes dirty.
    • Remove jewelry from hands and arms before preparing food or when working around prep areas. Do not wear watches, bracelets, or rings, except for a plain metal band.

    Handwashing is the most important part of personal hygiene. It may seem like an obvious thing to do, but many foodhandlers do not wash their hands correctly or as often as they should.

    Foodhandlers must wash their hands before they start work and must also do it after the following activities:

    • using the restroom
    • handling raw meat, poultry, or seafood
    • touching the hair, face, or body
    • sneezing, coughing, or using a tissue
    • eating, drinking, smoking, or chewing gum or tobacco
    • handling chemicals that might affect food safety
    • taking out garbage
    • clearing tables or busing dirty dishes
    • touching clothing or aprons
    • handling money
    • touching anything else that may contaminate hands, such as dirty equipment, work surfaces, or towels

    K. Effects of Exercise and Nutritional Dietary Habits
    A career in food service can be a physically demanding one.

    These careers often require:

    • lifting heavy objects
    • active work shifts
    • long periods of standing
    • repetitive motions

    The energy and skills demanded in the culinary industry can be best achieved when you are in good physical and mental health.

    Four ways to accomplish this are listed below:

    • Rest – Getting enough sleep is key. Too little sleep weakens the body’s immune system and puts the body at risk for illness. A lack of sleep does not promote good physical or mental health.
    • Fitness – Exercising regularly increases your strength and will help you to be more successful at your job. Exercising is also one of the best ways to reduce and relieve stress. Finally, a high level of fitness can also help you avoid and prevent a number of injuries in the food service workplace.
    • Illness – In the food service industry, disease can spread easily to coworkers and customers. If you have a fever or are vomiting, do not go to work. Call your supervisor and see a doctor, rather than “wait and see”. Return to work only when you are completely well.
    • Diet – A balanced and healthy diet combined with a proper exercise routine can do more for your energy level than anything else. Food service workers should consider their dietary needs and make sound nutritional choices. This will allow the worker to say healthy, energetic, and fit and will promote a general well-being that will allow the worker to be more effective in their duties.

    L. Emotional Factors That Impact Job Performance
    David Brooks, New York Times Op-Ed columnist and author of “The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character and Achievement,” says:
    “Emotions are at the center of our thinking…Emotions are not separate from reason, but they are the foundation of reason because they tell us what to value.”

    An employee’s emotions can have a direct influence on their job performance and decision making. It is important for employees to keep an even keel whenever emotion swings happen.

    Negative emotions can often cause employees to become:

    • apathetic
    • complacent
    • indifferent towards their work

    Positive emotions can help employees be more:

    • productive
    • help motivate others
    • promote esprit de corps (a feeling of pride, fellowship, and common loyalty shared by the members of a particular group.)

    Harnessing and controlling these emotions can be difficult but possible. Recognizing these emotions is the key to controlling them. The workplace can also be a source for both positive and negative emotions, meaning supervisors can influence these emotions directly. This is something important to consider when you are in a supervisory position.

    All of the above information can also be considered true for the culinary classroom. Consider these emotional factors when you are managing your classroom.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module II Handouts

    • Attributes of a Culinary Professional
    • Back to the Future Consensogram Template
    • Back to the Future Notes
    • Back to the Future Notes (Key)
    • Culinarian’s Code
    • FCCLA Planning Process Worksheet
    • FCCLA Planning Process
    • Professional Chef Uniform
    • Rubric for Community Leadership and Teamwork Experience
    • Rubric for Professionalism Collage Project
    • Sustainability in Food Service – Where We Stand Today E-zine Article Review
    • Sustainability in Food Service – Where We Stand Today E-zine Article Review (Key)
    • Sustainability Vocabulary Quiz
    • Sustainability Vocabulary Quiz (Key)
    • Sustainable Food Service Webquest
    • Sustainable Food Service Webquest (Key)

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • The number one thing that you can do for your students in the way of teamwork/leadership is to get them involved in a CTSO such as FCCLA or SkillsUSA®.
      The lessons your students will learn from being part of one of these leadership organizations will follow them throughout life. Many first year teachers think it best to “wait until next year” to start a CTSO within their program, but do yourself a favor and dive in head first. You and your students will grow from doing so and when it is all over, you’ll be glad you didn’t wait.
      You and your students have nothing to lose and everything to gain so – get started today!
    • One way to help students understand personal values and principles is during the first few days of class. Most teachers create and post rules for their students. Resist the urge! In addition to the fact that this is the least fun day of the year for your students, you are also wasting an exceptional teaching opportunity. As a warm-up, have students come into the room and brainstorm answers to: Twenty Qualities that Employees in Today’s Workplace Must Possess to be Successful. After each group has their list of qualities, have them write their entire list on the board. I like to have them write all over the board – scattered. If a word repeats, that is okay. Actually you’re hopeful that you see a pattern start to develop. Once their lists are scattered on the board, have a discussion with the students about why they listed the qualities, why they’re important, and so forth. After the classroom discussion, then you explain that because your class is to prepare them for the workplace, and the list they’ve created is a listing of qualities they’ve identified as necessary to be successful in the work place, then they’ve essentially written their own rules for your class. Identify the top 10-15 principles/qualities that were most often recommended, and post your list in the classroom THE NEXT DAY (if not sooner). This will help your students to develop personal values and principles, and they will be more likely to adhere to the rules if they had a hand in creating them. This is an easily customizable activity and can be a powerful first day activity for your class/program.
    • Having high school students set goals for themselves can be a powerful tool and can help them form positive habits in the way of personal success. Have the students establish personal goals (including a timeline for accomplishing these goals) and create and sign a “self contract” with these goals and timelines.
    • Perhaps the best way to incorporate teamwork, problem solving, decision making, and team building into your classroom, is to incorporate Project Based Learning (PBL) into your curriculum. Read the article Main Course Not Dessert handout and then go to http://www.bie.org/ to find everything you need to successfully incorporate PBL into your classroom. Note: If you’ve ever thought to yourself “How can I be a truly special teacher, make a difference in more students’ lives, all while making what we do in class fun and engaging?” then PLEASE bury yourself in PBL. If you only take one thing away from this course, this is it.
    • When you put a group of students in the lab environment it is important to consider classroom chemistry. Good chemistry – you can get them to do just about anything you want. Bad chemistry – every lesson will seem like a struggle. You can manage that chemistry and help students get used to working well with others AND make it fun by incorporating some team building activities into your curriculum. Try websites like http://www.icebreakersformeetings.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/20-Icebreakers-for-Teambuilding.pdf or search the web for more team building activities.
    • Using Ohio State University’s Team Building Resources as a guideline, have your students create and act out several role-playing scenarios utilizing the activities. This will help your students get used to working together as a team, get them used to the principles of effective teamwork, and will get them familiar with some of the qualities necessary of a successful team.
    • Leadership can be difficult to teach in the classroom. In 2001, the Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Education developed a Leadership Development Curriculum for their public schools. This is an excellent resource that outlines student leadership expectations in the classroom and then provides EXCELLENT activities for use in the classroom that can be used. http://www.doe.virginia.gov/instruction/leadership/leadership_curriculum.pdf

    References and Resources

    Article:

    Images

    Textbooks

    • Culinary essentials. (2010). Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw Hill.
    • Foundations of restaurant management & culinary arts: Level one. (2011). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
    • Foundations of restaurant management & culinary arts: Level two. (2011). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
    • Introduction to Culinary Arts. (2007). Boston, MA. Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • The Professional Chef. (2011). Hoboken, NJ. John Wiley & Sons Inc.

    Websites

    YouTube™:

    • Culinary Labs – Effective Problem Solving
      Making the Millpond fruit butters project required the expertise of George Brown food scientists and students researchers in order to make the industry partner’s start-up goals feasible.
      http://youtu.be/yqUx5AxbMYQ
    • Tom Wujec: Build a tower, build a team
      Tom Wujec from Autodesk presents some surprisingly deep research into the “marshmallow problem” — a simple team-building exercise that involves dry spaghetti, one yard of tape and a marshmallow. Who can build the tallest tower with these ingredients? And why does a surprising group always beat the average?
      http://youtu.be/H0_yKBitO8M

    Module II: Leadership Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Which of the following has a potentially negative effect on the energy level required to lift heavy objects, work active shifts, endure long periods of standing, and sustain repetitive motions?

    • a. Proper levels and amounts of rest.
    • b. Achieving appropriate fitness levels.
    • c. Fatigued bodies allowing illness to set in.
    • d. Nutritious diet consisting of nutrient dense foods.

    2. According to course content, what is the best way to incorporate teamwork, problem solving, decision making, team building and problem solving?

    • a. Utilizing hands on training.
    • b. Incorporating Project Based Learning into your curriculum.
    • c. Asking students to follow posted classroom guidelines that promote these desired behaviors.
    • d. Assigning tasks and positions of leadership to your assigned lessons.

    3. Positive emotions can help employees:

    • a. make more money
    • b. become better listeners
    • c. appreciate their co-workers
    • d. be more productive

    4. A structured classroom environment can promote participation among students.

    • a. True
    • b. False

    5. According to the content of the course, which of the following statements concerning teamwork and team building is FALSE?

    • a. Often times team building is confused with “team work” when, in fact, they are entirely different.
    • b. Team building is best done during peak work periods.
    • c. Team building can make team work easier and vice versa.
    • d. One aspect of team building that many over look is team chemistry.

  • III. Professional Ethics and Legal Responsibilities

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    TEKS Addressed

    (10) The student recognizes and models work ethics and legal responsibilities.

    • (A) understand and comply with laws and regulations specific to the food service industry
    • (B) demonstrate a positive work ethic

    (9) The student explains how employees, guests, and property are protected to minimize losses or liabilities.

    • (A) determine basics of safety in culinary arts
    • (B) assess workplace conditions and identify safety hazards
    • (C) determine the basics of sanitation in a professional kitchen
    • (D) assess food hazards and determine ways to prevent food hazards
    • (E) prepare for a state or national food sanitation certification or other appropriate certifications

    Module Content

    Professional Ethics and Legal Responsibilities is the third unit of study in the Culinary Arts course. This section contains seven TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Laws and regulations
    • B. Work ethics
    • C. Safety in culinary arts
    • D. Workplace conditions and safety hazards
    • E. Sanitation in the professional kitchen
    • F. Preventing food hazards
    • G. Food sanitation and certification

    Module III Handouts

    A. Laws and Regulations
    As with other businesses, restaurants and other foodservice establishments must operate within the law. Also, just like other businesses, chefs, restaurant managers, and restaurant owners face a broad range of legal issues.

    Some of these issues include:

    • truth in menu laws
    • zoning codes
    • liquor laws
    • OSHA regulations
    • food safety and sanitation regulations
    • tax laws

    Below you will read about a few of those laws and regulations.

    Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)
    Passed in 1938 to protect workers from unfair treatment by employers.

    Most full-time and part-time workers in this country are covered by this act which establishes:

    • minimum wage
    • overtime pay
    • child labor standards

    States may also have laws regarding these issues. With both the state law and the FLSA, apply the law that says the higher standard must be observed.

    The FLSA requires employers to pay covered employees minimum wage or more. Minimum wage is the lowest hourly rate of pay the employee can be paid legally. Some states have established their own minimum wage, but it cannot be lower than the minimum wage established by the federal government.

    The FLSA also establishes standards for overtime pay to covered employees. An employer must pay at least one and a half times the employees regular rate of pay for all hours worked over 40 in a work week. The FLSA does not limit the number of hours a day or the number of days in the week an employer may require an employee to work as long as the employee is at least 16 years old.

    The FLSA regulates the employment of child labor. Your state laws may be stricter. The goal of the child labor standards is to protect the health and educational opportunities of young people who choose to work. For this reason, the FLSA prohibits employment of children in jobs that are considered hazardous. The standards also restrict the hours that individuals ages 14 and 15 can work.

    14 and 15 year old students can work an acceptable job for the following hours:

    • after 7 AM and until 7 PM
    • up to three hours on a school day
    • up to 18 hours in the school week
    • up to eight hours on non-school day
    • up to 40 hours in a non-school week

    Equal Pay Act of 1963
    An amendment to the FLSA that requires employees of either gender working for the same employer under similar conditions to receive equal pay.

    This law is enforced by a US agency called the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) which is responsible for the oversight and coordination of all federal equal employment opportunity:

    • regulations
    • practices
    • policies

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    Title VII is also enforced by the EEOC.

    It is illegal to discriminate against any individual due to such factors as:

    • race
    • color
    • sex
    • national origin
    • religion

    More recently, laws have been passed to protect people from discrimination for other reasons, such as:

    • disabilities
    • age
    • marital status

    Sexual Harassment
    An example of a violation of Title VII of the Civil rights Act of 1964 is sexual harassment.

    Sexual harassment is defined as:

    • any unwelcome sexual advance
    • request for sexual favors
    • other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that affects a person’s ability to work

    Providing sexual harassment training to employees and a process for complaints sends the message that this behavior is unacceptable.

    Some employers require that you meet certain “employment conditions” before you’re hired. Some of these conditions may be required by law in various states and for certain jobs.

    To verify that you meet these conditions, you may be asked to:

    • take tests
    • provide documentation
    • or sign a release

    When a job offer is extended to you by a company, it may be conditional based on the results of one or more of the following:

    • Pre-employment drug screening
    • Verification of degrees and work experience
    • Criminal background checks
    • Employment eligibility verification (I-9 form)
    • Credit history check
    • Minimum age requirements

    Employers cannot deny employment to an individual using any of the following as a basis:

    • Race
    • Color
    • Religion
    • Gender (including pregnancy)
    • National origin
    • Age
    • Disability
    • Genetic information

    If an employer requires job applicants to take a test, the test must be necessary and related to the job and the employer may not exclude people of:

    • a particular race
    • color
    • religion
    • sex (including pregnancy)
    • national origin
    • or individuals with disabilities

    In addition, the employer may not use a test that excludes applicants age 40 or older if the test is not based on a reasonable factor other than age.

    If a job applicant with a disability needs an accommodation (such as a sign language interpreter) to apply for a job, the employer is required to provide the accommodation, so long as the accommodation does not cause the employer significant difficulty or expense.

    Truth in Menu Laws
    Restaurant operators in the United States have a duty to sell food that is merchantable, that is, suitable for buying and selling. Truth in Menu Laws govern descriptions of food in menus. These laws ensure that the customer receives what the menu says he or she ordered; for example, one dozen oysters for a certain amount, instead of 11 oysters.

    The Truth in Menu Laws also govern:

    • the ingredients
    • nutritional descriptions
    • preparation style,
    • more

    For example, a bill once introduced to the New York City Council required that the use of the words “homestyle” or “homemade” refer to dishes prepared “from scratch.”

    The federal government has had a long history of regulating food advertisement and sales. In 2003, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began to require labels to include trans fat content.

    Refer to Social Studies Assessment Questions Culinary Arts to emphasize work ethics and legal repsonsibilities.

    B. Work Ethics
    In the business world, workplace ethics serve as guiding principles that effective leaders use in setting the professional tone and behavior in their operations.
    Many establishments have created written codes of ethics, which are designed to remove guesswork about what is acceptable or unacceptable behavior. These codes act as a safety check for evaluating decisions before applying them.

    An organization’s code of ethics may include:

    • employee treatment
    • wages
    • benefits
    • working conditions
    • behavior of employees with reference to the use of company resources
    • acceptance of gifts from guests
    • other issues that impact organizational operations

    To determine whether a decision or action is based on sound workplace ethics, managers and employees should ask the following questions:

    • Is the decision/action legal?
    • Will the decision or action hurt anyone?
    • Does a decision or action represent the company?
    • Does a decision/action make anyone uncomfortable?
    • Does a decision/action convey respect for others?
    • Have I involved others by asking for their perspective on the situation?
    • Is this decision/action essentially fair given all the circumstances?
    • Does this decision/action uphold the values of the organization?
    • Could I tell my decision to my boss, family, or society as a whole?
    • How would others give details of this decision/action if it were disclosed to the public?
    • Am I confident that my decision/action will be as valid over a long period of time as it seems now?

    It can be difficult to see an operations Code of Ethics until something goes wrong. For example, replacing the poorly prepared meal, regardless of any guest request to do so, even if it affects food costs, is the right thing to do. It is possible that the dish may simply taste bad, or it could be that the dish has been contaminated. To keep everyone safe and maintain guests’ trust, replace the dish.

    This code of ethics is not a group of understood and unspoken rules. Many restaurants create and distribute a company wide code of ethics. Some are lengthy and very thorough, some are short and to the point. But they all have several things in common. Below are several examples:

    C. Safety in Culinary Arts

    Refer to Food Safety and Sanitation Guidelines – Culinary Arts for more information about food safety issues.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/food-safety-and-sanitation-guidelines-culinary-arts/

    An accident is any unplanned event that hurts someone or damages someone’s property. Accidents and injuries are a concern in any line of work, but it’s a constant concern in the foodservice industry because loss of life or limb is very possible in the kitchen setting.

    There are many things that you can do to trim your band-aid budget, but the number one thing that you can do to prevent kitchen injuries is to make sure that everyone in your kitchen is trained in preventing injuries. Proper training, proper personal protective equipment, maintenance of equipment, and mindful employees can prevent most of these injuries.

    The most common types of accidents in foodservice establishments are:

    • Burns – In a world where fire, flames, and heat are found at every turn, burns are common. Some burns are more serious than others but all burns require immediate care and attention.
      • Visit the following website for a video on how to prevent burns in the commercial kitchen.

    • Cuts – It comes as no surprise that cuts are one of the most common injuries for chefs and cooks. Like burns, some cuts are more serious than others, but all cuts require immediate care and attention.
      • Visit the following website for a video on how to prevent cuts through knife safety in the commercial kitchen.

    D. Workplace Conditions and Safety Hazards
    Now that the potential injuries have been illustrated and prevention strategies have been highlighted, it’s time to talk about the process of eliminating (or at least minimizing) these injuries.

    The following steps must be taken to begin that process.

    The first step is to complete a hazard checklist.

    Below is a list of some potential restaurant hazards to look for while completing the checklist.

    • hot objects
    • ovens and broilers
    • grills and stove tops
    • deep fryers
    • hot pots
    • coffee makers
    • microwave ovens
    • knives
    • power slicers/grinders
    • broken glass
    • food processors
    • slippery floors
    • clutter on floors and near exits
    • chemicals, cleaning products, and pesticides in storage
    • awkward and heavy lifting
    • awkward bending/reaching
    • climbing to reach things
    • repetitive movements
    • cooking/standing for too long
    • not enough work space
    • lack of training
    • bad equipment/tools
    • not enough ventilation

    After completing a hazard checklist, the second step is to identify hazards by creating a hazard map.
    A hazard map is a simple floor plan of your workplace where you show problems you experience daily on the job that may be affecting your safety and health. You can map the entire restaurant, kitchen, area, or building.

    The point of hazard mapping is to gather information about:

    • objects
    • tasks
    • working conditions that can create problems

    Once workers have identified some hazards by using the checklist and/or the hazard map, it is necessary to come up with solutions or ways to control them. The ways to control hazards are grouped into three categories according to their effectiveness; though they should be used together to provide the most effective protection for workers.

    The best way to prevent injuries is to isolate or remove the hazard altogether so it can’t hurt anyone. Sometimes such changes are not possible and it is necessary to come up with other solutions to protect workers, such as improving safety practices, or providing personal protective equipment or clothing.

    • 1. Remove or isolate the hazard – These are changes to the workplace, such as adding windows for more ventilation, such as replacing broken floor tiles to prevent falls in the kitchen. They also include substituting cleaning products that are non-toxic, installing guards on machines that have sharp or hot parts, or using carts to deliver food.
    • 2. Improve work practices – These include written safety rules and procedures and the supervision and training that help implement and maintain such safety policies. These policies can include rotating workers, increasing the number of breaks or requiring good housekeeping.
    • 3. Provide Personal Protective Equipment – PPE is equipment or clothing that workers can put on their bodies to create a barrier between them and the hazards when hazards cannot be removed or there can’t be a change in work procedures.

    Here is an example:
    One of the main hazards that restaurant workers have identified is excessive chopping and cutting.
    This is a form of repetitive motion that causes long-term injuries.

    To control the hazard:

    • 1. The cutting and chopping can be done with a machine that has a good safety guard.
    • 2. Work practices could be put in place by cutting back hours for this task and rotating workers.
      This would allow each worker to only do this job for two hours instead of eight hours a day.
    • 3. No PPE can be used in this case to prevent repetitive motions.

    In summary:

    • The goal should be to come up with changes that remove or isolate the hazards and do not depend on people to follow procedures that need to be enforced. Procedures can be hard to keep up when restaurants get busy. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is the last resort because it requires proper maintenance and it must fit the worker, and it depends on the worker remembering to use it and use it correctly.
    • Many times it takes steps at all levels to protect workers. Once a change has been implemented, it is important to re-evaluate the situation to confirm that the hazard is no longer present or that other hazards have not been created.
    • Training is necessary to keep workers aware and involved whenever a safety rule will be put in place or a change will be implemented.

    E. Sanitation in the Professional Kitchen
    Food can be contaminated easily if equipment and kitchen surfaces are not kept clean and sanitized.

    Cleaning removes visible food and dirt from a surface.
    Sanitizing reduces pathogens on a surface to safe levels.

    All surfaces must be cleaned and rinsed, including:

    • walls
    • storage shelves
    • garbage containers

    However, any equipment that touches food, such as knives, stockpots, preparation tables, and cutting boards, must be cleaned AND sanitized. Surfaces that are sanitized must also be allowed to air dry to prevent further contamination.

    All food contact surfaces and equipment must be cleaned and sanitized at the following times:

    • after they are used
    • before foodhandlers start working with a different type of food
    • any time foodhandlers are interrupted during a task and the items may have become contaminated
    • after four hours, if items are in constant use

    Sanitizing can be done either by using chemicals or heat. Both methods have specific requirements that must be followed for the sanitizing to be effective.

    Heat sanitizing requires that the water that items are sanitized in must reach 171°F and items must remain in contact with that water for at least 30 seconds.

    Chemical sanitizing can be done in a few different ways.

    Three common types of chemical sanitizers are:

    • chlorine
    • iodine
    • quaternary ammonium compounds (quats)

    Each type has to be mixed with water to create a sanitizer solution. The concentration must be correct, or the sanitizer will not work. To make sure the sanitizer is effective, use a test kit and follow the manufacturer’s directions on concentration, water temperature, and contact times.

    F. Preventing Food Hazards
    Unsafe food is usually the result of contamination, which is the presence of harmful substances in the food. Some food safety hazards are caused by humans or by the environment. Others can occur naturally.

    These potential food safety hazards are divided into three categories:

    • Biological – Pathogens are the greatest threat to food safety. Pathogens include certain viruses, fungi, and bacteria that can make diners sick. Some plants, mushrooms, and seafood that carry harmful toxins are also included in this group.
    • Chemical – Food service chemicals can contaminate food if they are used incorrectly. This group also includes cleaners, sanitation solutions, polishes, machine lubricants, and toxic metals that leach from cookware into food.
    • Physical – Foreign objects like hair, dirt, bandages, metal staples, broken glass, or fingernails can get into food. Naturally occurring objects like fish bones are also physical hazards.

    Each of these hazards pose a danger to food safety but the greatest threat to an operation’s food safety program is biological hazards. Pathogens are responsible for most foodborne illness outbreaks.

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has identified the five most common risk factors that cause foodborne illness:

    • purchasing food from unsafe sources
    • failing to cook food adequately
    • holding food at incorrect temperatures
    • using contaminated equipment
    • practicing poor personal hygiene

    Except for purchasing food from unsafe sources, each cause listed above is related to three main factors.

    These factors are:

    • time temperature abuse
    • cross-contamination
    • poor personal hygiene

    Food has been time temperature abused when it has stayed too long at temperatures that are good for the growth of pathogens.

    A foodborne illness can result if:

    • food is not held or stored at the right temperature
    • food is not cooked or reheated enough to kill pathogens
    • food is not cooled the right way

    Pathogens can be transferred from one surface or food to another. This is called cross-contamination and can cause a foodborne illness if:

    • contaminated ingredients are added to food that receives no further cooking
    • ready to eat food touches contaminated surfaces
    • contaminated food touches or drips fluids onto cooked or ready to eat food
    • a food handler touches contaminated food and then touches ready to eat food
    • contaminated cleaning towels touch food contact surfaces

    Foodhandlers can cause a foodborne illness if they do any of the following actions that are considered poor personal hygiene:

    • fail to wash their hands the right way after using the restroom or after anytime their hands get dirty
    • come to work while sick
    • cough or sneeze on food
    • touch or scratch wounds, and then touch food

    G. Food Sanitation and Certification
    The ServSafe® Food Safety Training Program http://www.servsafe.com provides current and comprehensive educational materials to the restaurant industry. More than 4 million foodservice professionals have been certified through the ServSafe® Food Protection Manager Certification Exam, which is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) – Conference for Food Protection (CFP).

    ServSafe® is the industry leader for food safety education. More than 800,000 managers nationwide have been certified, with 95% of all state and local health jurisdictions recognizing ServSafe® as meeting their requirements.

    ServSafe® training empowers food handlers to protect against food-borne illness outbreaks which will minimize:

    • insurance cost
    • reduce liability risks
    • improve food quality

    ServSafe® courses are designed to provide participants with viable information on potentially hazardous foods and safe food handling practices, the HAACP system of food safety; establishing, purchasing, and receiving standards and procedures; designing facilities and selecting appropriate equipment and guidelines for working with regulatory agencies.

    In addition to their ServSafe® training courses, they offer training for every level of your organization in a variety of training delivery methods, from textbooks and videos to CD-ROM and classroom training.

    The best way to teach ServSafe® to your students is to become a certified instructor/proctor yourself. If you’ve never seen this material before, this can be a daunting task, but the material is presented in a manner that makes it easy to learn. Learning the material on your own is definitely the best way to be able to teach it. You need to be the undisputed food safety expert in your classroom.You can learn more about becoming a registered instructor/proctor here: http://www.servsafe.com/instructors-proctors/learn

    Other alternatives to ServSafe® are:

    Make sure they are an ANSI Accredited Program Certificate Issuer.

    All of the above programs (and several more not listed) can certify you to be a registered food manager. The important thing is to certify and then teach your students what it takes to be safe food handlers.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module III Handouts

    • 2009 FDA Food Code
    • Culinary Arts Safety Award
    • Fire Extinguisher Use (Key)
    • Fire Extinguisher Use
    • Foodborne Illness Research
    • Food Employees
    • Inspection Report 2006
    • Least Wanted Foodborne Pathogens
    • Rubric for Foodborne Illness Glogster™ EDU Poster
    • Rubric for Foodborne Illness Poster
    • SafeFood Temperatures Poster
    • Safety Hazards
    • Social Studies Assessment Questions Culinary Arts
    • TFERFIMS September 28, 2006
    • TFER Handwashing Poster
    • Three Compartment Sink


    Protecting the Safety and Health of Restaurant Workers Workbook – A workbook to use in training your students in workplace safety. Designed to take 2 hours with minimal resources. http://www.losh.ucla.edu/woshtep/resources/pdf/restaurant_workbook_eng.pdf

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • You may want to work with your students to create a “Code of Ethics” instead of a set of Kitchen Rules for lab days.
    • The best thing you can do to teach your students food safety and sanitation is to help them pass the ServSafe® Manager’s Certification. If this is too costly a venture for your program, consider purchasing the ServSafe Starters™ certification and testing your students.

    The benefits of ServSafe Starters™ over the Manager’s Certification are:

    • (A) Cost – roughly $7 for the paper book and test and $15 for the all online course. The ServSafe® Manager’s certification costs nearly $40.
    • (B) Instructor Certification – No instructor certification is needed to order, teach, and certify your students. In order to do those things for the Manager’s Level Certification, you must be a certified instructor and proctor.
    • (C) Ease – The content is much easier to understand and teach at the Starters level because it is designed for line worker level, not manager level.
    • (D) Class time – You can thoroughly cover the Starters content in a few class days, while the Manager’s Certification takes much longer to complete.
    • (E) Passing Rate – While the Manager’s Level Certification can be challenging for some students, the Starter’s certification offers a much higher passing rate on average.
    • (F) Certification – While the Manager’s Certification is certainly the better of the two, the Starters certification allows students in most Texas counties to obtain their county food handler’s card after presenting their Starters Certificate and paying a small fee. Some counties will require your students to take that county’s own version of the exam, but after passing Starters, the students will be able to pass other county specific exams with ease.
    • There are also companies that will come in and teach the material to your students and test them for your county’s food handler card.
    • Check with your city or county health department to find out the requirements to be recognized as an instructor for your local community. You can then teach the course to members of your faculty, parents, and others at a nominal fundraising fee.

    References and Resources

    Images

    • Hollenstein Career and Technology Center
      Eagle Mountain – Saginaw ISD
      Fort Worth, TX

    Textbooks

    • Culinary essentials. (2010). Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw Hill.
    • Foundations of restaurant management & culinary arts: Level one. (2011). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
    • Foundations of restaurant management & culinary arts: Level two. (2011). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
    • Introduction to Culinary Arts. (2007). Boston, MA. Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • ServSafe® Manager 6th Edition. (2012) National Restaurant Association. Chicago, IL.
    • The Professional Chef. (2011). Hoboken, NJ. John Wiley & Sons Inc.

    Websites

    Module III: Professional Ethics and Legal Responsibilities Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. When considering utensils, what temperature must be maintained 30 seconds during heat sanitizing?

    • a. 151°F
    • b. 161°F
    • c. 171°F
    • d. 181°F

    2. What is the first step in eliminating (minimizing) injuries in the workplace?

    • a. Create a hazard checklist for your property.
    • b. Create a map of all potential hazards.
    • c. Train your employees on types of injuries.
    • d. Request a visit from OSHA.

    3. Truth in Menu Laws most greatly benefit whom?

    • a. Restaurants
    • b. Consumers
    • c. Restaurant managers
    • d. Advertising companies

    4. FLSA standards state that 14 and 15 year old students can work an acceptable job for which of the following hours:

    • a. Up to four hours on a school day
    • b. Up to 18 hours in the school week
    • c. Up to six hours on non-school day
    • d. Up to 30 hours in a non-school week

    5. Employers can require potential employees to take a test to determine whether they are fit for employment.

    • a. True
    • b. False

  • IV. Proper Use and Care of Commercial Equipment

    TEKS Addressed

    (6) The student understands the history of food service and the use of the professional kitchen.

    • (E) use large and small equipment in a commercial kitchen
    • (K) demonstrate proper cleaning of equipment and maintenance of the commercial kitchen

    (1) The student applies advanced reading, writing, mathematics, and science skills for the food service industry.

    • (B) comprehend a variety of texts such as operations and training manuals
    • (E) read and comprehend standardized recipes
    • (F) write and convert standardized recipes

    (7) The student uses technology and computer applications to manage food service operations.

    • (E) evaluate information sources for culinary arts

    (6) The student understands the history of food service and the use of the professional kitchen.

    • (B) identify global cultures and traditions related to food
    • (F) develop food production and presentation techniques
    • (G) demonstrate moist and dry cookery methods
    • (H) demonstrate the preparation skills of items commonly prepared in food service operations such as breakfast cookery, salads and dressing, soups and sandwiches, stocks and sauces, appetizers, seafood, poultry, meat, pastas and grains, and fruits and vegetables.
    • (I) demonstrate baking techniques such as yeast breads and rolls, quick breads, and desserts.

    (11) The student demonstrates the knowledge and skills required for careers in the restaurant, food, and beverage industry.

    • (F) analyze international cuisines

    (1) The student applies advanced reading, writing, mathematics, and science skills for the food service industry.

    • (D) understand scientific principles used in culinary arts

    (11) The student demonstrates the knowledge and skills required for careers in the restaurant, food, and beverage industry.

    • (A) understand the basics of nutrition

    Module Content

    Proper Use and Care of Commercial Equipment is the fourth unit of study in the Culinary Arts course. This section contains fifteen TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Use of small and large equipment for a commercial kitchen
    • B. Proper cleaning of equipment and maintenance of a commercial kitchen
    • C. Standardized recipes
    • D. Writing and converting standardized recipes
    • E. Operations and training recipes
    • F. Information sources for culinary arts
    • G. Food production presentation techniques
    • H. Moist and dry cookery methods
    • I. Food preparations in food service operations
    • J. Baking techniques
    • K. Global cultures
    • L. Food traditions
    • M. International cuisine
    • N. Scientific Principles in Culinary Arts
    • O. Basics of Nutrition

    Refer to lesson Global Cultures and International Cuisines for more ideas, activites and resources.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/global-cultures-and-international-cuisines

    Refer to lesson Successful Culinary Lab Management Guidelines for for additional activities, ideas and resources.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/successful-culinary-lab-management-guidelines

    Module IV Handouts

    A. Use of Small and Large Equipment for a Commercial Kitchen
    The equipment used to process or prepare food can streamline preparation time.

    Preparation equipment can be used for large volumes of food to:

    • mix
    • chop
    • grind
    • grate
    • slice

    This equipment processes food, preparing it for cooking. Mixers, food processors, and slicers are common pieces of preparation equipment used in a commercial kitchen.

    Preparation equipment commonly found in a commercial kitchen are:

    • Bench Mixer – A mixer has a removable stainless steel bowl and a dough hook, paddle, and whipped attachments. Counter models are available in 5 quart, 12 quart, and 20 quart sizes. Floor models range from 30 to 140 quart capacities. The bench mixers are used to mix or whip dough and batter. They can be used to slice, chop, shred, or grate foods by using different attachments.

    • Blenders – Blenders have stainless steel blades that can be used to blend and mix a variety of ingredients. They can also be used for crushed ice. Commercial blenders have removable thermoplastic or stainless steel containers.
    • Combination Oven – This steamer/oven uses a combination of cooking methods: a fan to circulate air around the food like a convection oven; steam to cook food; combination convection and steam cooking. Combination ovens are used to bake, poach, grill, roast, braise, and steam foods.
    • Convection Oven – A convection oven has a fan that circulates the oven’s heated air. This fan allows food to cook in about 30% less time and at temperatures approximately 50°F lower than a conventional oven. Convection ovens are used for baking, roasting, and braising.
    • Deep Fat Fryer – Cooks food at a constant temperature, which is controlled by a thermostat. Automatic or computerized fryers lower and raise food baskets in and out of fat at a preset time. Filtering allows the oil to be reused. Fryers are vital pieces of equipment in quick service operations.
    • Food Processor – Are used to grind, purée, emulsify, crush, and knead foods. Special disks can be added to slice, julienne, and shred foods.
    • Griddle – Flat or with ridges, can be a part of the range top, or a separate unit. Food is cooked directly on the surface of the griddle.
    • Open Burner Range – Has 4 to 6 burner units, each with individual controls. Each burner has its own heat source.
    • Slicer – Has a 10 inch or 12 inch circular blade that rotates at high speed. It can either be automatic or manual. Blade sizes are used to slice foods into uniform sizes.
    • Steamer – Cooks foods quickly because it places the food in direct contact with hot water vapor.
    • Steam Jacketed Kettle – Also uses steam to cook food quickly, but the steam does not come into direct contact with the food. The steam is pumped between two stainless steel containers. The steam heats the inner kettle and cooks food quickly and evenly.
    • Tilting Skillet – The most flexible piece of equipment in a commercial kitchen. It is a large, flat cooking surface with sides to hold liquids. The skillet can be tilted to pour out liquid. It can be used as a griddle, frying pan, braising pan, stockpot, or steamer.

    Refer to the Commercial Equipment Pictures slide presentation in Handouts and Graphic Organizers section for pictures of equipment used in a professional kitchen.

    B. Proper Cleaning of Equipment and Maintenance of a Commercial Kitchen
    Food preparation equipment must be cleaned thoroughly after use.

    Doing so prevents several negative results:

    • Cross contamination caused by food left on equipment that could later contaminate food prepared with that equipment.
    • Pest infestations cause by pests seeking a source of food in your kitchen and finding food left on uncleaned equipment.
    • Costly equipment repair caused by improper cleaning and maintenance of equipment.
    • Fires caused by grease buildup on uncleaned equipment.

    Safety precautions must be followed when cleaning professional equipment. Never place your hand or another object in a machine when it’s running. Always turn it off first and unplug it. Refer to the instructional manual before cleaning any equipment.

    It is also important to keep all equipment professionally maintained and in proper working order. Consider contracting a company that specializes in preventative maintenance and repair of commercial kitchen equipment. PM, or preventative maintenance, contracts can prevent more costly repairs (up to and including replacement) for years to come. Commercial kitchen equipment is constructed to last a lifetime and will do so if properly maintained.

    Common PM includes:

    • checking refrigerant levels on coolers
    • greasing/oiling moving parts
    • thoroughly cleaning vital parts
    • calibrating thermostats
    • sharpening blades

    C. Standardized Recipes

    Refer to Recipe for Success: Breaking Down a Recipe for lesson ideas.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/recipe-for-success-breaking-down-a-recipe/

    Most every operation has standardized recipes that are followed every time a menu item is prepared. For every standardized recipe, the operation should establish a standard portion cost, which is the exact amount that one serving, or portion, of a food item should cost when prepared according to the standardized recipe.

    Using standardized recipes provides many benefits to food service operations.

    These benefits include:

    • Consistent food quality – The use of standardized recipes ensures that menu items will be consistent in quality each time they are prepared and served.

    • Predictable recipe yield – The planned number of servings will be produced by using standardized recipes. This can help to reduce the amount of leftover food if there has been overproduction, and also will help to prevent shortages of portions needed. A predictable yield is especially important when food is transported from a production kitchen to other serving sites.
    • Customer satisfaction – Well-developed recipes that appeal to diners are an important factor in maintaining and increasing sales levels. It is important to keep menu items consistent in every detail of ingredient, quantity, preparation, and presentation. Standardized recipes provide this consistency and can result in increased customer satisfaction.
    • Food cost control – Standardized recipes provide consistent and accurate information for food cost control because the same ingredients and quantities of ingredients per serving are used each time the recipe is produced.
    • Efficient purchasing procedures – Purchasing is more efficient because the quantity of food needed for production is easily calculated from the information on each standardized recipe.
    • Inventory control – The use of standardized recipes provides predictable information on the quantity of food inventory that will be used each time the recipe is produced.
    • Labor cost control – Written standardized procedures in the recipe make efficient use of labor time and allow for planned scheduling of food service personnel for the work day. Training costs are reduced because new employees are provided specific instructions for preparation in each recipe.
    • Increased employee confidence – Employees feel more satisfied and confident in their jobs because standardized recipes eliminate guesswork, decrease the chances of producing poor food products, and prevent shortages of servings during meal service.
    • Reduced record keeping – A collection of standardized recipes for menu items will reduce the amount of information required on a daily food production record. Standardized recipes will include the ingredients and amounts of food used for a menu item.

    D. Writing and Converting Standardized Recipes

    Typically, standardized recipes will include the following information:

    • Recipe title
    • Recipe category
    • Ingredients
    • Weight/volume for each ingredient
    • Preparation instructions (directions)
    • Cooking temperature and time, if appropriate
    • Serving size
    • Recipe yield
    • Equipment and utensils to be used

    The conversion factor method for converting recipe yields involves mathematical calculations and is the most commonly used method of recipe conversion.

    The conversion factor method consists of three basic steps.

    • Determine the conversion factor to be used – The factor is a multiplier that will be used to increase or decrease the quantity of ingredients in a recipe. The factor is determined by dividing the desired yield (in number of servings) by the current recipe yield (in number of servings). Desired yield ÷ Current yield = Factor
      For example, if a manager wishes to make 250 servings and the current recipe produces 100 servings, divide 250 by 100; the factor would be 2.5. (250 ÷ 100 = 2.5)
    • Multiply each ingredient quantity by the conversion factor – Each ingredient quantity in a recipe is multiplied by the factor to determine the ingredient quantity needed to produce the new yield. Ingredient quantities given as fractions would need to be converted to decimals prior to doing this calculation.

    E. Operations and Training Recipes
    If the original recipe calls for 1/2 cup lemon juice, 8 oz sour cream, and 1 Tbsp + 1 tsp chopped parsley, the math is as follows:

    • Lemon juice: .5 cup x 2.5 = 1.25 cups lemon juice
      (original amount) x (factor) = (amount needed for 250 servings)
      (Note: Change 1/2 cup to the decimal .5 before calculating.)
    • Sour cream: 8 oz x 2.5 = 20 oz sour cream
      (original amount) x (factor) = (amount needed for 250 servings)
    • Parsley: 4 tsp x 2.5 = 10 tsp parsley
      (original amount) x (factor) = (amount needed for 250 servings)
      (Note: Change 1 Tbsp + 1 tsp to all tsp [4] before calculating.)

    Change the amounts into more common measurements – Often, the result of the mathematical calculations is a quantity that is hard to measure or not commonly used. These quantities may need to be converted to a more common measurement. Rounding to the nearest common measure also may occur.

    For example:

    The lemon juice is listed as 1.25 cups; the more common measurement would be 1 & 1/4 cups.

    The sour cream could be changed to 1 lb 4 oz (or 1.25 lb) for easier measurement.
    (Note: 16 oz = 1 lb)

    The quantity of parsley might be changed to 3 Tbsp + 1 tsp for ease in measuring.

    F. Information Sources for Culinary Arts
    Information in culinary arts is both bountiful and scarce at the same time.

    You may ask yourself the following questions:

    • What resources can I trust?
    • Where can I get free information?
    • Where can I get information that is not outdated?
    • Where can I get information that is relevant to the foodservice industry and not just home kitchens?
    • And most importantly are there ANY resources that can provide me with all of these things at the same time?

    The answer is not so simple.

    In order to find appropriate sources for information in culinary arts, follow these tips:

    • Avoid food blogs – Bloggers these days will post anything on just about any topic. Using food blogs for culinary information when seeking something new to you can be like the blind leading the blind. If you have some background knowledge on a topic and want to get a different view, food blogs have some merit, but as a rule of thumb, avoid the blogs.

    • Textbooks. Textbooks. Textbooks. – Textbooks are designed to address the exact issue you may have. “I don’t know enough about this… I need to learn more.” Buy/borrow any culinary/hospitality textbook you can get your hands on. Check them out from the library, buy them cheaply on Amazon or at used book stores, and request free samples from the textbook companies.
    • Videos – Many culinary schools host YouTube™ channels with TONS of instructional videos utilizing professional techniques and equipment. Whether you are showing them to your students in class or if you become the student and learn all that you can so you are a better culinary teacher, these YouTube™ channels can be a wealth of information.
    • Professional Associations – Many professional associations offer excellent information up for their members such as the American Culinary Federation.

    G. Food Production Presentation Techniques
    Enjoyment of the meal is more likely if the food has eye appeal. If the food is unattractive, a customer is more likely to expect a poor meal. This is why garnishing properly and plating in an attractive manner is essential when presenting food.

    The basics of food presentation include the following five principles:

    • color
    • shape
    • texture
    • design
    • platter

    • Color – Consider using a variety of colors on the same plate. Use a balance of colors. Allow color to show freshness of ingredients.
    • Shape – Utilize a variety of shapes on the plate, avoiding similar shapes in multiple elements of the dish. Use complementary shapes and be sure that there is a balance of shapes on the plate.
    • Texture – Use a variety of textures on the plate. Use textures that are visually attractive such as purées, crisp elements, and foods that offer a natural crunch. Most importantly, make sure that there is a balance of textures on the plate.
    • Design – Make sure the food is easy for the guests to eat. Use the dish as a canvas and it’s rim as a frame. Generally, an artist’s painting does not extend onto the frame but stays inside it. The same idea applies here. Be sure that the design is appropriate to time and temperature constraints. Be sure that the design is appropriate for available equipment, staff, and facility. Height in food presentation falls under this presentation principle.
    • Platter choice – Be sure that you are using a platter that is appropriate in size and color for your dish.

    H. Moist and Dry Cookery Methods
    The degree of change that occurs during the cooking process depends on the links of cooking time, the temperature, and the cooking technique you use.

    The three cooking techniques are:

    • dry
    • moist
    • combination of both

    Dry cooking techniques uses metal and the radiation of hot air, oil, or fat to transfer heat. No moisture is used in this cooking process. Any moisture that comes from the food evaporates, or escapes, into the air. Remember, in the case of dry cooking methods, that the use of oil still constitutes dry cookery. The addition of water to the cooking process makes it a moist cooking technique.

    • Baking is a very popular dry cooking technique. Bread and chicken are foods that are commonly baked. Fish, vegetables, fruits, and pastry items can be prepared using this method. To bake, you use dry heat in a closed environment, usually an oven. No fat or liquid is used. Any moisture that is created in the form of steam evaporates into the air because the food is cooked uncovered.
    • Roasting, like baking, also uses dry heat in a closed environment. Foods commonly roasted include meat and poultry. These foods are placed on top of the rack that sits inside a pan. This allows air to circulate all the way around the food. In general, roasting involves longer cooking times than baking. Roasting also differs from baking in that sometimes the outside of the food product is seared, or quickly browned at the start of the cooking process. Searing seals in a food’s juices, caramelizes flavors, adds color, and makes the food more tender.
    • Sautéing is a quick, dry cooking technique that uses a small amount of fat or oil in a shallow pan. Sautéing is generally used with delicate acoustic cooking relatively quickly. During sautéing, you’ll want to seal the surface of the food. To do this, preheat the pan on high heat, then add fat or oil. When the fat or oil is heated and nearly smoking, add the food. Do not overcrowd the pan. After the food is sealed, lower the temperature so the food cooks evenly.
    • Frying is a dry heat cooking technique in which foods are cooked in hot fat or oil. During frying, the outside of the food become sealed when it comes in contact with the hot oil. The natural moisture in the food turns to steam, which bubbles up to the surface. Foods can be dredged, breaded, or battered before frying or they can be fried in their natural state.

    • One way to fry food is pan frying. To pan fry, heat a moderate amount of fat in a pan before adding food. Use enough fat to cover about 1/2 to 3/4 of the food. The fat should usually be 350°F to 375°F. Because it’s not completely covered, you’ll need to turn the food after one side is done to allow for even cooking.
    • Deep frying is another method of frying. Deep-fried foods are cooked completely submerged in heated fat or oil at temperatures between 350°F and 375°F. Fried foods must be cooked until they are done on the inside.

    • Grilling is often used for tender foods that cook relatively quickly. To grill food properly, first preheat the grill. Depending on the food you wish to grill, brush the food lightly with oil, and then place it on the grill. Don’t move the food after you place it initially. This will help create the distinctive grill markings of a grilled food product.
    • Broiling means to cook food directly under a primary heat source. When you’re broiling, the temperature is controlled by how close the food is to the heat source. Thicker food should be placed farther from the heat source, and thinner food should be placed closer to the heat source. This ensures that the inside and outside of the food will cook at the same rate.

    Moist cooking techniques uses liquid instead of oil to create the heat energy needed to cook the food. Boiling is a good example of this technique.

    • Boiling is a moist cooking technique in which you bring a liquid, such as water or stock, to the boiling point and keep it at that temperature while the food cooks. When liquid reaches the boiling point, food can be added and cooked. When liquid boils, a process called convection occurs. During convection, the liquid closest to the bottom of the pan is heated and rises to the top, while the cooler liquid descends to the bottom of the pan. This sets off a circular motion in the pan and keeps the food in constant motion and keeps it from sticking to the pan.
    • Blanching is another moist cooking technique. It is a quick way to change the flavor and keep the color in foods. A blanched food item is only partially cooked, so a second stage of cooking is needed to complete the cooking process. For example, you might first blanch green beans and then sauté them in butter and herbs.
    • Simmering, like boiling, involves cooking food in a liquid. However, when you simmer a food, it cooks slowly and steadily in a slightly cooler liquid that’s heated from 185°F to 200°F. The bubbles in the liquid rise slowly to the surface of the liquid but do not break the surface.
    • Poaching is an even gentler method of moist cooking than simmering. To poach means to cook food in a flavorful liquid between 150°F and 185°F. Generally, tender or delicate foods such as fish and eggs are poached in just enough liquid to cover the food. You can poach food on the range top or in the oven.
    • Steaming involves cooking vegetables or other foods in a closed environment filled with steam, such as in a pot with a tight fitting lid. Steam is created inside the pot when water reaches the boiling point and turns into vapor and disperses as tiny drops in the air. Although the food never touches the liquid, the temperature inside the closed environment rises high enough to cook the food. Steaming is generally faster than other moist cooking techniques.

    Combination cooking uses both moist and dry cooking techniques. This kind of cooking is a two-step process. You start cooking using one technique and finish with the other. The objective of combination cooking is to build upon the food flavors. By understanding each cooking technique, you can begin to combine them in ways that create great tasting food.

    • Braising is one such combination cooking method. Braising is a long, slow cooking process that can produce very flavorful results. It can make tough cuts of meat more tender. During the long cooking process, braising produces a very flavorful liquid. The flavors extracted from the food become highly concentrated and takes on the flavor of the meat’s juices as it cooks. Braised foods are always served with the cooking liquid. You will want to strain, thicken, and add salt, pepper, or other spices to the liquid before serving.
    • Stewing is another combination cooking technique. However, stewed foods are completely covered with liquid during cooking. Cooking time for stewing is generally shorter than for braising. That is because the main food item and stew is cut into smaller pieces before cooking.

    I. Food Preparations in Food Service Operations
    Before you can prepare and cook the food, you have to get everything organized.
    Mise en place is a French term that means “to put in place.”

    Mise en place includes assembling all the necessary:

    • ingredients
    • equipment
    • tools
    • serving pieces

    To effectively perform mise en place, work simplification techniques are used. Work simplification refers to performing a task in the most efficient way possible.

    Work simplification in the food service industry involves the efficient use of:

    • food
    • time
    • energy

    • Food – can be prepared and cooked in a variety of ways, but not every method is efficient. For instance, you can chop an onion by hand, but a processor will get the job done more quickly.
    • Time – management of time in the kitchen results in prompt service. Different foods have different cooking times. By reviewing recipes prior to cooking, you can determine how much time is needed. Then you can plan your schedule by working back from the serving time.
    • Energy – Arrange your workstation effectively. Hand tools and ingredients should be within reach. This allows for efficient range of motion. Range of motion means using the fewest body movements without unnecessary stress or strain. When your equipment, tools, and ingredients are easily accessible, you’ll eliminate unnecessary stops and starts. An efficient range of motion eliminates wasted time and energy.

    Put simply, restaurants cannot operate effectively without following the basic principles of mise en place. It is the basis of food preparation in the kitchen. It is step one. Without first mastering the principles of mise en place, a kitchen whose responsibility is to put out hot food to any customer present to purchase it, is sure to fail.

    J. Baking Techniques

    Refer to Classroom Cupcake Wars Competition for lesson ideas.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/classroom-cupcake-wars-competition/

    Although you may add a dash of this or a pinch of that when you are making a pot of chili, you would never use such imprecise measurements in a commercial bakeshop. The baker uses a formula – a recipe that includes the precise amount of each ingredient. These amounts are often listed as percentages of the total formula.

    Accuracy in measurement is crucial in baking because most baked products are made from the same basic ingredients:

    • flour
    • water
    • egg
    • fat
    • leavening agent

    The difference between two baked products often lies in the proportion of each of these ingredients in the formula. If the proportions are off, you will end up with a different product or an unacceptable product.

    • Wheat flour – Wheat flour is the main ingredient in many baked goods. The proteins and starch in flour give these products structure. The classification of flour is based on the type of wheat it comes from – soft or hard. Wheat flour made from hard wheat has a high protein content and is usually used in making products that need gluten such as bread. Wheat flour made from soft wheat is lower in protein and is often used in products such as cakes and pastries.
    • Liquids – Liquids are an essential part of baking. The most common liquids used in baking are water, milk, and cream. Liquids can also be found in eggs, sugar syrups, and butter, which contains about 15% water. Accurate measurement of liquids is important because too much or too little can affect the outcome of the baked product.
    • Fats – Fats surround the flour particles during the baking process and prevent long strands of gluten from forming. This tenderizes the baked good. Fats also add to the flavor, moistness, browning, flakiness, and leavening, depending on the type of fat. In baking, solid fats are referred to as shortening.
    • Sugars and sweeteners – Sugars and sweeteners add a sweet, pleasant flavor to baked products. Flavor, however, is not their only contribution to baking. The other functions of sugars and sweeteners include:
      • Creating a golden brown color – Stabilizes mixtures such as beating the egg whites for meringue.
      • Providing food for yeast in yeast breads.
      • Retaining moisture for a longer shelf life.
      • Tenderizing baked products by weakening the gluten strands and delaying the action of other structure builders such as egg protein.
      • Serving as a base for making icings.
    • Eggs – Eggs are the second most important ingredient in baked products. Eggs serve a variety of functions during the baking process. These functions include:
      • Structure – Because of the protein content, eggs give structure to baked products such as cakes. They also help thicken some products such as custard sauces.
      • Emulsification – Egg yolks have natural emulsifiers that help blend ingredients smoothly.
      • Aeration – Beaten or whipped eggs assist in leavening because they trap air that expands when heated, causing baked products to rise.
      • Flavor – Eggs add a distinct flavor to baked goods.
      • Color – Egg yolks add a rich, yellow color to baked products. Eggs also add color to crusts during the browning process.
    • Leavening agents – A leavening agent is a substance that causes a baked good to rise by introducing carbon dioxide or other gases into the mixture. The gases expand from the oven, stretching the cell walls in the baked product. The end result is a light, tender texture and good volume. The main leavening agents are:
      • air
      • steam
      • baking soda
      • baking powder
      • yeast
    • Flavorings – flavorings include extracts and spices. Although flavorings don’t usually influence the baking process, they do enhance the flavor of the final baked product.

    K. Global Cultures
    Foods are a way that cultural groups express their way of living. Since the people of the cultures have prepared these foods for many generations, some of these foods have changed gradually over time.

    When people came to Texas, they found out that they couldn’t always cook familiar foods as they had in their homelands because they would need ingredients that were not available in Texas. Some people found other familiar ingredients they could use as substitutes for the ones that weren’t available. Many people also created new recipes based upon their traditional ones using ingredients that included the crops that grew in Texas. The many different ways to cook and prepare foods have provided the people of the United States with a varied diet.

    The American Museum of Natural History recently opened an exhibit titled:

    L. Food Traditions
    Of all cultural traditions, food is only one aspect of family traditions but yet it is probably one of the most persistent. There is no cultural group and no individual for whom at least one specific food – the memory, taste, or smell of which – does not evoke a pang of loving nostalgia.

    Food plays an inextricable role in our daily lives. Without food we cannot survive. But food is much more than a tool of survival.

    Food is a source of:

    • pleasure
    • comfort
    • security

    Food is also a symbol of:

    • hospitality
    • social status
    • religious significance

    What we select to eat, how we prepare it, serve it, and even how we eat it are all factors profoundly touched by our individual cultural inheritance.

    Because of the centrality of food in our lives, many cults and religions impose feast days and fast days, and may list acceptable and prohibited foods.

    Special occasions, from funerals to weddings, from festivals and fairs to political holidays and religious celebrations – all of these would diminish in pleasure and importance if food were not a consideration. Various foods are given symbolic and even transformative connotations, and there is still no shortage of publications promising that a “magic food” will alleviate pain, increase sexual function, and promise almost everything but life after death.

    The ability to control one’s appetite, in many aspects of life, but especially regarding food, may also be indicative of social status, and more recently is seen as critical for health and longevity.

    Even a cursory glance at diets around the world reveals the strange fact that people do not only eat what is available, they eat only what they consider to be edible. What is considered a delicacy in one area and by one group may be considered an abomination by others. Sheep’s brain and eyeballs, frog’s legs, hot tea with fermented yak butter, or animal blood are not considered to be universal foods – nor are insects, but they are relished by some people. Further, eating foods with one’s fingers may be considered ill-mannered by some, while others may consider eating with a knife and fork barbaric.

    Increasingly, awareness of the food traditions, and indeed the incredible variety of herbs and spices, fruits and vegetables, the countless enticing ways of food preparation and food service have enriched our individual food horizons and expanded our views of what constitutes a healthy diet. After all, healthy survival is not the possession of any one group. It is becoming obvious that an understanding of many aspects of the cultures of others, including their food traditions, is indispensable in any human communication. This is true not only for professionals in the field of commercial food service, but is clearly recognized today in the global marketplace.

    M. International Cuisine
    North American cuisine is a melting pot, based upon the diversity of the natural resources of the continent and the variety of the native and immigrant populations. There is no single “American” flavor in the region from Canada to Mexico, Pacific to Atlantic.

    Each region has traditional:

    • dishes
    • flavors
    • ingredients
    • cooking methods

    There are coastal zones with abundant seafood; Asian pockets with fusion influences; the vast mountains, plateaus, and planes with beef, wheat, potatoes, and corn; Southern cuisine with African influences; and Mexican food with both native and Spanish flavors, to name just a few.

    For a fun look at these influences and some dishes that reflect them, visit Epicurious.com’s site:

    There you will find over a dozen VERY USEFUL sites for use in your classroom.

    N. Scientific Principles in Culinary Arts
    A working knowledge of the composition of food and how it reacts to manipulation is essential for chefs. So much so, that many culinary schools are starting to offer more culinary science classes, and many schools are starting to offer a major of study in the culinary sciences. One such school is one of the best culinary schools in the world, the Culinary Institute of America.

    Below are a few excerpts/quotes from an AP article on this topic with testimonials from instructors at CIA talking of the importance on learning and understanding the scientific concepts that make the kitchen go round.

    • The basics of a culinary education are getting a little less basic at the Culinary Institute of America. Recognizing that for the chefs of tomorrow well-honed knife skills and a mastery of the mother sauces won’t be enough, the culinary school is pumping up its curriculum with a host of science lab-worthy tools and techniques.

    • “Today’s chef compared to a chef 30 years ago needs to know so much more,” CIA president Tim Ryan said recently. “The industry, the profession, is so much more complicated.”

    • Basic cooking lectures at times sound more like a chemistry lesson, covering the culinary uses of xanthan gum, or the physics of why oil and water won’t mix. And just this month, the school was approved to offer a new major in culinary science, a field encompassing food science and culinary arts.

    • “… scientific skills are increasingly necessary not only in multi-star restaurants, but in the corporate kitchens and research labs many of his school’s graduates will work in.”

    • Freshmen being put through their paces preparing fish and carrots on a recent weekday morning in a kitchen classroom already were getting the message. While any line cook knows to finish off a sauce with butter, chef Elizabeth Briggs wants her students to know why. They have to have a detailed understanding of what’s going on inside the pot.

    • “It’s emphasized in this class it’s the difference between a chef and a cook,” said Janelle Turcios of Pittsburgh…

    • The emphasis on science is signaled most dramatically with the new bachelor of professional studies degree in culinary science. Beginning in February, students pursuing the degree will be able to take courses such as Dynamics of Heat Transfer, Flavor Science and Perception, and Advanced Concepts in Precision Temperature Cooking.

    • The traditional way for a trainee to respond to a request is, “Yes, chef.” Now school administrators want to make it closer to, “Why, chef?” They want students to come up with hypotheses, test them, and discover the best methods.

    This article is just a smattering of the proof that science is necessary in the kitchen. If you are teaching students WHAT TO DO in your kitchen, make sure you are also teaching them WHY TO DO IT THAT WAY. It will stick with them longer, and their comprehension rate for a given topic is likely to double.

    O. Basics of Nutrition
    Nutrition is the way our body takes in and utilizes foods. While this may sound unrelated to the study of cooking, nutrition is impacting the chef’s profession more and more. Chefs must consider not only the appearance and flavor of the dish, but also the nutritional impact of the dish.

    Nutrients are the substances and food that Nourish our bodies. They provide energy or contribute to the repair and growth of our bodies.

    Nutrients are divided into six groups:

    • Proteins
    • Lipids
    • Carbohydrates
    • Water
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals.

    While the human body can manufacture some nutrients, the nutrients that the body cannot make must be supplied by diet. These are called essential nutrients.

    Nutrients that supply the body with energy are:

    • proteins
    • lipids
    • carbohydrates

    A calorie is the unit used to measure the amount of energy contained in foods.

    Carbohydrates are the body’s main source of energy, or fuel. Simple carbohydrates, or sugars, include both natural and refined, or processed sugars.

    Natural sugars are part of foods like fruits, vegetables, and milk. Foods with these sugars also carry other important nutrients.

    Refined sugars, are sugars used primarily as sweeteners. These sugars provide little more than calories.

    Complex carbohydrates are starches such as pasta, grains, cereals, and legumes, or the seeds and pods from certain plants. Foods high in complex carbohydrates contain many other nutrients that your body needs, such as vitamins and minerals.

    A unique form of a complex carbohydrate that does not provide energy is fiber.

    There are two types of fiber:

    • soluble fiber, which dissolves in water
    • insoluble fiber, which absorbs water

    Fiber is key to the functioning of the digestive system and the elimination of waste.

    • Protein builds, maintains, and repairs body tissues. It is essential for healthy muscles, skin, bones, eyes, and hair, and it plays an important role in fighting disease. If a person doesn’t eat enough carbohydrates, then the body will use protein for energy. Through digestion, protein is broken down into smaller units called amino acids. There are 22 amino acids which can be combined in certain ways to produce complete proteins. Some amino acids can be created by the body, while others cannot and must be obtained from food. Animal foods, such as fish, meats, poultry, eggs, milk and milk products, provide all of the essential amino acids. They are called complete proteins.
    • Fat and cholesterol play an essential role in keeping the body healthy. Fat regulates bodily functions and helps carry fat-soluble vitamins. It is a source of stored energy and a cushion for body organs. Fats are divided into three categories: saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated. Unsaturated fats are considered more helpful than saturated fats because they generally do not raise cholesterol levels.
    • Vitamins help regulate many bodily functions and assist other nutrients in doing their jobs. Fruits and vegetables are excellent sources of vitamins. Vitamins are divided into two types: water-soluble and fat-soluble. Both types of vitamins are vital for normal growth and bodily functions.
    • Minerals are an essential part of your bones and teeth. They also regulate bodily processes, such as nerve function, and are needed in very small quantities. Minerals are divided into two categories: major and trace. The body needs more of the major minerals (such as calcium and potassium) than it does the trace minerals (such as iron and fluoride), but both types are equally important.
    • Water is essential for sustaining life. Water makes up about 60% of an adults body weight. It cleans toxins from the body, cushions joints, and increases the body’s ability to transfer nutrients. Healthy adults need to drink 64 to 80 ounces of water a day. Those 8 to 10 glasses can come from any substance that is mostly water such as juice, soup, milk, and ice. However water-based beverages that contain caffeine such as coffee, tea, and soft drinks (especially those with artificial sweeteners) cause the body to eliminate water and should be avoided.

    It is not wise to limit/eliminate any of these nutrients from your diet in an effort to manage weight. The human body is a complex machine and is designed to utilize each of these nutrients in a harmonious manner, and eliminating/limiting any of them in a significant manner can only cause negative and adverse results.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module IV Handouts

    • Breaking Down a Recipe
    • Classroom Cupcake Wars Competition Plan
    • Commercial Equipment Pictures
    • Global Cultures and International Cuisines Notes
    • Global Cultures and International Cuisines Notes (Key)
    • Global Grocery Worksheet
    • Global Grocery Worksheet (Key)
    • International Cuisine Flashcards
    • Parts of a Recipe
    • Recipe Cost Analysis
    • Recipe for Success Quiz
    • Recipe Nutritional Analysis
    • Rubric for Classroom Competition
    • Rubric for Classroom Cupcake Wars Competition
    • Rubric for Visual Display or Glogster™EDU
    • Same Dish, Different Name
    • Standards of Measurement

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • For an interesting look at today’s foods visit
      http://www.foodnme.com/
      This site allows you to “Smash Your Food” and see what’s in them.
    • Have your students create their own SnapGuide illustrating proper technique for the moist and dry cooking methods. This would be an excellent jigsaw activity for your classes.
      http://www.snapguide.com
    • Have students complete a “You Are What You Eat” project and create a project (poster, wind chime, robot, binder, etc) with labels and pictures of what they typically eat in a week.
    • Have students keep a food diary using MyFitnessPal
      http://www.myfitnesspal.com
      At the end of the diary project, ask them questions about their nutrition level versus the %DV according to the FDA. http://www.nutritiondata.com?
    • Show the film Hungry for Change to your class.
      Your Health is in Your Hands http://www.hungryforchange.tv/
    • If your kitchen does not contain any or all of the equipment detailed above that students will see once they join the industry, then try taking them on a field trip to a hotel kitchen or restaurant supply store.
    • Have students create a PowerPoint showing two pictures of each principle of food presentation and up to five pictures utilizing all five principles.

    References and Resources

    Articles:

    Images

    • Hollenstein Career and Technology Center
      Eagle Mountain – Saginaw ISD
      Fort Worth, TX

    Newsletters:

    Textbooks

    • Culinary essentials. (2010). Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw Hill.
    • Foundations of restaurant management & culinary arts: Level one. (2011). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
    • Foundations of restaurant management & culinary arts: Level two. (2011). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
    • Introduction to Culinary Arts. (2007). Boston, MA. Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • The Professional Chef. (2011). Hoboken, NJ. John Wiley & Sons Inc.

    Websites

    YouTube™EDU:

    Module IV Proper Use and Care of Commercial Equipment Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Which baking ingredient helps the baked product to rise through the production of CO2?

    • a. Leavening agents
    • b. Eggs
    • c. Wheat flour
    • d. Sugars and sweeteners

    2. Adults need to drink ____ to ____ ounces of water each day to maintain healthy bodily functions.

    • a. 80 to 100
    • b. 60 to 80
    • c. 64 to 80
    • d. 50 to 70

    3. Restaurants cannot operate effectively without following the basic principles of ____________.

    • a. Sanitation
    • b. Food Safety
    • c. Mise en place
    • d. Culinary Arts

    4. To _______, heat a moderate amount of fat in a pan before adding food. Use enough fat to cover about 1/2 to 3/4 of the food.

    • a. pan fry
    • b. deep fry
    • c. simmer
    • d. saute

    5. The five elements of plate presentation are:

    • a. color, texture, design, arrangement, and shape
    • b. height, shape, color, temperature, and texture
    • c. height, shape, color, arrangement, and texture
    • d. color, shape, platter, design, and texture

    6. The ________________ is the most flexible piece of equipment in the commercial kitchen.

    • a. Convection Oven
    • b. Combination Oven
    • c. Tilting Skillet
    • d. Range Top

    7. A chef needs a recipe to yield 340 servings, but the current recipe yields 84 servings. What is the conversion factor by which she must multiply the original ingredient amounts in order to get the new ingredient amounts?

    • a. 2.47
    • b. 0.404
    • c. 0.24
    • d. 4.04

  • V. Time Management and Decision Making

    time and money

    TEKS Addressed

    (4) The student develops principles in time management, decision making, effective communication, and prioritizing.

    • (A) apply effective practices for managing time and energy
    • (B) analyze various steps in the decision-making process

    (11) The student demonstrates the knowledge and skills required for careers in the restaurant, food, and beverage industry.

    • (C) develop a marketing plan
    • (D) identify purchasing specifications and write purchase orders
    • (E) determining proper receiving, storage, and distribution techniques

    (6) The student understands the history of food service and the use of the professional kitchen.

    • (J) demonstrate proper receiving and storage techniques

    Module Content

    Time Management and Decision Making is the fifth unit of study in the Culinary Arts course. This section contains seven TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Managing time and energy
    • B. Steps in decision making
    • C. Marketing plan
    • D. Purchasing specifications and purchase orders
    • E. Receiving, storage, and distribution techniques
    • F. Proper receiving and storage techniques


    Module V Handouts

    A. Managing time and energy
    Time management uses tools to increase a person’s efficiency and productivity. To manage time effectively, you also need to know how to waste less time on noncritical, unimportant activities and avoidable problems.

    The skills needed for effective time management include the following:

    • Planning: document what needs to happen during a certain period of time (daily, monthly, yearly).
    • Goal setting: always set a timeline for completing a task.
    • Setting priorities: identify the importance of tasks and then choose their order of completion.
    • Delegating: as a leader, assign tasks to someone else and ensure their completion.

    Even those with good intentions at the beginning of a day, who write down the day’s plan, might encounter other things that can get in their way.

    Being aware of all the things a person does during a day can result in better:

    • planning
    • decision making
    • delegating
    • goal setting

    Consider leaving a small percentage of time during the day for unexpected tasks or events. That way, an entire daily plan will not be thrown off track if a surprise happens.

    One method that can improve the ability to plan time more effectively is to review the activities a person needs to complete on a daily or weekly basis and break these activities into smaller tasks. Divide these activities into a controllable size to organize a work schedule more effectively. What may appear to be insurmountable tasks to complete in a day can actually become easier to handle when using this approach.

    Create this list of smaller tasks and then follow through and act on the daily plan. Physically crossing tasks off the list also provides a visual sense of accomplishment. Evaluating later how the plans of daily and weekly activities actually worked is an additional way to improve time management skills.

    Many people find that time management tools such as a PDA or time planner or computer programs like Microsoft Outlook help them organize their time more effectively. These tools make it easier to schedule and monitor activities and appointments on a daily, weekly, and monthly basis.

    Restaurant and food service leaders who manage their time so that they maintain a quality of life for themselves, help foster that behavior in their employees.

    B. Steps in decision making
    Introduce your students to The FCCLA Planning Process for Individual and Team Action.
    This is a decision making tool that supports the organization’s overall philosophy about youth-centered leadership and personal growth. It can be used to determine group action in a chapter or class or to plan individual projects.

    Planning Process:

    • Identify Concerns
      • brainstorm to generate ideas
      • evaluate your list and narrow it down
    • Set A Goal
      • clear mental picture
      • goal is achieved and evaluated
      • consider resources available
    • Form A Plan
      • decide what needs to be done
      • figure out who, what, where, when, and how
      • list other available resources
      • make a workable timetable
      • list possible barriers
      • decide way to recognize accomplishments
    • Act
      • carry out group or individual plan
      • use family and community members when needed
    • Follow Up
      • determine if goal was met
      • list improvements
      • share and publicize efforts
      • recognize members and thank people

    Use this process for each of your projects to allow students to become familiar with decision making.

    C. Marketing plan
    We’ve probably all had what we thought of as a great idea, only to watch it fizzle out after presenting it at the wrong time or to the wrong audience, or perhaps by even using the wrong presentation method. Even worse we’ve all likely tried presenting an idea to someone we were trying to get on board, only to realize we weren’t prepared and didn’t “do our homework” before presenting.

    People often talk about advertising and marketing as if they’re the same thing. They are not. Advertising is just one component of a successful marketing strategy.

    Marketing includes:

    • determining what products and services to offer
    • how to position them in the marketplace
    • how to promote them to potential buyers
    • how to price them so people will buy them
    • how to get the goods to these buyers

    In the current business environment, marketing drives the operation. Managers now ask, “What do people want that we can provide at a profit?” The operation should follow a marketing concept.

    The Marketing Concept includes:

    • Determine customer needs and wants before doing anything else.
    • Determine the cost, prices, and profitability of products and services before starting to produce them.
    • Organize all aspects of the operation to provide what the customers want.

    A marketing plan is a list of steps an operation must take to sell a product or service to a specific market. There are multiple steps to any plan, but every marketing plan will have five main components.

    Marketing plan components include:

    • Research the market – Gathering research MUST be the first step in any marketing plan. In the same way that you would not want to play a game without first knowing the rules, a restaurant manager needs to know the ins and outs of the market and know what he or she is up against.
    • Establish objectives -These objectives should clearly state what it is the operation wants to accomplish within a set time frame.
    • Develop a marketing strategy – Once the operation’s goals have been set and a time line laid out, the managers and marketers must brainstorm ways to achieve the objectives.
    • Implement an action plan – The action plan is the way that the market strategy is put into action. With an action plan, management and marketers take market strategy theory and actually put it into practice by making menu changes, adjusting pricing, purchasing advertising, and so on.
    • Evaluate/modify the action plan as needed – This stage is an ongoing process of monitoring the actions taken by the operation and gauging how successful they are. “Is the plan working?” “What can we do better?” “How can it be improved?” These are the types of questions marketers and managers must ask themselves in order to effectively market their products and services.

    D. Purchasing specifications and purchase orders
    The purchasing process is everything involved in buying products and services for an operation.

    The five major steps of purchasing include:

    • Determine what an operation wants and needs to buy – This step usually happens on a regular basis and includes products that need to be ordered frequently as well as major, one-time purchases like new ovens.
    • Identify quality standards – These standards help to build product specifications which suppliers need to provide the right products and services
    • Order products and services – The way an operation orders products and services depends on its size. The larger the company, the more formal the ordering procedures. These formal procedures can include computer software. Smaller companies may place orders by phone or in person.
    • Receive deliveries – A foodhandler must check all deliveries before they are either be accepted or refused. Receiving employees must verify that the product being delivered meets the operation specifications.
    • Store and issue products – The employee receiving products must store them as quickly as possible to prevent food safety problems and spoilage. An issuing system helps an operation track which areas are using which products. Many operations use requisitions that managers must approve.

    The procurement specialist has the following main goals in mind when making purchasing decisions:

    • maintain the right supply of products and services
    • maintain the quality standards of the operations
    • minimize the amount of money the operation spends
    • stay competitive with similar operations

    These goals help the ordering person create purchasing specifications. Purchasing specifications describe the requirements for a particular product that an operation wants to buy. These specifications include the details that help a product or service meet the operations purchasing goals. These specifications must be documented and become more formal in larger operations.

    Some possible specifications include:

    • acceptable substitutes
    • acceptable trim
    • brand name
    • color
    • exact name
    • intended use
    • market form
    • packaging
    • place of origin
    • pricing
    • size
    • temperature
    • USDA grade of the item

    Purchase orders are a legally binding written document that details exactly what the buyer is ordering from the vendor.

    Every purchase order should include:

    • operation’s name, address, and phone number
    • buyer’s name
    • supplier’s name, address, and phone number
    • supplier’s contact person
    • date of the order
    • desired date of receipt/how long the purchase order is good
    • shipping method
    • quantity for each item
    • brief description of each item
    • size/count of each item
    • unit price of each item
    • total price for all items
    • total price for entire order (including sales tax, shipping, and any other special charges)
    • any special information regarding the item or delivery

    E. Receiving, storage, and distribution techniques
    Receiving means inspecting, accepting, and, in some cases, projecting deliveries of goods and services.

    The first and perhaps most important step in setting up good receiving procedures, is to make sure that only employees who have been trained in proper receiving techniques do the job.

    Restaurant food service operations cannot afford to allow products to:

    • go to waste
    • disappear
    • be delivered in substandard form

    A written invoice should accompany every delivery. The invoice is the suppliers bill listing the actual goods delivered by the supplier. The person responsible for receiving at the operation should always check the invoice against the operations original purchase order to make sure that the quantity and cost of the goods has not changed. The receivers should also have a copy of the original specifications to confirm that the delivery meets the operations quality standards.

    Guidelines for efficient receiving procedures:

    • Plan ahead for shipments – Make sure enough space is available for storing the shipment. Make sure you have someone available to properly receive the delivery.
    • Inspect and store each delivery before receiving another one. – This will prevent time-temperature abuse in the receiving area.
    • Inspect deliveries immediately – Visually inspect all items to count quantities, verify expiration dates, check for damaged products, and look for items that might have been repacked or mishandled.
    • Record items on a receiving sheet – This helps to keep inventories accurate.
    • Correct mistakes immediately – If any products are damaged, at the wrong temperature, or of the wrong quality, DO NOT accept them.
    • Put products away as quickly as possible – This is especially important for cold or frozen TCS foods.
    • Maintain the receiving area – Keep the area clean, well lit, and stocked with all of the tools necessary to properly receive deliveries (scales, carts, labels, pens, containers, and so forth). A clean receiving area will also help to discourage the presence of pests.

    F. Proper receiving and storage techniques

    Below you will find some guidelines for each of those storage areas:

    Foodhandlers should remember several things when storing items in refrigerated storage:

    • The setting of your coolers must keep the internal temperature of the food at 41 degrees or below.
    • Monitor the temperatures of your coolers regularly.
    • Schedule regular maintenance of your coolers.
    • Do not overload your coolers. Storing too many products prevents proper airflow and makes units work too hard to keep products cold.
    • Use open shelving. Lining shelves with foil, sheet pans, or paper restricts the circulation of cold air in the unit.
    • Keep cooler doors closed as much as possible. Frequent opening lets warm air inside, which can affect food safety and make the unit work harder.
    • Wrap or cover all food properly. Leaving food uncovered can lead to cross contamination, spoilage, and the eventual wasting of food.

    Foodhandlers should remember several things when storing items in frozen storage:

    • Set freezers to the correct temperature.
    • The setting must keep all products frozen.
    • Check freezer temperatures regularly.
    • Place frozen food deliveries into freezers as soon as they have been inspected. Never leave these items at room temperature.
    • Ensure good airflow inside freezers. Use open shelving, avoid overloading, and keep the door closed as much as possible.
    • Defrost freezers on a regular basis if necessary. They will operate more efficiently when free of frost. Move food to another freezer during defrosting.
    • Clearly label food prepared on-site that is intended for frozen storage.

    Foodhandlers should remember several things when storing items in dry storage:

    • Keep storerooms clean and dry. For the best quality and to assure safety, the temperature of the storeroom should be between 50°F and 70°F.
    • Make sure storerooms are well ventilated. This will help to keep the temperature and humidity constant throughout the area.
    • Store dry food away from walls and at least six inches off of the floor.
    • Keep food out of direct sunlight.

    Foodhandlers should remember the following general storage guidelines:

    • Store food in containers intended for food. Never use empty food containers to store chemicals.
    • Create proper air circulation around goods by keeping shelves six inches from the floor, ceiling, and walls.
    • Keep food stored far away from soaps, pesticides, chemicals, and more.
    • Try to purchase kitchen staples and bulk items in airtight containers. Transfer items purchased in unsealed containers into airtight containers to protect them against insects and pests.
    • Use strong shelving for all non-perishables.
    • Clean and sweep storage areas daily to eliminate spoiled food and to discourage insects and pests.
    • Have a professional pest control operator come in and spray regularly.
    • Store perishable foods such as meat and produce at proper temperature and humidity levels.

    Lesson

    Foundations of Safe Food: Purchasing, Receiving and Storage (TEKS 11D,E)

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module V Handouts

    • The FCCLA Planning Process for Individual and Team Action.

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Refer to the kitchen/lab time management tab for instructional strategies on saving time and maximizing effort in the kitchen.
    • Have your students create their own marketing plan for a pretend restaurant concept. Have them come up with one print marketing strategy and one community involvement marketing strategy. If you have a bistro or point of sale, this could be an excellent real world activity for your students.
    • Ask a local hotel for a copy of their purchasing specifications to go over with your students. This could be an excellent way to see what goes into the purchasing decisions at the purchasing level. Larger hotels are more likely to have purchasing specifications than smaller hotels or restaurants.
    • Ask your school cafeteria for a copy of their purchasing orders/invoices and go over them with your students so they can become familiar with the terminology found on them and the functionality of them. You could even try to schedule your students to be there to witness the check-in process when a truck/delivery arrives. If this is not a possibility, you could have the cafeteria manager talk to your students about the process and what to look for when checking in a food delivery.
    • Give your students a restaurant critical thinking scenario and have them use the FCCLA 5 step decision making process. A handout of some example scenarios can be found under the handouts section.

    References and Resources

    Images

    • Hollenstein Career and Technology Center
      Eagle Mountain – Saginaw ISD
      Fort Worth, TX

    Textbooks

    • Culinary essentials. (2010). Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw Hill.
    • Foundations of restaurant management & culinary arts: Level one. (2011). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
    • Foundations of restaurant management & culinary arts: Level two. (2011). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
    • Introduction to Culinary Arts. (2007). Boston, MA. Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • ServSafe® Manager 6th Edition. (2012) National Restaurant Association. Chicago, IL.
    • The Professional Chef. (2011). Hoboken, NJ. John Wiley & Sons Inc.

    Module V Time Management and Decision Making Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. When considering dry storage, for the best quality and to assure safety, the temperature of the storeroom should be between ___°F and ___°F.

    • a. 50°F and 80°F
    • b. 50°F and 60°F
    • c. 65°F and 70°F
    • d. 50°F and 70°F

    2. Which of the following is the first step in the FCCLA Planning Process for Individual and Team Action?

    • a. Evaluate results of the decision and accept responsibility for results of the decision.
    • b. Identify concerns
    • c. Brainstorm possible solutions
    • d. Explore and evaluate possible student solutions

    3. According to course content, which is the most important reason for recording items on a receiving sheet during the receiving process?

    • a. Helps you match the delivery to the purchase order.
    • b. Helps to keep inventories accurate.
    • c. Helps you accurately receive products.
    • d. Holds the delivery person accountable.

    4. Which of the following cold storage recommendations allows for proper airflow and keeps refrigeration units from working too hard to keep products cold?

    • a. Schedule regular maintenance of your coolers.
    • b. Use open shelving and do not overload your coolers.
    • c. Keep cooler doors closed as much as possible.
    • d. Monitor the temperatures of your coolers regularly.

    5. The first step in an effective marketing plan is:

    • a. Develop a marketing strategy
    • b. Evaluate/modify the action plan as needed
    • c. Establish objectives
    • d. Research the market

  • VI. Customer Service and Brand Marketing

    Restaurant Interior

    TEKS Addressed

    (11) The student demonstrates the knowledge and skills required for careers in the restaurant, food, and beverage industry.

    • (B) analyze the concepts of customer service and determine the critical moments of good service
    • (G) detail ways to achieve high rates of customer satisfaction
    • (H) analyze how guests are affected by employee attitude, appearance, and actions

    (6) The student understands the history of food service and the use of the professional kitchen.

    • (L) demonstrate types of table setting, dining, and service skills

    Module Content

    Customer Service and Brand Marketing is the sixth unit of study in the Culinary Arts course. This section contains five TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Customer Service
    • B. Employee Effect on Customer Attitude
    • C. Selling Service
    • D. Concepts of Dining
    • E. Types of Dining


    Refer to Where Shall We Eat? Culinary Dining Concepts for additional activities, ideas and resources.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/where-shall-we-eat-culinary-dining-concepts/

    Module VI Handouts

    A. Customer Service
    Industry experts put the failure rate for a new restaurant at anywhere from 60 to 80 percent. Those are terrifying odds for anyone looking to start their own restaurant or even work for a less than established restaurant. We all know that restaurants are classified as “service industry” but the service provided is just as important as the product provided. In the sink or swim world of the restaurant industry, any competitive advantage that a business can hold is of the utmost importance.

    Many benefits are gained by providing great customer service in a restaurant, including the following:

    • increased customer loyalty
    • increased customer satisfaction
    • decreased marketing costs
    • enhanced business reputation
    • increased profits
    • positive work environment

    It is up to all employees to ensure prompt, friendly, and professional service from a customer’s arrival to their departure.

    A major aspect of service to your guests is being able to:

    • identify
    • anticipate
    • exceed the needs and expectations

    Many customers share the same basic needs and some have special needs. No matter the needs of the guest, they must be met with swift and efficient service.

    Some common guest types with special needs include:

    • parent(s) with young children
    • the elderly
    • special dietary needs
    • first time guests
    • celebrating special occasions
    • foreign language customers
    • people with disabilities
    • people dining alone

    Restaurants must find every possible way to create a competitive advantage that sets them apart from other businesses. Competitive advantage is the thing that attracts a customer to one operation over another and can be difficult to develop, but once a restaurant has a competitive advantage, it can help the business stay afloat in the sink or swim world of the restaurant industry.

    Read this article from the Houston Chronicle gaining a competitive edge:

    Creating a competitive advantage takes:

    • planning
    • execution
    • plain old good luck

    B. Employee Effect on Customer Attitude
    One of the main reasons people go out to eat is so they don’t have to do the hard work of cooking and cleaning themselves. In short, they want to be served. Therefore the importance of customer service can’t be stressed enough.

    Make no mistake: every employee in a restaurant is responsible for providing good service. The host’s attitude, the server’s table side personality, and the efficiency of the chefs all contribute to the dining experience. And the customers notice all of it. Customers have high expectations, especially about the way they want to be treated. Even if the food is great, guests will be disappointed if the service is poor, and then they probably won’t be back. But if an operation gets it right, they could be rewarded with repeat business, again and again.

    C. Selling Service
    Suggestive selling involves recommending additional or different menu items to a guest. In a restaurant, suggestive selling maximizes guest satisfaction and increases the average check, resulting in happier customers and higher profits.

    There are a multitude of companies out there that claim to teach you how to increase profits and sales by having servers and customer service representatives practice suggestive selling tactics. This has almost become an industry to itself, and that is the case because suggestive selling works. If you think of a restaurant and it’s food as a product and the servers as the salespeople, then suggestive selling only makes sense. “How do we sell more of what we have to offer so we make the most money from each guest that walks in the door?” It is a simple concept.

    A good suggestive selling program includes the following:

    • Enhancing servers’ communication skills so they can be effective with customers.
    • Developing servers product knowledge, so they can vividly and accurately describe items to customers. Servers need to be able to answer specific questions about the menu items, including ingredients, preparation techniques, and levels of seasoning.
    • Learning which items complement one another.
    • Anticipating guest needs.
    • Suggesting add-on items such as drinks, appetizers, and desserts.
    • Identifying specific items based on guest preferences; for example, “if you like chocolate you’ll love our new molten lava cake.”
    • Suggesting items the servers themselves enjoy.
    • Suggesting the establishments “best” items, increasing the probability that the customer will be happy.
    • Using props, such as dessert trays.
    • Recognizing the positive affect the suggestive selling has on the financial position of the establishment.
    • Using active and descriptive words to explain foods on your menu and having servers follow suit.

    Suggestive selling is an ongoing effort.

    • First, a manager or designated trainer can conduct training formally.
    • Second, suggestive selling can be an occasional agenda item for staff meetings. Managers can set aside time at these meetings to discuss the best practices or problem experiences.
    • Third, informal training can occur through observation and feedback.

    In all cases, practice is the key to successful suggestive selling.

    The following is an excellent video from Mary King at http://wherethesideworkends.com. The video is listed on CookingGuide’s Youtube channel and gives some important pointers on suggestive selling:

    D. Concepts of Dining
    Before starting up a new restaurant, the first thing to do is develop the restaurant concept. This is the most common term that describes what your establishment will be like in terms of service style, cuisine and atmosphere, to name a few. Whether you are taking over an existing building or starting from scratch, you need to think about what your restaurant concept will be once contained within four walls. Your concept frames the way the public perceives your entire establishment, giving patrons an idea of what to expect when dining there.

    Your concept choice will act as a stepping stone to future decisions and investments, such as:

    • location
    • equipment purchases
    • number of employees
    • marketing strategy you will need

    As you think about opening a new restaurant, take time to examine the following major processes to help define your concept and bolster a foundation for your start-up restaurant.

    At its most basic level, a restaurant is usually recognized for the food served there. Guests will want to know what to expect from your menu, including how your food is prepared, the types of ingredients used and the cooking methods involved. Decide whether you will serve a certain cuisine, such as ethnic food, fast food or comfort food, for example. For a unique concept, restaurant owners often take a well-known concept and put their own spin on it.

    Restaurant concepts can get crazy sometimes (see the links below), but at their core they are all the same. Create a restaurant that sets itself apart from the others, giving diners a reason to visit.

    E. Types of Dining
    Different types of dining appeal to different customers and situations.

    The five most common types of dining are:

    • Fine dining restaurants – provide an environment featuring excellent food, elegant decor, and superior service.
    • Theme restaurants – often try to recreate another place or time through unique atmosphere and food.
    • Casual dining establishments – attract people that like to eat out but are not interested in a formal atmosphere, high prices, or extended service offerings.
    • Quick service restaurants – the largest section of the industry and offer limited menus, low prices, and speedy service.
    • Catering services – involve cooking food at another location to serve to a client.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module VI Handouts

    • KWL – Restaurant Service Skills
    • Restaurants in Your Community
    • Rubric for Service Skills
    • Rubric for Six (6) Napkin Folds
    • Rubric for Table Settings
    • Tableware Identification
    • Tableware Identification (Key)
    • Where Shall We Eat? Notes
    • Where Shall We Eat? Notes (Key)

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Have students identify their favorite restaurants and then have them categorize them on the board using the five most common types of dining.
    • Share the link containing the “Top 10 Crazy Restaurant Concepts” then have them work in groups as you challenge them to create their own new, unique restaurant concept.
    • Have students share customer service stories detailing examples of bad AND good customer service stories.
    • Use role play to get students used to the concept of selling service and have them practice suggestive selling during the role play exercises.
    • Have students make a record of customer service techniques on their next visit to a restaurant and report/share their findings with the rest of the class. Have a designated student track trends that occur in these findings. Discuss the trends discovered and the students’ individual experiences.

    References and Resources

    Articles:

    Images

    • Microsoft Office Clip Art: Used with permission from Microsoft.

    Textbooks

    • Culinary essentials. (2010). Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw Hill.
    • Foundations of restaurant management & culinary arts: Level one. (2011). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
    • Foundations of restaurant management & culinary arts: Level two. (2011). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
    • Introduction to Culinary Arts. (2007). Boston, MA. Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • The Professional Chef. (2011). Hoboken, NJ. John Wiley & Sons Inc.

    Websites

    YouTube™:

    Module VI Customer Service and Brand Marketing Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Which of the following is NOT a benefit of great customer service?

    • a. Increased customer loyalty.
    • b. Increased customer satisfaction.
    • c. Increased marketing costs.
    • d. Enhanced business reputation.

    2. ___________________ attract people that like to eat out but are not interested in a formal atmosphere, high prices, or extended service offerings.

    • a. Quick Service restaurants
    • b. Theme restaurants
    • c. Fine dining restaurants
    • d. Casual dining restaurants

    3. A major aspect of excellent guest service is being able to identify, anticipate, and meet the needs and expectations of your guests.

    • a. True
    • b. False

    4. A restaurant’s concept is the same as it’s cuisine.

    • a. True
    • b. False

    5. The key to successful suggestive selling is:

    • a. communication
    • b. colorful menus
    • c. practice
    • d. signs

  • VII. Management Skills

    buisness

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student applies advanced reading, writing, mathematics, and science skills for the food service industry.

    • (A) compose industry appropriate documents
    • (C) calculate correctly using numerical concepts such as percentages and estimation in practical situations, including weights and measures
    • (G) calculate and manage food costs

    (4) The student develops principles in time management, decision making, effective communication, and prioritizing.

    • (C) analyze the importance of balancing a career, family, and leisure activities

    (2) The student integrates listening, writing, and speaking skills using verbal and nonverbal communication to enhance operations, guest satisfaction, and professional development.

    • (A) create formal or informal presentations
    • (B) properly answer business phones
    • (C) write instructions for a specific restaurant or culinary procedure or the use of a piece of equipment
    • (D) attend and participate in a staff meeting

    Module Content

    Management Skills is the seventh unit of study in the Culinary Arts course. This section contains three TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Critical Reading and Writing
    • B. Culinary Math
    • C. Scientific Concepts

    Refer to lesson Successful Culinary Lab Management Guidelines for for additional activities, ideas and resources.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/successful-culinary-lab-management-guidelines

    Module VII Handouts


    Refer to lesson The Balancing Act: Managing a Career and Family for additional resources and activities.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-balancing-act-managing-a-career-and-family/

    A. Critical Reading and Writing
    Reading and writing is a skill essential to any employee at any level of expertise in the culinary arts field.

    A recipe is one of the most versatile and hardworking tools in the professional kitchen. Make no mistake about it, this is a technique driven industry, but the ability to read a recipe correctly is critical to a chef’s success.

    As a chef, careful attention to the details of a recipe will help you to accurately create products that meet the expectations of the customer. In addition to being able to effectively read and write recipes, chefs and restaurant managers must also be able to communicate effectively through reading and writing.

    For example, often times in restaurants, managers have log books (either electronic/digital or actual books) in which restaurant goings on are recorded. This log book is often the first thing a manager looks at when he/she reports for a shift and updating the log book is the last thing they do before leaving. It serves as a tool for managers and chefs to communicate with each other across shifts; for instance. – We are out of chardonnay; Jimmy, the server, called in sick again; there was a leak in the dish area and I placed a service call; and so forth.

    No matter the piece of news or its importance, the log book helps managers to communicate it. This sort of communication in the restaurant industry is useless without effective reading and writing skills.

    In addition, chefs will be expected to create important industry related documents where their ability to read and write will be stressed.

    Documents that are commonplace in the restaurant industry are:

    • staff memos
    • work schedules
    • purchase requests
    • banquet event orders
    • staff performance reviews

    The ability to effectively communicate through reading and writing is paramount.

    Refer to the Hospitality and Tourism Culinary Arts Writing Prompts promote writing skills in Culinary Arts.

    B. Culinary Math
    The ability to correctly calculate percentages, weights and measures is a basic ability that every chef must master in order to operate efficiently in the kitchen.

    An excellent YouTube™ from Fresno State University web seminar is designed for culinary instructors to better learn how to teach culinary math and measurements in the classroom.

    • Culinary Arts: How to Teach Math & Measurements
      Presented by Dr. Klaus Tenbergen
      Director of the Culinology Program at California State University, Fresno.
      http://youtu.be/yhrMviXiaQM

    In addition to the basics, advanced culinary mathematical concepts such as food costing, yield percentages, and menu pricing are also important.

    Mathematical concepts in the restaurant industry include:

    • Unit Cost – the cost of each individual item.
    • As-Purchased Price – The bulk price of an item.
    • Product Yields – The amount of food left after purchasing or preparation
    • Edible Portion – The amount of consumable food product that remains after preparation.
    • Yield – The number of servings, or portions, that a recipe produces.
    • Yield Percentages – The ratio of the edible portion of food to the amount of food purchased.
    • Shrinkage – The percentage of food lost during its storage and preparation.
    • Ingredient Cost – The total cost for one ingredient to go into a specified recipe.
    • Q Factor – The questionable ingredient factor is an estimated cost for ingredients that are hard to measure or have minimal costs, like spices and oils.
    • Total Recipe Cost – The sum of all ingredient costs plus Q factor.
    • Portion Cost – The total recipe cost divided by the number of portions a recipe will make.
    • Menu Price – The asking price for a menu item. Menu price can be calculated using a number of effective techniques.

    Refer to Hospitality and Tourism Culinary Arts Math Assessment Problems to promote Math in Culinary Arts.

    C. Scientific Concepts

    See module IV section N for information on scientific concepts.

    h4 Lessons

    Foundations of Safe Food: Purchasing, Receiving and Storage (1A)

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module VII Handouts

    • Hospitality and Tourism Math Assessment Problems
    • Hospitality and Tourism Culinary Arts Writing Prompts
    • Personal Activities Calendar
    • Rubric for Participation in the Balancing Act Activity
    • The Balancing Act – Managing a Career and Family Notes
    • The Balancing Act – Managing a Career and Family Notes (Key)
    • The Balancing Act Activity

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Use the purchase order/invoice copies that you’ve acquired from your campus cafeteria (see Module IV) and have the students calculate relevant information using those figures. For instance, you could have them calculate AP cost, unit cost, and total food cost using these figures.
    • Use those purchase order/invoice copies and have students cost out the cafeteria’s menu items. Guess at cafeteria recipes if you can’t get your hands on those. Or, ask a local restaurant for similar copies and information so you can get students costing real world recipes and getting used to the methods involved.
    • Have the students do a food science project, record their observations, and share with the class/campus/district/world by sharing their findings/results. Anything that is also yummy to eat will add to the appeal of this project. You could come up with some scientific activities or you could have the students research and find their own projects to do.
    • Have the students take a recipe from online or from a cookbook and have them create a standardized recipe from that recipe, but do so with an emphasis on paying attention to the critical reading and writing skills.
    • Get together with a math teacher on your campus to help them learn culinary math concepts in the same manner that they are being taught these concepts in the math classroom.

    References and Resources

    Article:

    Textbooks

    • Culinary essentials. (2010). Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw Hill.
    • Foundations of restaurant management & culinary arts: Level one. (2011). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
    • Foundations of restaurant management & culinary arts: Level two. (2011). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
    • Introduction to Culinary Arts. (2007). Boston, MA. Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • The Professional Chef. (2011). Hoboken, NJ. John Wiley & Sons Inc.

    Website:

    YouTube™:

    • Culinary Arts: How to Teach Math & Measurements
      Presented by Dr. Klaus Tenbergen
      Director of the Culinology Program at California State University, Fresno.
      http://youtu.be/yhrMviXiaQM

    Module VII Management Skills Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. The percentage of food lost during its storage and preparation is known as ____________.

    • a. Shrinkage
    • b. Yield
    • c. Edible portion
    • d. Q Factor

    2. The _____________ is often the first thing a manager looks at when he/she reports for a shift and updating the __________ is the last thing they do before leaving.

    • a. schedule
    • b. log book
    • c. email
    • d. announcement board

    3. The asking price for a menu item is known as the:

    • a. Portion cost
    • b. Recipe Cost
    • c. Menu Price
    • d. As-Purchased Price

    4. Documents that are commonplace in the restaurant industry are:

    • a. staff memos and work schedules
    • b. purchase requests and banquet event orders
    • c. staff performance reviews
    • d. all of the above

    5. How many cups are in a gallon?

    • a. 4
    • b. 16
    • c. 32
    • d. 8

  • VIII. Technology and Computer Applications

    100_2257

    TEKS Addressed

    (7) The student uses technology and computer applications to manage food service operations.

    • (A) use technology tools appropriate for the industry
    • (B) operate technology applications to perform workplace tasks
    • (C) explain the use of point-of-sale systems
    • (D) demonstrate knowledge in computer programs used for food production

    Module Content

    Technology and Computer Applications is the eighth unit of study in the Culinary Arts course. This section contains two TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Technology in the Kitchen
    • B. Point of Sales Systems

    A. Technology in the Kitchen
    Technology has taken over our lives, including in the kitchen. Long gone are the days of thumbing through a paper cookbook to learn a recipe and using equipment whose designs are centuries old.

    Technology is everywhere and it’s certainly made it’s way into the commercial kitchen.

    Consider a few of the following technological advancements found in today’s kitchen.

    • Recipes – For centuries, restaurant recipes were taught at cooking school, passed down from chef to chef, or created by chefs. The cookbook, while still a staple in many professional kitchens, is quickly being phased out because of the number of additional resources with which quality recipes can be found. Recipe software, smartphone apps, and websites (complete with pictures, directions, shopping lists, and conversion applications) are quickly replacing recipe annuals, technique manuals, and cuisine cookbooks. A few examples of such websites are linked below.
      • Epicurious – Epicurious.com incorporates more than 30,000 professionally tested and created recipes from the premier brands in food journalism (such as “Gourmet”, “Bon Appetit”, “Parade”, and “Self” magazines), renowned cookbook authors, and celebrity chefs, as well as 150,000 member-submitted recipes.
        http://www.epicurious.com/
      • StarChefs – StarChefs.com features more than 30,000 published pages of original, chef-focused culinary content and generates traffic of over 30 million hits a month and was nominated for Best Web Site for Food and Nutrition by the James Beard Foundation. StarChefs.com’s original culinary content is driven by in-person tastings and interviews across the world. Its mission is to catalyze culinary professionals’ success and give them the tools they need to overcome their specific challenges.
        http://www.starchefs.com/
      • Yummly – Yummly.com is a crowdsourcing website that claims to be “the most powerful way to search recipes” and offers up the chance to “search every recipe in the world.”
        http://www.yummly.com

    Other technological advancements include instant read and infrared thermometers, ovens that cook using light waves, and combination ovens that use multiple cooking types to cook one dish.

    Technology, however, is a resource, not a replacement for a skilled employee. The key for employees is to learn to use technology as effectively as you would use any other resource. Depending on your job, this can mean knowing how to operate anything from a point-of-sale system to an entire automated production line.

    B. Point of Sales Systems
    Another important technological advancement in the restaurant is the advent of the Point of Sale (POS) System. The POS is the location where the sale is conducted in the restaurant. Most POS systems on the market today have evolved from traditional cash registers as a method of tabulating numbers into an integrated system that can be used to improve and streamline the guest experience.

    POS systems can handle traditional restaurant tasks such as:

    • order taking
    • reservations
    • sales reports
    • seating and wait-list software
    • food costing reports

    They are essential to the success of any restaurant.

    The next two websites provide a little information on the development of the POS System since it’s advent in the 1970’s. Not surprisingly, both are pages from websites of POS software companies.

    The most common POS software/hardware systems found in today’s restaurants are listed below. Feel free to check out their product lines to see what sort of tasks can be accomplished with a simple POS system.

    The latest development in POS systems software is the adaptation of the software to meet the demands of the growing and evolving tablet and smartphone market.

    According to the National Restaurant Association’s 2013 forecast, restaurant guests want more and better table side technology when they dine out. Table side payment options, tablet based menus and ordering, and tablet based wait-list software are all expected to become the expectation in restaurants in the years to come. This also means that restaurateurs will be using tablets instead of traditional operating systems to run their POS software.

    Many restaurants have also already started using technology such as Square and IntuitPayment to accept cards using tablets and smartphones. Visit their sites to learn more about this technology.

    Read the full article on the NRA’s 2013 technology forecast
    http://www.restaurant.org/News-Research/News/Diners-seek-tableside-technology,-report-says

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Have a restaurant supply representative bring a few pieces of cutting edge equipment to your classroom and have them demonstrate their uses with your students.
    • Find a POS outfit online that offers an online demo and share that with your students.
    • Ask your students what types of actions they think a POS System can perform for a restaurant and list them.
    • Ask a local restaurant for a copy of their end of day POS reports to go over with your students to see the functions and calculations that they are capable of.

    References and Resources

    Article:

    Textbooks

    • Culinary essentials. (2010). Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw Hill.
    • Foundations of restaurant management & culinary arts: Level one. (2011). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
    • Foundations of restaurant management & culinary arts: Level two. (2011). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
    • Introduction to Culinary Arts. (2007). Boston, MA. Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • The Professional Chef. (2011). Hoboken, NJ. John Wiley & Sons Inc.

    Websites

    Module VIII Technology and Computer Applications Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. An excellent way to keep your food fresher for longer is to use a(n):

    • a. Induction Cooktop
    • b. Vacuum Sealer
    • c. Sous Vide Machine
    • d. POS System

    2. Which of the following is a not a perceived benefit of table side technology?

    • a. Convenience factor for diners
    • b. Conversation piece for diners
    • c. Draw of potential customers to restaurant
    • d. Lower labor costs

    3. According to module content, which piece of equipment is set to “completely capture the field for new installations worldwide in the next few years?”

    • a. Induction Cooktop
    • b. Vacuum Sealer
    • c. Sous Vide Machine
    • d. Infrared Cooktop

    4. POS systems can handle food costing reports.

    • a. True
    • b. False

    5. According to the National Restaurant Association’s 2013 forecast, restaurant guests want more and better table side ____________.

    • a. technology
    • b. service
    • c. atmosphere
    • d. food

  • IX. Life Choices and Career Goals

    TEKS Addressed

    (5) The student researches, analyzes, and explores lifestyle and career goals. The student examines jobs available in the food service industry and accesses career opportunities.

    • (A) research the major job duties and qualifications for all staff and managerial positions to facilitate selection of career choices in culinary arts
    • (B) update a personal career portfolio
    • (C) demonstrate proper interview techniques
    • (D) establish personal short-term and long-term goals
    • (E) examine food service related community service opportunities

    Module Content

    Professional Ethics and Legal Responsibilities is the ninth unit of study in the Culinary Arts course. This section contains nine TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Industry Job Positions
    • B. Career Lifestyles
    • C. Career Goals
    • D. Professional Portfolios
    • E. Interviewing Skills
    • F. Written Applications
    • G. Personal Appearance
    • H. Presenting Yourself
    • I. Goal Setting


    Refer to the lesson: Careers in Culinary Arts: Connecting Skills, Techniques, and Employment for more information about careers.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/careers-in-culinary-arts-connecting-skills-techniques-and-employment/

    Refer to lesson Get That Job! Résumés, Portfolios and Interview Skills for additional activities, ideas and resources.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/get-that-job-resumes-portfolios-and-interview-skills-4/

    Module IX Handouts

    A. Industry Job Positions
    Chefs and head cooks held about 100,600 jobs in 2010.

    Industries employing the most chefs and head cooks in 2010 were as follows:

    • Full-service restaurants 46%
    • Traveler accommodation, including hotels and motels 11%
    • Special food services 9%
    • Other amusement and recreation industries 6%
    • Limited-service eating places 5%

    According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment of chefs and head cooks is projected to experience little or no change from 2010 to 2020. Population and income growth is expected to result in greater demand for more high-quality dishes at a variety of dining venues, including many up-scale establishments.

    However, employment growth will be tempered as many restaurants, in an effort to lower costs, use lower-level cooks to perform the work normally done by chefs and head cooks.

    Job opportunities will be best for chefs and head cooks with several years of work experience. The majority of job openings will stem from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation. The fast pace, long hours, and high energy levels required for these jobs often lead to a high rate of turnover.

    There will be strong competition for jobs at upscale restaurants, hotels, and casinos, which tend to pay more. Workers with a combination of business skills, previous work experience, and creativity will have the best job prospects.

    Evidence would suggest that the need for talented and experienced chefs is not waning any time soon, however chefs and cooks are only a part of the positions available in the industry.

    Visit the Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook for a listing of more jobs in the industry. You can click on a position for more information.

    Other positions in the industry that may not be listed in the sites above include:

    • food purchaser
    • food stylist
    • food sales representative
    • foodservice director

    B. Career Lifestyles
    The food industry has many rewards and demands. The area of the industry or level of employment will determine what those demands and rewards will be. The food service industry does operate on a schedule of long hours and often times little regard for the holidays. This is a committed business with many exciting creative opportunities.

    Excerpt from article by Chef John Stone

    • All the Benefits of Being a Chef
      http://www.easyarticlesubmit.com/Article/All-the-Benefits-of-Being-a-Chef/222358
      • There can be no denying that being a chef is a tough career, and one that does not suffer fools gladly, and one that demands only the very best from its employees. It is a career that will require creativity, commitment and a genuine passion for food as well as a meticulous nature and a willingness to learn new skills.
        However, there is a tendency to focus exclusively upon the negative aspects of the culinary/hospitality sector and that is a real pity because among the challenges, pitfalls and dangers that arise during the course of this career, there is a genuinely engaging and extremely rewarding job indeed.

    Those rewards include:

    • a challenging and ever changing work environment
    • meeting new people
    • plenty of job opportunities
    • opportunity for advancement
    • a fun work environment
    • being able to work in interesting and exotic places

    C. Career Goals
    The culinary arts present exciting opportunities to pursue creative work while also building a prestigious career. Top chefs gain notoriety for their signature style in some of the most exclusive restaurants around the world. However, the rise to top chef is not a direct line, and there are many steps up the ladder of success.

    A typical path to success looks like this:

    • Everyone has to start at the bottom.
      • The commis chef is like an apprentice who works in the kitchen while learning some of the tricks of the trade. You won’t be whipping up gourmet souffles in this position, but will instead be doing a lot of prep work, like chopping vegetables, sharpening knives, fetching measuring cups, and cleaning up the mess.
      • The commis will work closely with other chefs in the kitchen to learn the basics of food preparation, including different techniques and methods. Depending on where you work, this position could also be called an internship or apprenticeship.
    • The chef de partie — otherwise known as a line cook — oversees one section of the kitchen and preparation of one particular type of food. For example, these cooks may be responsible for cooking the fish, or they could oversee preparation of the pastries.
      • The chef de partie becomes a specialist in this section, then moves on to another. Eventually, training is received in all parts of the kitchen.
    • The sous chef is the assistant to the head chef and is the second in charge in the kitchen. The sous chef helps to run the kitchen, creating schedules, managing customer relations, plans menus, and oversees ordering for the kitchen.
      • Skilled in all aspects of food preparation, the sous chef can alternately plan special menus, fill in for the executive chef, or take over for a chef de partie.
    • The executive chef is in charge of the whole kitchen, planning and executing menus, hiring and supervising staff, sets the budget, and more.
      • The head chef sets the tone for the restaurant, stamping his or her signature style on the menu. This is the person whose vision leads the success of the restaurant.

    The path to becoming a head chef is all about gaining experience and honing skills. These are the traditional steps toward becoming a head chef, but there are many alternate routes that can be taken. Many head chefs started work in a kitchen as a dishwasher and moved their way up from there. Some worked as caterers, and some started in their own business as a personal chef. Restaurants, country clubs, cruise ships, and even small diners provided the setting for their on-the-job training.

    Every journey is as individual as the chef, and every step influences his or her personal style and ultimate success.

    D. Professional Portfolios
    Many people will tell you when looking for employment that a resume is essential. The problem with hoping to get hired based on your resume, is that in many cases your resume is just another piece of paper in the stack.

    Check out this advice article:

    The article states that “A resume proves nothing. It only makes claims,” and goes on to state that a career portfolio helps to prove those claims.

    A resume alone is no longer enough to show potential employers proof that you are prepared to do the work they’re needing done. But how do you go about creating a professional portfolio?

    Two options for portfolios:

    • Paper portfolios – You can collect classroom work, pictures, and internship or volunteer materials in a nice three-ring binder to bring to interviews.
    • Electronic portfolios – The e-portfolio is an interesting option because you can really create a sharp, eye catching portfolio with just a few hours of work. Electronic portfolios help to set you apart while showing your ability to use technology effectively.

    Depending on the employer or employment situation, you may want to create both types and be able to produce one or the other for a potential employer.

    Three electronic portfolio options:

    E. Written Applications
    The global workplace is changing every day. In many industries, written applications are being phased out, but will likely remain a factor in the hiring process when it comes to the restaurant industry for some time. Once a job seeker has identified, and ranked in order of preference a number of job leads, they must complete an application for those positions.

    The first thing to remember when completing an application is to make a good professional impression from the beginning. This includes the visit to an establishment to obtain an application. Make sure your clothing is neat and appropriate and that you’re clean and well groomed.

    Job application forms vary, but they all ask for the same kind of information.

    Keep these tips in mind when completing any application:

    • Print neatly using blue or black ink. You’d hate to miss out on a job opportunity because your potential employer couldn’t read your cursive.
    • Read the instructions for each blank before responding. Not following directions is not the first impression you want to make.
    • If you need to correct something you’ve written, draw a line through it instead of scribbling over it.
    • Carry important information with you to complete your application. This includes your personal information as well as the numbers and addresses of references and previous employers.
    • Don’t leave any part of the application blank unless you’re asked to do so. If a question doesn’t apply put NA – or not applicable instead of leaving a blank.
    • Always tell the truth on an application. Submitting false information is illegal.

    F. Interviewing Skills
    Once you’ve completed the application process and you’re asked to interview, you’ll need to prepare for the interview. An interview is your chance to convince the employer that you’re the best candidate for the position. You will be evaluated based on your appearance (see below), attitude, and answers to the the employer’s questions. How you present yourself indicates how you will conduct yourself in different situations.

    A few things to consider before the interview:

    • Do your homework. The more you know about your potential employer and the job you’re seeking, the better you’ll do in the interview.
    • Choose appropriate clothing. Choose clothing that fits properly and is clean, pressed, and in good condition. This is your first chance to make a good impression on your future employer.
    • Be prompt and courteous. Allow plenty of time to locate your destination, keeping in mind it is always best to arrive a few minutes early.

    View video on interview tips.

    • Job Interview Tips – Job Interview Questions and Answers
      Career consultant Maggie Mistal of Martha Stewart Living Radio has excellent advice for anybody looking to ace a job interview.
      http://youtu.be/epcc9X1aS7o

    If you’re well prepared, positive, and relaxed you’ll do well during the interview.

    Keep these things in mind:

    • Shake hands. Offering a firm and confident handshake can help solidify your first impression to an employer.
    • SMILE. Smiling is an invaluable interviewing tool. Smiling helps make you comfortable while helping the interviewer form a favorable opinion about you.
    • Make eye contact. Eye contact with the interviewer shows that you are listening and are interested in what the interviewer is saying.
    • Speak clearly. Using correct grammar and speaking clearly helps build a positive impression, but is imperative if you are interviewing for positions that deal with other people.
    • Use good office manners. Avoid nervous gestures and chewing gum. Sit up straight with both feet on the floor.
    • Answer thoroughly and completely. Do not interrupt the interviewer or become sidetracked. If you don’t fully understand a question or don’t know the answer, say so politely and ask for clarification.
    • Ask questions. The interview process is a two way street, designed for you to get information too. Don’t hesitate to ask questions, but save questions about pay, benefits, and time off for the end of the interview.
    • Leave gracefully. Always thank the interviewer for his/her time.

    The interviewer may signal the end of the interview by doing one of the following:

    • The employer may tell you that you will be contacted later. If they do not specify a time period, politely ask “When may I expect to hear from you?”
    • You may be asked to contact the employer later.
    • You may be offered the job. If you are unsure about whether you would like to accept the position right away, ask the interviewer if you may think about the offer and how long you have to accept the offer.
    • You may not be offered the job. The employer may have found another applicant that is better suited for the job, or you may not have the necessary qualifications. In many instances, the opportunity to interview is a step in the right direction for someone looking for a certain position and should be valued. The interviewer is under no obligation to tell you why you are not being offered the job. Whatever the outcome, accept the decision gracefully.

    After the interview:

    • Send a thank you letter thanking him or her for the interview. Do this even if you have been turned down for the job.
    • Follow up with the employer if you have been asked to contact them regarding the position. Do so at the appropriate time.
    • Review the session making notes about how you could be a better interviewee in the future, making sure you have answers prepared for potential questions.

    G. Personal Appearance
    Being able to maintain a professional personal appearance is a basic employability skill and in most cases is often the first impression people get of you when conducting business with you. Projecting a professional personal appearance is important no matter your line of work.

    A few things to keep in mind when considering your personal appearance in the restaurant workplace:

    • Cleanliness of the Body – When it comes to the cleanliness of the body, this means taking showers before going to work.

    • Hair and Make-Up – When it comes to hair, make sure that it is always kept neat and clean. For females with long hair, it is recommended that they tie their hair away from their faces or wear it on a bun. For males, their hair should be kept short and neatly combed. After all, seeing a restaurant staff sporting long, shaggy, unkempt, and untidy hair is also a big turn off and a food safety issue. Putting on make-up is usually not recommended when working in the restaurant kitchen; however, if a front of the house employee is going to put make-up on, she has to make sure that the application is very light, not heavy. All restaurant employees, front and back of the house, should refrain from using heavy perfumes.
    • Hands and Fingernails – Aside from regularly washing the hands to prevent the spread of contaminants, the fingernails should also be kept short and clean. A good chef will make sure to trim his/her nails regularly. As for nail polishes in the kitchen, they are not allowed. Nail polishes for those that do not handle food should be kept in good taste.
    • Jewelry – The only allowable jewelries permitted in the restaurant kitchens are plain band rings as well as wristwatches (in some instances). Earrings, especially dangling earrings, are definitely not allowed while working in the kitchen. Necklaces as well as bracelets are also not allowed.
    • Uniforms and Shoes – Restaurants require their employees, both front and back of the house, to wear certain uniforms while at work. This uniform has to always be neat as well as clean when they report for their shift. The same can also be said of their shoes. Employees have to make sure that their personal appearance meets the standards of the restaurant when it comes to hygiene and cleanliness, and he/she has to make sure to sets a good example to the rest of the restaurant staff.

    For an interesting look at how personal appearance affects employees, read:

    H. Presenting Yourself
    Once you master the skills necessary to maintain a proper personal appearance, you’re well on your way to properly presenting yourself in the workplace. The other major factor that goes into presenting yourself is your personal attitude.

    Much has been said about personal attitude in the workplace, but when it comes to the personal attitude in the restaurant a few things stand out:

    • Always remember you are carrying the name of the restaurant. Show pride in what you are doing. This includes walking with an erect posture as well as making sure to remain respectful and courteous to co-workers and guests at all times.
    • Keep your emotions intact. Emotions drive everything we as humans do, but you have to make sure to keep an even keel and do not overreact or make brash decisions based on your emotions.
    • Learn as much as possible – Do not be content to do what your job title says. Always strive to learn other jobs and be prepared to step up when the need arises.
    • Take initiative – Do more than what is expected of you and do not complain about your responsibilities or work load no matter the situations you face.
    • Respect time – Your co-workers/supervisors time can be very valuable to them. Be sure to accomplish your required tasks in a timely manner and always take others’ time into consideration when interacting with them in the workplace.

    I. Goal Setting
    Professional development is the sum of activities a person performs to meet goals and/or to further his or her career. Professional development and mentoring plans with specific career goals are critical to career development.

    Any development plan should include:

    • personal
    • educational
    • professional goals

    In order to meet these goals, it is important to design a workable plan and take action; without these, achieving goals is impossible.

    A good development plan includes the following:

    • Written plan identifying two-year, five-year, and ten-year goals, and beyond
    • Written assessment of professional goals
    • Assessment of what is needed to meet these goals
    • Timeline establishing key milestones for achieving these goals

    Ultimately, everyone is responsible for his or her own development and success.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module IX Handouts

    • 101 Interview Questions
    • Basic Information for Writing a Résumé (half-sheet)
    • Career Portfolio Sections (Key)
    • Career Portfolio Sections
    • Careers in Culinary Arts O*Net Flashcards
    • Education and Training in Culinary Arts
    • Form I-9 Updated
    • Get That Job! Résumés, Portfolios and Interview Skills Notes
    • Get That Job! Résumés, Portfolios and Interview Skills Notes (Key)
    • Hosp – Chef Head Cook (PDF and Excell)
    • Hosp – Food Beverage Manager (PDF and Excel)
    • My Employability Skills Checklist
    • Résumés, Portfolios and Interview Skills Quiz
    • Résumés, Portfolios and Interview Skills Quiz (Key)
    • Rubric for Career Portfolio
    • Rubric for Career Poster Visual Display
    • Rubric for Electronic Glogster™EDU Career Poster
    • Sample Career Portfolio Checklist
    • Sample Résumé Template
    • Service Learning Log
    • Setting Personal Goals
    • W-4 Form

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Have students practice setting goals and report to you on those goals. Small goals, big goals, school goals, personal goals, it doesn’t matter. Having them state some goals will be a healthy exercise for them.
    • Have students create a portfolio using one of the sites listed above. Have them include all information that would traditionally be in a resume plus pictures of their work and so forth.
    • Institute a Dress For Success day in your class. Have students wear something to class on an assigned day that they would wear on a professional interview. Some students may struggle with this, so make sure to tell them to just wear the best that they have. For that reason, taking a grade for this is not recommended. Having the students analyzed in front of others for their dress for success outfit is also not recommended. Make DFS a regular occurrence if you’d like.
    • Practice handshakes with your students.
    • Collect some sample applications for students and have them fill them out. Ask a local restaurant to make copies of their applications or find some online to print off (recommended). Have the students come to class that day prepared to complete the application (references, phone numbers, addresses, personal information and so forth).

    References and Resources

    Articles:

    Textbooks

    • Culinary essentials. (2010). Woodland Hills, CA: Glencoe/McGraw Hill.
    • Foundations of restaurant management & culinary arts: Level one. (2011). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
    • Foundations of restaurant management & culinary arts: Level two. (2011). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.
    • Introduction to Culinary Arts. (2007). Boston, MA. Pearson Prentice Hall.
    • ServSafe® Manager 6th Edition. (2012) National Restaurant Association. Chicago, IL.
    • The Professional Chef. (2011). Hoboken, NJ. John Wiley & Sons Inc.

    Websites

    YouTube™:

    • Job Interview Tips – Job Interview Questions and Answers
      Career consultant Maggie Mistal of Martha Stewart Living Radio has excellent advice for anybody looking to ace a job interview.
      http://youtu.be/epcc9X1aS7o

    Module IX Life Choices and Career Goals Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Which of the following is not an appropriate post interview action?

    • a. Send a thank you letter thanking him or her for the interview.
    • b. Follow up with the employer if you have been asked to contact them regarding the position.
    • c. Review the session, making notes about how you could be a better interviewee in the future, making sure you have answers prepared for potential questions.
    • d. Contact the interviewer by phone thanking them for the interview and asking them when a decision will be made.

    2. It is important that you keep your _________ intact in the work place.

    • a. personal appearance
    • b. emotions
    • c. uniform
    • d. smile

    3. Which of the following industry segments employs the highest number of chefs?

    • a. Full-service restaurants
    • b. Traveler accommodation, including hotels and motels
    • c. Special food services
    • d. Other amusement and recreation industries

    4. The more you know about your _______________ and the job you’re seeking, the better you’ll do in the interview.

    • a. pay rate
    • b. job description
    • c. coworkers
    • d. potential employer

  • Field Trip/Guest Speaker Ideas

    Preface

    Culinary arts is best learned in a sensory rich environment. In doing so, not only can you reach all levels of learning but you can increase the retention level of all students and increase excitement in your program. Field trips and guest speakers are an easy way to add another level of sensory rich learning.

    No matter your level of resources, field trips and guest speakers can be arranged if you are:

    • resourceful
    • organized
    • tactful in your planning

    Things to remember when it comes to field trips and guest speakers:

    • You never know what you can accomplish in the way of field trips and guest speakers unless you ask! There are lots of people out there willing to support students and culinary arts programs but unless you approach them you never know if they’re willing to help you out.

    You never know unless you ask.
    • You may be the best culinary arts teacher in the state but often times bringing an outside resource into your classroom provides a learning experience for your students that you cannot duplicate. Try to bring in people that could be considered experts in their field to maximize the learning potential.
    • You may NOT be the best culinary arts teacher in the state. Let others come into the classroom and teach things that you may not feel comfortable teaching.
    • If getting off campus is not realistic for your program, then shift your focus to bringing people to your classroom. A good ratio for “outside activities” is once every three weeks or so. It takes planning and effort but the payoff is well worth it.
    • If getting off campus is a realistic possibility then capitalize on that opportunity. One field trip every six weeks is a good pace but if your field trips are multi-tiered and rich in content then once a semester is a good place to start.
    • Carry business cards with you everywhere you go. If you visit a place on your personal time that you think could be a resource for your program, then ask for a manager, give them a card and let them know how they could help your program. Just like going fishing… you’ll never get a bite if you don’t throw your line in the water.
    • Below you’ll see local restaurateurs listed many times as potential resources. That is your lifeline as a culinary arts program. Connecting with the food service members in your community can make a good program great. Keep one thing in mind, though. Selecting what restaurants to approach to help you with what topics can be tricky. If you think a certain restaurant does a good job with that aspect of the business then feel free to contact them, but not every restaurant would be a good resource for every topic.

    History

    Unless you have a culinary arts museum in your area, the history of chefs can be difficult to teach through outside activities. However, the “Current Trends in the Industry” unit can be a fun one to cover.

    • Take your students to tour a progressive restaurant in your area that utilizes current trends in technology, styles of service, and menu offerings. An example would be Brinker owned restaurants (Chilis, Maggiano’s, Macaroni Grill, On The Border) or Pappas Restaurants (Pappas Bros., Pappadeaux, Pappasitos). These restaurants usually follow current culinary trends and usually build several different brands within their company right near each other.
    • Get managers from those places to visit your classroom to talk about culinary trends.
    • Ask a local business to host a dinner for your students. This is one of those “if you never ask” type things. Ask enough people and someone will have your group out and treat them. This is a good end of year trip. You can also have your students pay if they’d like and organize this one outside of the school day. You’d be amazed how many students would make it.
    • Have your students create a student led “Dinner Club” where they seek out restaurants to visit periodically as a group to learn the latest culinary trends and then meet at other times to discuss what they see on their visits. Give them a motivation to do this: extra credit, assignment passes, etc.

    Leadership

    The biggest thing you can do for your students to teach leadership is have them involved in a CTSO. You can also enrich your classroom with leadership activities.

    • Seek out an HR representative from a company in your area to talk about what makes a great leader in their restaurant/kitchen.
    • This unit addresses the effects of exercise and nutritional dietary habits. For this, you can get a registered dietitian or nutritionist to come talk to your students about exercise and nutrition. Dream big and try to get a team nutrition representative from a local sports team or college to come to your class. Again, you never know until you ask.
    • Visit a local leadership academy/camp or see if they will send a representative to your campus to lead leadership/teamwork activities with your students.

    Professional Ethics and Legal Responsibilities

    This unit is perhaps one of the easiest to get a guest speaker/field trip organized.

    • Contact a local major hotel to get an HR representative to talk to your class about hiring laws, employment acts, and other employment regulations.
    • Contact your local OSHA office and see if they can send someone to your classroom to talk about safety hazards in the restaurant. Or contact a restaurant manager to come talk about the same thing. They have often been present on OSHA inspections.
    • Get someone to come teach CPR to your students. Often times hospitals, fire/rescue, and EMT organizations hold these classes. Again, ask!
    • Get your local health inspector to come out and talk about the inspection process. Your cafeteria manager should usually know who that person is. This can be a great way to teach the importance of sanitation.
    • Discuss safety conditions on a restaurant tour or get a local restaurateur to come talk about safety conditions in their restaurant
    • Contact your local fire department about sending a representative to demonstrate the proper use of a fire extinguisher. Often times fire departments have a setup to create a controlled fire outside and they let students actually use the fire extinguisher to take turns putting out the fire. Some larger departments can even demo water on a grease fire if they have the equipment (usually a trailer) to do so.
    • Of course ServSafe is the biggest resource in food safety. If you are not a certified instructor/proctor (then become one!) you can try to get someone to come teach ServSafe principles to your students.

    Time Management and Decision Making

    Time Management and Decision Making is a unit filled with management procedures and techniques. There are multiple resources you could reach out to for help teaching this unit.

    • Seek out a restaurant marketing professional to come to your class and talk about effective restaurant marketing techniques and/or marketing trends in the industry.
    • Have a local restaurateur come in and talk about their marketing tactics, target markets, etc
    • If you get a chance to take a restaurant tour, ask the restaurateur about systems that they use to managing time and energy. Basically, what management systems do they use to efficiently manage their employees time and energy(schedule, prep list, sidework, task lists, and so forth).
    • Tour a local (full service) hotel to have them show your students the systems they use for: purchasing specifications and purchase orders, receiving, storage, and distribution techniques and proper receiving and storage techniques. The large scale at which hotels utilize these techniques and procedures make a full service hotel the ideal field trip for learning this information.
    • You could have a member of management from a local hotel come to your classroom to cover the items above, but ask them to bring some industry appropriate documents to show the students the system they use to facilitate these procedures.

    Customer Service and Brand Marketing

    The biggest aspect of this unit is the “Customer Service and Selling Service “ element.

    • Again, local restaurateurs are going to be your best option here. Often times, franchise restaurants employ “trainers” to teach new employees their customer service philosophy. These bigger companies are a good idea to help teach this unit because they are used to teaching customer service and will often times have resources to do so.
    • If/when you get the opportunity to dine with your students, you can also have the students observe the service in the restaurant from start to finish in the dining process.
    • Have a graphic design professional (or your graphic design teacher on your campus if there is one) come to your classroom to talk about branding for a company.
    • Have a food photographer come to your class to talk about their jobs and what they do to help market products for restaurants and food service businesses.

    Management Skills

    With only three topics in this unit of study (Reading and Writing, Culinary Math, and Scientific Principles) field trips and guest speaker opportunities are scarce. The best way to help reinforce these subjects, as you read on the Management Skills tab above, is to collaborate with a core teacher and reach the students in that manner. However, outside activities are certainly possible and if they can be organized they can be powerful in reinforcing the topic at hand.

    • Culinary math is a topic that many students struggle with. Have a fast food manager to talk to your students. Fast food managers are perhaps the best at managing systems utilizing culinary math. Their strict limitations on costing, purchasing, waste, and so forth to give them the ideal experiences to share with your students. The students can more easily relate to their workplace because of their own personal experiences.
    • If you live in or near a populated area, a field trip to a food packaging/processing company is a good idea. Huge bakeries, food processing companies, or specialty foods manufacturers all are often very receptive to the idea of tours for students. If there’s one in your area, it may be the perfect place to talk about some of the science behind food preparation.
    • If you’re looking to encourage culinary arts related reading and writing, you would be amazed at the number of resources available for our culinary students at the public or school library. Have a librarian come to your classroom or visit a librarian before offering any research projects and make sure to take your students to the library to familiarize themselves with legitimate resources.

    Technology and Computer Applications

    Technology in the kitchen is a unit of study often overlooked. The two are really hard to put together; technology and kitchen. But a lot of places manage to utilize technology to run their kitchens more efficiently. If you choose outside activities to help you teach this unit, focus on those technology systems.

    • If you are fortunate enough to visit a local restaurant, ask them to show you their Point of Sale System and describe all of it’s functions. Even some school cafeterias these days are using POS Systems in their operations.
    • Perhaps the best tool to use in the kitchen is Microsoft Excel. This program can do just about everything a kitchen manager needs to do when it comes to management functions. I’d challenge you to find a successful restaurant not using it extensively. Have your campus’ technology teacher to help develop some kitchen management spreadsheets with your students.

    Life Choices and Career Goals

    This unit is a great opportunity for guest speakers. There are many individuals that have great experiences in portfolios, interviewing, completing applications, professional appearance, and the many things that are considered soft skills associated with obtaining employment. Seek out these experts and get them into your classroom. This is perhaps one of the biggest deficiencies in today’s high school graduates and if we do not teach them these soft skills in their CTE classes, when will they learn them?

    • Human Resources representatives from companies can be a great option for a guest speaker. The higher the level of service, the more desirable the guest speaker.
    • If there is a Job Center in your area and you could convince someone to visit your program, then you should do so. Employees at a job center (sometimes called an opportunity center) typically make their living helping people find jobs. They are the perfect resource to help your students understand what it takes to enter the workplace today. You may even be able to visit them and make it a field trip.
    • Get some teachers on your campus to come into your classroom and have “handshaking sessions” with your students. A lot of high school students miss the opportunity to make a proper first impression because they don’t know how to shake someone’s hand, look them in the eye, and introduce themselves.
    • Visit a restaurant or get their manager/owner to come to your class and conduct mock interviews. Giving students the opportunity to experience an interview before it matters could be the difference in them getting or not getting a job when they do actually seek employment.
  • Kitchen Lab Time Management Techniques

    Preface

    There is a huge difference between working in the restaurant industry and teaching students how to work in the restaurant industry. The biggest difference in the industry and the classroom is time. In the industry, employees are often up before the sun is and working deep into the night to make sure everything is up to the standard expected in this industry. By comparison, we as culinary arts teachers, are often asked to teach in a 45 minute class period what may take an accomplished chef hours to do in the industry. This is one of the toughest challenges facing culinary arts teachers. Below you’ll find a few tips to help you face such challenges.

    Organization

    • Spend some time (before the first day of school if possible) organizing your lab to control the work flow in your classroom/kitchen on lab days. Make sure things are close to where they’ll be used and that they are stored conveniently. The idea is to limit student trips across your classroom, saving you time.
    • Make sure everything has a home and that there are labels identifying where everything belongs. Making sure everything has a home can make sure things STAY organized.
    • Take pictures of what your shelves should look like, print and laminate them, and train students to make the shelves match the picture.
    • Constantly analyze if things are in the right place. Be flexible with your storage. If you see something is not working, change it.
    • Pull out equipment necessary for the day’s activities and place it out for your students. In the same way a bellringer works, if your students come in and you have all they need for the day laid out for them, then they can get to the learning portion of the day quicker instead of spending a lot of time locating and gathering their wares. You’d be surprised how much quicker you can set out their equipment versus having them do it.

    Expectations

    • Spend whatever amount of time is necessary to make sure your students completely understand what you expect of them in a lab situation. If your students are allowed to form habits in the lab environment before they are told what is expected of them then you may never be able to break them of those habits.
    • Make sure students know what is expected of them in the way of cleaning. There’s nothing worse than having to clean up after a group of students on lab days. Or worse, having one class leave a mess at the end of a class and have the next period’s students walk into that mess. More on this in the sidework section below.
    • Make sure the students know what everything is called. You could use the laminated picture trick here too so that students learn and RETAIN the names of everything. Most of our students are visual learners so use this to your advantage. This tip alone can save you some headaches when lab time rolls around.
    • When it comes to working in the lab (and the classroom too, for that matter) set standards and expectations and make sure you hold the students to them. Whatever you set as the consequence for failing to meet expectations, STICK TO IT. Do not ever fail to follow through on those consequences. This is not a “be tough on your kids” piece of advice, but rather a “hold your students accountable at all times” piece of advice. Students LOVE boundaries. They love knowing where to be, what to do, when to do it by. Some of them will do what they can to get around the boundaries, but for the most part establishing those boundaries and sticking to them can make the difference when it comes to whether or not students successfully meet your expectations.

    Sidework

    • Sidework is a term that your students will see once they become a part of this industry, so it’s best to use that terminology.
    • Sidework is any task assigned to employees that they are asked to do in addition to their typical work. Sidework is effective because it takes all of the tasks necessary and splits them up among people/groups so that not one individual/group feels that they have too much work to do.
    • Sidework also helps students to be accountable for their actions. If they are assigned an area to clean or organize and they neglect to do so it will be obvious. This can help with grading purposes as well.
    • The best way to start the process of assigning sidework is to list ALL TASKS that must be done in your lab over a certain time period and then start dividing that work out evenly among the number of students/groups you have.
    • Rotate the sidework periodically so that students don’t get tired of doing the same sidework every time they are in the lab setting.
    • Make the sidework list a fluid document. if something needs to be added then add it.
    • Demonstrate the sidework for every student so they know what the expectations are. Make an entire class day out of it. You won’t regret it.
    • List sidework for the start of class and for the end of class. The best strategy is to only assign ONE task per group for each part of class. For instance, Group 1 will ONLY have to check the hand washing station(s) and refill paper towels and soap when they come in. Then before they leave they will wipe down the hand sinks. Assigning more than one task per group can burden your groups and eat into valuable instruction time.
    • Designate “Sanitation Managers” and have them “check out” all the groups, ensuring that their sidework was done. Make sure you rotate this responsibility amongst all students.

    Multiple Day Lab Technique

    • One of the best tricks to saving time in the kitchen is to split a lab into multiple days. A single lab can be split into any of the following activities. You could spend an entire day on each of these activities if the need was there:
    • Mise en place – Consider spending a day to gather/measure/wrap/label ingredients and equipment that will be needed for a lab. This will ensure you the most time on production days.
    • Demonstrate – Demonstrating one day and having the students duplicate what you did the next day can be a very effective strategy. Unless you have your students for 2-3 hours at a time, trying to squeeze your demo and their execution all into one day can be a nightmare.
    • Execute – This is the day the students do what you’ve been teaching them to do. Since the students have already received all the instruction, all you have to do is go around the lab and perform corrective actions and quick refreshers to students.
    • Clean Up – Although it’s ideal, not every lab can be cleaned up completely on the same day that it is executed. This may not sound ideal, but it just may be the time saving technique you need to do that exciting lab you’ve been afraid to tackle. Consider refrigerating “dirties” that would attract pests or start to smell until you get back the next day. This would include anything that had egg, butter, cheese, meat, honey, etc. You can also store dirties that had room temp ingredients unrefrigerated in an airtight container until the next day. This would include anything that had sugar, flour, water, shortening, etc.

    Example of a Multiple Day Lab

    This is a way to do bread for a whole class in a week with 45 minute class periods.

    • Day 1: Have students mise en place WHITE PAN BREAD recipe. Mise en place your demonstration recipe as well.
    • Day 2: Demo mixing the bread. Place your demo bread in the refrigerator to slow proof (works best with dry instant yeast).
    • Day 3: As soon as students get to class, demonstrate shaping the bread for them by using your demo dough that you have brought up to temperature and risen. Then have students begin mixing their own dough. Once all of their dough is in the fridge then you can bake off the bread that you’ve been rising while they have been mixing. The smaller you shape your bread the less time it takes to bake. Dinner rolls can bake in as little as 7 minutes. Loaves can bake in as little as 10 minutes. You might have students running out of your classroom with hot rolls but they’ve at least seen you demonstrate everything to this point.
    • Day 4: As soon as students come into class you have their temped and risen doughs on their stations with all of their equipment needed. The students shape their dough, rise it for as long as possible and then bake right before class ends. Worst case scenario is you get a 15 minute rise on your bread on the shaped bread before baking.
    • Day 5: Clean up and recap. Make sure students understand the time constraints and challenge them to do this at home all in one day.
  • Quiz

    Culinary Arts Online Course

    Progress:

    1. The first world acclaimed chef known as the “King of Chefs and the Chef of Kings” is:

    2. The brigade system used to streamline and simplify work in hotel kitchens was instituted by:

    3. In the classic brigade, this chef is responsible for all sautéed items and their sauces.

    4. The Garde-Manger is also known as the Pantry chef and is responsible for preparation of cold foods, including salads, cold appetizers, pâtés, and the like.

    5. Foodservice trends may be influenced by:

    6. Which of the following has a potentially negative effect on the energy level required to lift heavy objects, work active shifts, endure long periods of standing, and sustain repetitive motions?

    7. According to course content, what is the best way to incorporate teamwork, problem solving, decision making, team building and problem solving?

    8. Positive emotions can help employees:

    9. A structured classroom environment can promote participation among students.

    10. According to the content of the course, which of the following statements concerning teamwork and team building is FALSE?

    11. When considering utensils, what temperature must be maintained for 30 seconds during heat sanitizing?

    12. What is the first step in eliminating (minimizing) injuries in the workplace?

    13. Truth in Menu Laws most greatly benefit whom?

    14. FLSA standards state that 14 and 15 year old students can work an acceptable job for which of the following hours:

    15. Employers can require potential employees to take a test to determine whether they are fit for employment.

    16. Which baking ingredient helps the baked product to rise through the production of CO2?

    17. Adults need to drink ____ to ____ ounces of water each day to maintain healthy bodily functions.

    18. Restaurants cannot operate effectively without following the basic principles of ____________.

    19. To _______, heat a moderate amount of fat in a pan before adding food. Use enough fat to cover about 1/2 to 3/4 of the food.

    20. The five elements of plate presentation are:

    21. The ________________ is the most flexible piece of equipment in the commercial kitchen.

    22. A chef needs a recipe to yield 340 servings, but the current recipe yields 84 servings. What is the conversion factor by which she must multiply the original ingredient amounts in order to get the new ingredient amounts?

    23. When considering dry storage, for the best quality and to assure safety, the temperature of the storeroom should be between ___°F and ___°F.

    24. Which of the following is the first step in the FCCLA Planning Process for Individual and Team Action?

    25. According to course content, which is the most important reason for recording items on a receiving sheet during the receiving process?

    26. Which of the following cold storage recommendations allows for proper airflow and keeps refrigeration units from working too hard to keep products cold?

    27. The first step in an effective marketing plan is:

    28. Which of the following is NOT a benefit of great customer service?

    29. ___________________ attract people that like to eat out but are not interested in a formal atmosphere, high prices, or extended service offerings.

    30. A major aspect of excellent guest service is being able to identify, anticipate, and meet the needs and expectations of your guests.

    31. A restaurant's concept is the same as it's cuisine.

    32. The key to successful suggestive selling is:

    33. The percentage of food lost during its storage and preparation is known as ____________.

    34. The _____________ is often the first thing a manager looks at when he/she reports for a shift and updating the __________ is the last thing they do before leaving.

    35. The asking price for a menu item is known as the:

    36. Documents that are commonplace in the restaurant industry are:

    37. How many cups are in a gallon?

    38. An excellent way to keep your food fresher for longer is to use a(n):

    39. Which of the following is NOT a perceived benefit of table side technology?

    40. According to module content, which piece of equipment is set to "completely capture the field for new installations worldwide in the next few years?"

    41. POS systems can handle food costing reports.

    42. According to the National Restaurant Association’s 2013 forecast, restaurant guests want more and better table side ____________.

    43. Which of the following industry segments employs the highest number of chefs?

    44. The more you know about your _______________ and the job you're seeking, the better you'll do in the interview.

    45. Which of the following is not an appropriate post interview action?

    46. CTE stands for:

    47. There are _____________ Career Clusters.

    48. TEKS stands for:

    49. Culinary Arts is part of the ______________ Career Cluster.

    50. Career and Technical Education (CTE) equips students with:

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