Child Guidance Online Course

  • Child Guidance Online Course Introduction

    This self-paced professional development course will provide you with a thorough overview of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for the Child Guidance course (one to two credits). The suggested scope and sequence for this course is divided into six modules. Each module will be explored in addition to providing teacher with resources, references, suggested teaching strategies and a five question assessment.

    Students will identify this course as part of a Career and Technical Education (CTE) program of study, understand that CTE in Texas is organized around 16 career clusters and 79 career pathways, and that Child Guidance is one of 12 courses in the Human Services career cluster that equips students with:

    • core academic skills
    • employability skills
    • job specific technical skills

    Child Guidance is a course related to child growth and guidance equipping students to develop positive relationships with children and effective caregiver skills. Students use these skills to promote the well-being and healthy development of children, strengthen a culturally diverse society, along with pursuing careers related to the care, guidance, and education of children, including those with special needs.

    Important
    This online course consists of an introduction and six modules. Carefully read all course content to become familiar with the TEKS, student expectations, published lessons, and suggested activities. Names of handouts, graphic organizers, slide presentations appear in bold letters. Refer to attachments at the end of each module for additional information. 12 pre-assessment multiple choice statements can be found at the end of the Introduction. Each module ends with five multiple choice statements.

    After completing the course you will be required to complete a 50 question quiz and submit your name and email address. You will receive a certificate of completion at that address.

    The certificates for the successful completion of the online courses are NOT automatically computer generated and are reviewed individually. Certificates will be generated Monday through Friday between the hours of 8:00am and 5:00pm.
    For questions, contact: sfacte@gmail.com.

    As approved by the Texas Education Agency, a passing score of 80 is required to receive a certificate equalling six (6) Continuing Professional Education (CPE) credits.

    Refer to the Introductory Lesson: Child Guidance for an introduction to Career and Technical Education, Career Clusters™, coherent sequence of courses, and programs of study.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/introductory-lesson-child-guidance/

    This course is also available for the Advanced Technical Credit (ATC) Program (2 credits) that gives high school students a chance to receive credit at participating community colleges across Texas for taking certain enhanced technical courses during high school. All high school courses must include enhanced content equivalent to the college courses indicated, and are a minimum of one (1) high school credit unless otherwise noted. Teachers approved for ATC courses must hold a baccalaureate degree in the teaching discipline, or a minimum of an associate degree and demonstrated competencies directly related to the subject area to fulfill SACS requirements.
    For more information, see http://www.atctexas.org/

    Important
    Be sure to open all the attachments below that correspond to this course as you will need to refer to them as you follow along. All of the handouts and graphic organizers are available for you to use in your classroom. All keys are included.

    Child Guidance: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. What is the purpose of the Texas Day-Care Minimum Standards and Guidelines?

    • a. to determine developmental differences in children of various ages
    • b. to identify characteristics indicative of special needs or disabilities in children
    • c. the purpose of child care licensing is to enforce Texas Child-Care Licensing Law, Rules & Minimum Standards, thus maintaining a safe and healthy environment for young children being cared for outside the home
    • d. to determine the legal structure of the organization

    2. What services do child care resource and referral agencies (CCR & Rs) provide for parents?

    • a. to help maintain a safe and healthy environment for young children being cared for outside the home
    • b. The CCR&Rs are service agencies that provide information to parents who are looking for any type of child care
    • c. to make regular reports to the child care directors about needed policy changes
    • d. help carry out established policies and support the goals of the program

    3. Ways to prevent abuse include_____________.

    • a. rejecting violence in society
    • b. educating people in child development and parenting
    • c. reporting cases of suspected child abuse
    • d. all of the above

    4. An advantage of a national child care center chain is_____________

    • a. they do not have to be licensed and follow state regulations
    • b. care provided to a large number of children
    • c. the center usually has an educational based curriculum which is appropriate for the age of the child
    • d. band c

    5. The cost of child care services is ______________ of a family’s income.

    • a. may be 15 to 28 percent of a family’s income
    • b. may be 10 to 25 percent of a family’s income
    • c. may be 20 to 35 percent of a family’s income
    • d. may be 28 to 30 percent of a family’s income

    6. What are three reasons to keep accurate child care health records?

    • a. to provide the best health and emergency care for children
    • b. to fulfill licensing requirements
    • c. to protect child care programs and child care employees from liability
    • d. all of the above

    7. How do family changes and problems affect children?

    • a. they will develop a trust between caregiver and other children
    • b. the child will feel negative and threatened by caregiver
    • c. the child may start to experience separation anxiety or stranger anxiety
    • d. children may have developmental regressions

    8. Child care centers can take precautions for safeguards to prevent misuse and abuse of technology and media with children by_____________.

    • a. monitoring the sites they visit each day
    • b. regulating their use of the Internet
    • c. buying children educative programs that will bring out the negative effects from misuse of the Internet by children
    • d. all of the above

    9. What is direct guidance?

    • a. direct guidance is used when a child works directly with another child
    • b. consistently giving choices to the child
    • c. is used when a caregiver works directly with a child
    • d. observing children when the caregiver wants to get involved to solve problems

    10. The Child Development Associate (CDA) certification offered by the Council for Professional Recognition. CDA certification includes what three areas?

    • a. coursework, college degree and two years of experience
    • b. coursework, high school diploma and a job shadowing experience
    • c. coursework, experience in the field, and a high school diploma
    • d. no coursework, two years experience in the field and a college degree

    11. This course is available for the Advanced Technical Credit (ATC) Program that gives high school students a chance to receive credit at participating community colleges across Texas for taking certain enhanced technical courses during high school. A student can earn _________ credits.

    • a. 0ne-half credit
    • b. 2 credits
    • c. one to two credits
    • d. one-half to one credit

    12. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment of childcare workers is expected to grow by _____percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations.

    • a. 15
    • b. 20
    • c. 28
    • d. 22
  • I. Professionalism

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student analyzes roles and responsibilities of caregivers.

    • (A) determine the roles and responsibilities of caregivers related to the physical, intellectual, emotional, and social development of children
    • (B) apply ethical codes of conduct to positive role modeling behaviors
    • (C) identify strategies for optimizing the physical, intellectual, emotional, and social development of children, including those with special needs
    • (D) write with proper voice, tense, and syntax, assuring it conforms to standard English, in creating examples of coherent written communication between parents and children
    • (E) investigate the legal responsibilities and laws involved in caring for children
    • (F) analyze the impact of changing societal patterns and demographics on the role of parents, children, and other family members
    • (G) access resources available for effective management of multiple adult roles that affect child care
    • (H) investigate parenting skills and responsibilities, including child support and other legal rights and responsibilities that come with parenthood
    • (I) analyze relationship skills, including money management, communication skills, and marriage preparation
    • (J) examine skills relating to the prevention of family violence

    Module Content

    Professionalism is the first unit of study in the Child Guidance course. This section contains six TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Relationship Skills
    • B. Prevention of Family Violence
    • C. Legal Aspects of Caring for Children
    • D. Parenting Skills and Responsibilities
    • E. Factors that Impact Family Roles
    • F. Effective Caregiving

    Module 1 handouts

    Relationship Skills

    Two major influences affecting child care programs are:

    • parents
    • community

    Parent participation is very important to child care programs. Directors should encourage open communication in addition to positive relationships between staff members and parents.
    The child care program and the community should work together to meet the needs of children and families. The community has services, agencies, and volunteers that can collaborate with child care programs developing positive relationships. All of these programs strengthen families and the community while developing a positive environment for children.
    Child care professionals learn by participating in community and professional organizations. Through these organizations, they gain new ideas which help them improve the quality of child care giving.

    Prevention of Family Violence

    Family violence is abuse of power within relationships of:

    • family
    • trust
    • dependency

    It can include many forms of:

    • abusive behavior
    • emotional abuse
    • psychological abuse
    • neglect
    • financial exploitation
    • destruction of property
    • injury to pets
    • physical assault
    • sexual assault
    • homicide

    Family violence occurs for many reasons. Consumption of alcohol and extreme stress contribute to family violence. According to Futures without Violence, “15.5 million children in the United States live in families in which partner violence occurred at least once in the past year, and seven million children live in families in which severe partner violence occurred.” Strengthening the family unit is a more effective defense to combat violence and abuse in a family. According to Johnson (2004) good communication, decision making, and conflict resolution skills are important in breaking the cycle of violence from one generation to the next. When family members are able to experience growth and maturity they can develop self-esteem, self-control, and self-acceptance.

    Sometimes a family may need counseling from a professional to help them work out their problems. A professional family counselor that focuses on abusive relationships will be able to equip the family with tools and strategies to deter the patterns of abuse and violence. Other resources available to families are therapy programs. These programs are provided by government, private, community, and religious groups. Counseling can help break the cycle of violence and help the families on the road to recovery.

    Child abuse and neglect are serious problems in our country, and there are presently no signs of the problem getting any better. Over 3 million reports of child abuse are made every year in the United States, involving an estimated 6 million children.

    In this lesson you will learn about the types of abuse and how to determine the warning signs of abuse. See the following lesson: The Hidden Epidemic at http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-hidden-epidemic/ for additional references and resources.

    Legal Aspects of Caring for Children

    Legislation and public policy are important factors in the lives of young children and their families. Legislation and public policy provide guidelines for child care, regulate social services, and influence the environment in which children live.

    In Texas, the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services is the agency responsible for licensing child care facilities and seeing that the guidelines are followed. The Texas Child Care Licensing is responsible for:

    • Regulating all child-care operations and child-placing agencies to protect the health, safety, and well-being of children in care, largely by reducing the risk of injury, abuse, and communicable disease.
    • Establishing and monitoring operations and agencies for compliance with licensing standards, rules, and law.
    • Informing parents and the public about child care and about the histories of specific homes, child-care operations, and child-placing agencies in complying with minimum standards of care.
    • Providing technical assistance to providers on meeting licensing standards, rules, and law.

    The purpose of child care licensing is to enforce Texas Child-Care Licensing Law, Rules & Minimum Standards, thus maintaining a safe and healthy environment for young children being cared for outside the home. Other legislation along with public policies that affect early child care programs includes child care funding, health and fire regulations, as well as zoning ordinances. Legislation and regulations may vary from county to county or city to city. It is important for child care directors to be informed of legislation and regulations that apply to their facility.

    Parenting Skills and Responsibilities

    Positive caregiver relationships with parents aid the growth and development of children. Positive teacher/parent relationships are promoted through communication and parent involvement in the child care program.

    Parent/Caregiver Communication

    It is important for parents and teachers to communicate for four primary reasons:

    • Through parent and teacher communication, consistent guidelines can be used at home and at the center. The child then knows what is expected.
    • Through communication between parent and teacher, the accomplishments of the child and concerns about the child can be shared. By sharing accomplishments and concerns, parents and teachers can better understand the child’s level of development.
    • Parents and teachers have the opportunity to support each other. Both parenting and caregiving can be trying and exhausting. Each adult can be a listener for the other when problems arise.
    • Ideally, parent and teacher conferences prevent a lack of communication. When expectations, attitudes, and feelings are communicated, caregivers and parents have clear guidelines to follow. When these guidelines are absent, misunderstandings frequently occur.

    Child care centers use various ways to communicate with parents.

    These may include informal interactions such as:

    • a parent reception area
    • a parent handbook
    • brochures
    • bulletins
    • e-mail
    • home visits
    • individual conferences
    • newsletters
    • parent meetings
    • social media
    • texting

    Parent Involvement
    Parents are important to the success of the child care program and the development of children. Parents should be given the chance to choose how they wish to participate. Such choices tend to make parents feel more comfortable.

    Opportunities for parent involvement include:

    • planning
    • policy making
    • volunteer roles

    Each child care center and each set of parents is unique. Therefore, the right kind of parent involvement must be determined for each situation.

    Factors for the director and teachers to consider when planning parent involvement include the following;

    • The number of working parents—In a child care program where all parents work, few parents can be caregiver aides. However, parents can participate in other ways. For example, they can recycle items for art projects, and donate old clothes or shoes for dramatic play center. Parents who work part-time or have flexible work schedules can participate more often and in a wider variety of ways.
    • The stability or mobility of the community—If people in the community are mobile, involvement that takes a long period of time is not possible. If the community is stable, parents can work on long-range projects, such as playground improvements.
    • The size of the community—If children and parents travel long distances to or from the center, it may be difficult to arrange ways to involve parents. However, a center, which is located near homes of children, may encourage more parent involvement.
    • The physical setting of the center—If a center can afford the luxury of space where parents can meet, parent involvement becomes easier. Setting aside an area for parents says to them that the center belongs to them as well as to their children.

    Factors that Impact Family Roles

    Your family can impact your role in society in many ways. Do you belong to a family of health care providers, teachers, law enforcement, ranchers, farmers, musicians or workers in some other field? Your parent’s and family’s influence can also impact your educational choices and pathway to a career. In turn, this will also affect your role as an adult in the workplace. Your cultural identity is influenced by your family. You also inherit physical traits that are unique to your cultural background from your parents. Religion, traditions, and customs are other influences from your family. All these components impact family roles. What does your family expect from you? If you are a son or daughter, the family has certain expectations for you. As you progress through the life cycle, your expectations change. These expectations will continue to change as you get older. When you decide to get married, have children of your own, maybe become a step-parent and eventually a grandparent, your roles will change. The expectations for each of these roles are influenced by your family and the society in which you live.

    Effective Caregiving

    Promoting physical, intellectual, emotional, and social development of children

    Child care has moved out of the home and into the business community, becoming an industry. As the needs of society have changed and expectations of children have increased, child care has become known as “early childhood education and care”.
    Child care giving has evolved into a profession requiring those who care for children to be educated and trained in child growth and education.
    A wholesome child care environment is arranged so that children remain healthy and benefit from the surroundings.

    The focus of a wholesome environment is the whole child:

    • physical
    • emotional
    • social
    • cognitive (intellectual) development

    • The physical environment includes:
      • indoor and outdoor learning space
      • furnishings
      • equipment
      • supplies

    Minimum standards for child care physical environments are set and enforced by licensing agencies and other state and local governments.

    • Indoor learning space allows for arrival and departure, emergency aid, learning activities, toileting and personal care, food preparation, service, and sleeping.
    • Outdoor learning space is often called the playground or playground area. The same guidelines used for organizing and managing indoor space apply to the use of outdoor space.
    • Furnishings in the child care “classroom” should be small to fit the children. Storage space should be within children’s reach and clearly marked with symbols to help them remember where to store items. Equipment and supplies should be chosen to meet the needs of the age group or developmental level of the children using the classroom.
    • A positive emotional climate radiates friendliness, concern, happiness, fun, love, security, respect, openness and fairness. Children perform better when the emotional environment is positive.
    • Goals of a positive social environment include helping children learn to use private time, develop independence, develop a good self-image, learn to get along with others, and communicate thoughts or feelings.
    • The child learns thorough the senses of sight, touch, taste, sound, and smell. Each child’s gift of natural curiosity to use the senses should be encouraged.
    • Children need adult caregivers to set consistent limits for them. These limits give a sense of structure and organization and teach children about the real world.

    Ethical and positive role modeling

    Ethics are a set of standards describing a professional’s responsibilities in terms of behavior and conduct. In 1989, the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) approved the Code of Ethical Conduct and Statement of Commitment. The code addresses professional responsibilities in four areas; children, families, colleagues, in addition to community and society. In each area ideals and standards are set forth to guide conduct and assist practitioners in resolving ethical dilemmas encountered. Ethical conduct must be considered in communication and conversation. The Code of Ethical Conduct states that the confidentiality and disclosure of children’s records will be protected. Disclosure of children’s records beyond family members, program personnel, and consultants has an obligation of confidentiality that requires family consent; except in the case of abuse or neglect. Child care practitioners should maintain confidentiality and respect the family’s right to privacy. They should refrain from disclosure of confidential information and intrusion into family life. Appropriateness of conversation is another consideration. The work environment is not a place to discuss personal activities and relationships. It is a place to discuss curriculum, classroom activities, and projects that are related to programs for young children.

    Effective communication with parents and children

    • Parent/Caregiver Communication
      It is important for parents and teachers to communicate for four primary reasons:
      1. Through parent and teacher communication, consistent guidelines can be used at home and at the center. The child then knows what is expected.
      2. Through communication between parent and teacher, the accomplishments of the child and concerns about the child can be shared. By sharing accomplishments and concerns, parents and teachers can better understand the child’s level of development.
      3. Parents and teachers have the opportunity to support each other. Both parenting and caregiving can be trying and exhausting. Each adult can be a listener for the other when problems arise.
      4. Ideally, parent and teacher conferences prevent a lack of communication. When expectations, attitudes, and feelings are communicated, caregivers and parents have clear guidelines to follow. When these guidelines are absent, misunderstandings frequently occur.
        Child care centers use various ways to communicate with parents. These may include informal interactions; a parent reception area; a parent handbook; brochures; bulletins; e-mail; Facebook; Twitter; YouTube; texting; newsletters; parent meetings; individual conferences; and home visits.

    Resources for effective management of multiple roles that affect child care

    Professional relationships include contacts and interactions with other practitioners in early childhood education and care. As professional relationships develop and strengthen, interpersonal skills, professional etiquette, and leadership qualities increase in importance. Professional relationships provide opportunities for collaboration and teamwork, which allows child care practitioners to maximize resources. Collaboration and teamwork involve the sharing of ideas, resources, and workloads.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module 1 handouts

    • A Caregiver for Three Days
    • Article STOP and JOT
    • Child Care Options
    • Compare and Contrast Home Child Care, Family Child Care and Center-based Child Care
    • Break the Abuse Cycle
    • Myths and Facts About Child Abuse and Neglect
    • Observation Sheet for Visitation to Child Care Center
    • Rubric for Group Project

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • See lesson The Hidden Epidemic at http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-hidden-epidemic/ for additional references and resources
    • Instruct students to develop a criteria list to use when selecting a child care center
    • Compare and contrast in home child care, family child care and center-based child care using Compare and Contrast Home Child Care, Family Child Care and Center-based Child Care handout
    • Guest speaker: Invite an owner/manager of a child care facility
    • Borrow from a local provider or order from your state’s licensing agency a manual for center-based child care programs. Assign small groups of students to read one or two sets of regulations and share their findings with the class.
    • Field trip: Arrange for the class to visit a program for children in your area. Students should take notes and provide a summary of what they visualize on the field trip. Students will complete Observation Sheet for Visitation to Child Care Center
    • Students will design a newsletter for parents. Items to be included are:
      • Nutritional values of the food service
      • Safety and sanitation of the facility
      • Why cognitive development is important in children
      • Law and licensing regulations of the facility
      • Ideas of ways parents can become involved in the child care facility.
    • Students will develop a daily plan for children of a specific age to include routine and planned activities. Strategies should include ways to optimize the physical, intellectual, emotional, and social development of children, including those with special needs using A Caregiver for Three Days. Students will be assessed by Rubric for Group Project.
    • Assign the students Article STOP and JOT. Students will STOP after reading EACH paragraph and JOT down its main idea or key points. This strategy will allow students to gather and process their finding and thoughts prior to writing a summary. Modeling the strategy to prior use is recommended.
    • Design a crossword puzzle with the terms and vocabulary from this unit. Free puzzlemaker at http://puzzlemaker.discoveryeducation.com/WordSearchSetupForm.asp

    References and Resources

    Textbooks

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child Development Early Stages Through Age 12. (7th ed., pp. 662-677). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Decker, C. (2004). Children: The Early Years. (5th ed., pp. 67-70). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Johnson, L. (2004). Strengthening Family & Self. (3rd ed., pp. 368-371, 380-384, 420, 483-484). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Ryder, V., & Decker, C. (2010). Parents and Their Children. (7th ed., p.124). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Sasse, C. (2004). Families Today. (4th ed., pp. 107-115 ). Peoria: McGraw Hill.

    Websites

    • Baby Steps: Learn the Signs. Act Early.
      Source: National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD) Early recognition of developmental disabilities such as autism is key for parents and providers. CDC realized the impact on families and invested in a campaign to help parents measure their children’s progress by monitoring how they play, learn, speak and act.
      http://www.cdc.gov/CDCTV/BabySteps/index.html
    • Futures Without Violence
      Everyone has the right to live free of violence. Futures Without Violence, formerly Family Violence Prevention Fund, works to prevent and end violence against women and children around the world.
      http://www.futureswithoutviolence.org
    • National Association for the Education of Young Children
      NAEYC is the leading membership association for those working with and on behalf of children from birth through age 8. NAEYC convenes thought leaders, teachers and other practitioners, researchers, and other stakeholders and sets standards of excellence for programs and teachers in early childhood education. NAEYC members include teachers, para-educators, center directors, trainers, college educators, families of young children, and the public at large.
      http://www.naeyc.org
    • Texas Department of Family and Protective Services
      Protecting children, the elderly, and people with disabilities from abuse, neglect, and exploitation.
      http://www.dfps.state.tx.us
    • The Texas Attorney General’s Parenting and Paternity Awareness program objectives meet many of the CTE Child Guidance TEKS. See the link below for the most current training schedule.
      https://www.oag.state.tx.us/cs/ofi/papa/Educators.shtml
    • What Should You Know?
      It’s time to change how we view a child’s growth.
      Do you know all the ways you should measure your child’s growth? We naturally think of height and weight, but from birth to 5 years, your child should reach milestones in how he plays, learns, speaks and acts. Track your child’s development and act early if you have a concern. Learn more about milestones.
      http://www.cdc.gov/actearly
    • What Should You Know?
      Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of developmental disabilities that can cause significant social, communication and behavioral challenges
      http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/index.html

    YouTube™

    • Eco-Healthy Childcare: Oregon Environmental Council on KATU
      Oregon Environmental Council’s Eco-Healthy Child Care program is featured on KATU-2 (Portland) consumer segment highlighting the benefits of community partnerships to reduce children’s exposure to toxics.
      http://youtu.be/_arbQrDj0Pk

    Child Guidance: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. What elements contribute to a positive physical child care environment?

    • a. the child learns through the senses of sight, touch, taste, sound, and smell
    • b. a positive emotional climate radiates friendliness, concern, happiness, fun, love, security, respect, openness and fairness.
    • c. when adult caregivers set consistent limits for them.
    • d. all of the above

    2. What are some guidelines for teachers and caregivers to follow in communicating with parents?

    • a. keep a record of problems or difficulties apparent from the child’s daily
      experiences
    • b. the community has services, agencies, and volunteers that can collaborate with child care programs developing positive relationships
    • c. positive teacher/parent relationships are promoted through communication and parent involvement in the child care program
    • d. b and c

    3. What are ethics?

    • a. a copy of an application or other documents showing how each staff member meets the required staff qualifications
    • b. a set of standards describing a professional’s responsibilities in terms of
      behavior and conduct
    • c. a legal term which means certain procedures must be followed
    • d. an assessment of a community’s need for child care

    4. What is the purpose of the Texas Day-Care Minimum Standards and Guidelines?

    • a. to determine developmental differences in children of various ages
    • b to identify characteristics indicative of special needs or disabilities in children
    • c. to enforce Texas Child-Care Licensing Law, Rules & Minimum Standards, thus maintaining a safe and healthy environment for young children being cared for outside the home
    • d. to determine the legal structure of the organization

    5. Ways to prevent abuse include________.

    • a. rejecting violence in society
    • b. educating people in child development and parenting
    • c. reporting cases of suspected child abuse
    • d. all of the above

  • II. Child Care Management

    TEKS Addressed

    (2) The student analyzes child care options.

    • (A) compare child care options for children of various ages
    • (B) compare and contrast the financial considerations of child care options
    • (C) examine criteria for selecting quality child care
    • (D) review minimum standards for licensing and regulations for center-based and home-based programs
  • Module Content

    Child Care Management is the second unit of study in the Child Guidance course. This section contains four TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Child Care Options
    • B. Financial Considerations of Child Care
    • C. Criteria for Selecting Quality Child Care
    • D. Minimum Standards for Child Care Licensing and Regulations

    Child Care Options

    According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the labor force participation rate—the percent of the population working or looking for work—for all mothers with children under age 18 was 70.6 percent in 2011, little different from 70.8 percent in 2010 ( visit http://www.bls.gov/news.release/famee.nr0.htm for additional information). With so many working mothers, finding quality child care is a priority. What are some child care options? Refer to http://www.babycenter.com/childcare-options for additional information.

    • Child care in the child’s home- care is provided in the child’s home by either a grandparent or other relative.
    • Family day care- care is provided in the caregiver’s home. The family day care must be licensed and follow state regulations.
    • Child care centers- care provided to a large number of children. The child care centers (national chain) must be licensed and follow state regulations. The center usually has an educational based curriculum which is appropriate for the age of the child.
    • Cooperative child care- centers are usually organized, managed, and funded by the parents who are using the center. A Board of parents helps with the administrative duties of the center.
    • Employer-sponsored child care- On site child care facilities are offered to working parents. It is usually at a lower cost for the parents because the employer sponsors the child care center.
    • Nanny- This is the most expensive child care option for parents.
      Visit http://www.babycenter.com/0_how-to-find-a-good-nanny_5933.bc for ways to find a good nanny.

    Financial Considerations of Child Care

    There are many factors parents must consider when deciding on a child care option. The factors include cost, available hours, location, the curriculum, services provided, the quality of the center and the caregivers. The cost of child care may be 10 to 25 percent of a family’s income. It is a major expense. Child care centers which employ highly qualified caregivers increase the quality and the cost of the services. This is because labor is the most expensive aspect of child care. The state regulates the ratio of children to caregivers. This increases to care for younger children and those with special needs. Some child care programs are more affordable because government, religious groups or businesses inherit some of the costs.

    Criteria for Selecting Quality Child Care

    Parents need to choose carefully the child care facility. Caregivers and the environment at the facility will have a great impact on the child’s emotional, social, cognitive and physical development.
    Parents should consider these factors in choosing a quality child care program:

    • Regulations
    • Physical Setting
    • Program
    • Teachers and Staff
    • Discipline
    • Parents
    • Health
    • Family Needs
    • Safety

    Parents who are considering placing a child in child care should contact the local child-related organizations for information, especially Child care resource and referral agencies (CCR&Rs). The CCR&Rs are service agencies that provide information to parents who are looking for any type of Child care. Refer to the following website for additional information http://www.naccrra.org/

    Minimum Standards for Child Care Licensing and Regulations

    In Texas, the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services is the agency responsible for licensing child care facilities and seeing that the guidelines are followed. The Texas Child Care Licensing is responsible for:

    1. Regulating all child-care operations and child-placing agencies to protect the health, safety, and well-being of children in care, largely by reducing the risk of injury, abuse, and communicable disease.
    2. Establishing and monitoring operations and agencies for compliance with licensing standards, rules, and law.
    3. Informing parents and the public about child care along with informing them about the histories of specific homes, child-care operations, as well as child-placing agencies in complying with minimum standards of care.
    4. Providing technical assistance to providers on meeting licensing standards, rules, and law.

    The purpose of child care licensing is to enforce Texas Child-Care Licensing Law, Rules & Minimum Standards, thus maintaining a safe and healthy environment for young children being cared for outside the home. Other legislation and public policies that affect early child care programs include child care funding, health and fire regulations, in addition to zoning ordinances. Legislation and regulations may vary from county to county or city to city. It is important for child care directors to be informed of legislation and regulations that apply to their facility. Refer to the following website for additional information:
    http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Care/About_Child_Care_Licensing/

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module 2 handouts

    • Child Care Comparison Worksheet
    • KWL Chart – What Do You Know About Quality Child Care?
    • Quality Child Care Checklist
    • Rubric for Child Care Facility Project/Presentation
    • Types of Child Care: Outline

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Child Guidance lesson: Selecting Quality Child Care. Selecting quality child care, within a set budget, is one of the most challenging decisions a parent will ever make. In this lesson we will explore child care options and criteria for selecting a quality child care facility.
      http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/selecting-quality-child-care/
    • Complete KWL Chart – What Do You Know About Quality Child Care?.
    • Post three sheets of paper/poster boards on the wall; labeled “Attended a day care center as a child”, “Attended a home day care center”, and “Stayed at home with parent/guardian”. As students enter the classroom, instruct them to write one thing they remember about their child care experience on the appropriate paper/poster board. Lead a discussion on child care options. Include questions such as:
      • What did you like about your child care experience?
      • What did you like least about your child care experience?
      • What was your favorite center to play in when you were at your child care venue?
      • In your opinion, what qualities should you look for in a day care?
    • Using handout, Types of Child Care: Outline, students will research local child care programs in the area.
    • Show You Tube video: CCRR Video Series #1: What Is Quality Child Care?
      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vp8M46xB2wo
    • Have students identify types of child care settings located near the school, in their neighborhood, and within their city. Display a city map. Use phone book or internet to look up addresses. Use different colored markers on the map to indicate the different types of child care settings and locations in the city.
    • Ask students to select a child care facility near the school or within their neighborhood and research the history and services it provides. Students may choose to use a search engine to locate the information or make arrangements to interview the owner of the facility. Questions to be answered may include:
      • When was the child care facility established?
      • What is the Mission statement?
      • What ages of students are serviced?
      • How many children attend the center?
      • How many employees does the center have?
      • What types of activities are provided?
      • What is the cost per child?
    • Allow students to share, compare and discuss information obtained from their child care investigation project. End the discussion by having students brainstorm ideas, programs, activities and services they would offer if they owned a child care facility.
    • Scenario: You are applying for a $100,000 grant to design and develop a world class child care facility. Your child care facility must include child care options for children of various ages; be affordable, and offer quality child care. Make sure to provide a strong mission statement. You will have one opportunity to present your child care facility plans and “sell” your idea to the board of directors (classmates).
      Provide students with the rubric that will be used to assess their project, Rubric for Child Care Facility Project/Presentation.
    • Print brochure Five Steps to Choosing Safe and Healthy Child Care. Choose 5 different students to read a tip. (link below)
      http://ccapub.childcareaware.org/docs/pubs/106e.pdf
      Discuss connection between text and previously acquired knowledge.
    • List the pros and cons of a child care center vs. home day care.
      1. Compare/contrast two different types of child care programs discussed and complete Child Care Comparison Worksheet.
      2. Have students chose a child care program to observe. Have them observe the teaching strategies of caregivers working with children of various ages and complete Quality Child Care Checklist.
      3. Invite a director from a child care program in your neighborhood to your class. Have him/her discuss the mission statement, philosophies, costs, ages of children and programs offered at their center.
      4. Child Care Program Brochure- The students will identify and develop a brochure on the different types of child care facilities available in their local area. They will conduct a research of the child care programs: where they are located, how far they are from the school, what type of child care program, cost of the program and timeline for the project. They will identify several community venues to provide the brochures and answer questions.

    References and Resources

    Textbooks

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child development early stages through age 12. (7th ed., pp. 535-563). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Decker, C. (2004). Children: The early years. (5th ed., pp., 582-617 ). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Johnson, L. (2004). Strengthening family & self. (3rd ed., pp. 486-490). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Ryder, V., & Decker, C. (2010). Parents and their children. (7th ed., pp. 522-536). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Sasse, C. (2004). Families today. (4th ed., pp., 92, 238-240,669 ). Peoria: McGraw Hill.

    Websites

    • Child Care Options
      Finding quality childcare can be a major parenting challenge. If you’re returning to work, start thinking about childcare soon after your baby’s born — or as early as your second trimester if you live in a big city or anywhere that good childcare is scarce or in high demand. It takes time to find the right situation.
      http://www.babycenter.com/childcare-options
    • How to Find a Good Nanny
      What is the key to finding the right caregiver of any kind for your child? Being willing to sift through the silt until you find the gold. You shouldn’t compromise on this issue one bit — your child deserves the best caregiver you can find — so be prepared for a long search.
      http://www.babycenter.com/0_how-to-find-a-good-nanny_5933.bc
    • National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agency
      NACCRRA, the National Association of Child Care Resource & Referral Agencies, is our nation’s leading voice for child care. We work with more than 600 state and local Child Care Resource and Referral agencies to ensure that families in every local community have access to quality, affordable child care. To achieve our mission, we lead projects that increase the quality and availability of child care, offer comprehensive training to child care professionals, undertake groundbreaking research, and advocate for child care policies that positively impact the lives of children and families.
      http://www.naccrra.org/
    • National Association for the Education of Young Children:
      Articles on child care programs
      http://www.naeyc.org

    YouTube™

    • CCRR Video Series #1: What Is Quality Child Care?
      Uploaded by VolunteerRichmond on Feb 22, 2011
      In the CCRR Video Series, presented in both English and Mandarin, we’ll explore some of the most important topics in child care. Whether you’re a parent just beginning your child care search, or a care provider looking for ways to improve your program, stay tuned – a wealth of valuable information awaits!
      First up, we answer a question on every parent’s mind: What Is Quality Child Care?
      http://youtu.be/Vp8M46xB2wo

    Child Guidance: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. What services do child care resource and referral agencies (CCR & Rs) provide for parents?

    • a. to help maintain a safe and healthy environment for young children being cared
      for outside the home
    • b. to provide information to parents who are looking for any type of child care
    • c. to make regular reports to the child care directors about needed policy changes
    • d. help carry out established policies and support the goals of the program

    2. The major factors parents need to consider when selecting child care are_______________.

    • a. regulations, physical setting, safety, and the program
    • b. teachers and staff, parent involvement, as well as discipline procedures
    • c. health issues, family needs, cost per child and parental expectations
    • d. all of the above

    3. What are some child care options?

    • a. child care in the child’s home or cooperative child care
    • b. child care centers or family day care
    • c. employer-sponsored child care or nanny
    • d. all of the above

    4. An advantage of a national child care center chain is_______________.

    • a. they do not have to be licensed and follow state regulations
    • b. care provided to a large number of children
    • c. the center usually has an educational based curriculum which is appropriate for the age of the child
    • d. b and c

    5. The cost of child care services is _______of a family’s income.

    • a. 15 to 28 percent
    • b. 10 to 25 percent
    • c. 20 to 35 percent
    • d. 28 to 30 percent

  • III. Safety, Nutrition, Health, and Wellness

    TEKS Addressed

    (3) The student analyzes responsibilities that promote health and wellness of children.

    • (A) identify signs of good health and symptoms of illness in children
    • (B) describe child guidance practices that contribute to the health and wellness of children such as requirements for rest, exercise, obesity prevention, public and personal safety and sanitation
    • (C) apply safe procedures in creating environments for children
    • (D) prepare nutritious snacks or meals for children following the food guidelines in promoting children’s health such as portion control, caloric requirements, and nutrient needs
    • (E) determine resources available for managing the health care of children such as children’s insurance, Children’s Health Insurance Program, and county health clinics
    • (F) recognize symptoms of children in family crisis situations
    • (G) discuss society’s role in the protection of children and families

    Module Content

    Safety, Nutrition, Health, and Wellness is the third unit of study in the Child Guidance course. This section contains seven TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Signs of Health and Symptoms of Illness in Children
    • B. Promoting Health and Wellness in Children
    • C. Nutritious Snacks and Meals
    • D. Resources for Managing Health Care of Children
    • E. Creating Safe Environments for Children
    • F. Children and Family Crisis
    • G. Role of Society in Protection of Children and Families

    Signs of Health and Symptoms of Illness in Children

    Health awareness involves recognizing wellness and the symptoms of illness and disability. It involves knowledge of illnesses that are common in group child care settings. In addition to the health of the children, a caregiver’s health is also part of a health awareness program.

    Characteristics of a Healthy Child
    Before caregivers can fully understand and recognize the symptoms of children’s health problems, they need to know how children look and behave when they are in good health. Healthy children are:

    • active, alert, curious, and often noisy
    • have clear skin, bright eyes, shiny hair, straight posture, and strong white teeth that are in good condition
    • their bowel movements are regular and normal
    • they sleep soundly and eat a variety of nutritious foods, without overeating
    • they steadily gain weight and grow taller
    • healthy children enjoy both individual and group activities
    • familiar surroundings and activities make them feel happy, content, and secure
    • they are curious and excited about new experiences
    • healthy children trust others, are basically free from worry, and generally feel good about themselves

    Recognition of Illness
    Sick children usually have shorter attention spans than healthy children, and they have little energy. They are often cranky and irritable and may cry easily. They may get into fights or minor conflicts more often than they do when they are healthy. Many childhood illnesses occur suddenly. Usually the signs and symptoms of those illnesses are easy to recognize. Some of the easily identified symptoms of illness include the following:

    • Convulsions, seizures, or attacks during which a child stiffens and twitches
    • Flushed face and hot, dry skin
    • Hoarse or husky voice
    • Large amounts of sweating unexpectedly
    • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • Pain in ear, head, chest, stomach, abdomen, or joints
    • Raised temperature
    • Rash, bumps, or breaking out of skin
    • Runny nose, sneezes, coughs
    • Sore throat
    • Stiff back or neck
    • Swollen glands
    • Unusual paleness or coldness
    • Watery or glassy appearance of the eyes

    Some illnesses and disabilities develop gradually and their symptoms are difficult to recognize, especially in the early stages. Screening and other health assessment methods are used to help detect serious illnesses and disabilities in the early stages. When an illness can be easily passed from one person to another, the illness is communicable. Contagious diseases are communicable by contact with a diseased person or with an object that a diseased person has used. Infectious diseases can move from one person to another or from one part of the body to another. Even when every precaution is taken in the home and child care center to protect children’s health, illness will occur. Each child care program should have written policies and procedures for handling situations when children become ill. In addition, the policies and procedures should be clear as to the circumstances when a child will not be admitted because of symptoms of illness. These policies and procedures should be clearly communicated by the center director to parents and caregivers and administered fairly.

    Promoting Health and Wellness in Children

    Promoting health and wellness in children is important in helping children protect and improve their health. A child care health education program should begin with training for child care practitioners and should involve the parents as well as the children. Teachers and parents must work together to teach children the basics of good health. Young children are eager to learn. Health habits and attitudes learned early in life are usually long-lasting. The following topics should be addressed when teaching children about good health and wellness:

    • Body awareness
    • Dental hygiene
    • Dressing for the weather
    • Feelings and emotions
    • Good posture
    • Interactions with others
    • Nutrition
    • Personal cleanliness
    • Play and exercise
    • Self-image
    • Sleep and rest

    Planned activities can help children learn the basic rules of good health. For example, reference to brushing teeth, eating good food, and washing hands.
    To help stop the spread of germs, knowing the proper way to cough/sneeze is important:

    • Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze.
    • If you don’t have a tissue, cough or sneeze into your upper sleeve, not your hands.
    • Put your used tissue in the waste basket.
    • Clean your hands after coughing or sneezing. Wash with soap and water or clean with alcohol-based hand cleaner. Refer to http://www.wakemed.org/body.cfm?id=1116 for additional information and the proper way to wash your hands. A poster with instructions on how to wash your hands can be found at: http://teamnutrition.usda.gov/Resources/remember_wash_hands.pdf

    Nutritious Snacks and Meals

    One important responsibility of a child care director is seeing that nutritious meals and snacks are served. Local rules and state licensing standards guide the director in this important task. If a center receives funds from an outside source, the guidelines of the funding agency must also be followed. Food service rules and guidelines are used to protect children and should be strictly followed. Rules and regulations can be viewed at http://www.squaremeals.org/Programs/ChildandAdultCareFoodProgram.aspx

    Below are a variety of resources to assist child care centers and sites with planning healthy snacks and incorporating fruits and vegetables into their menus:

    • Healthy Snacks for Young Children from Team Nutrition Iowa, Iowa Public Television at http://www.iptv.org/rtl/downloads/SlidesFood1.pdf A collection of recipes for healthy snacks for young children. Each card provides a book title appropriate for young children relevant to the specific foods in the recipe. The recipes provide a fruit, vegetable, or bread/grain serving for snacks for 1 to 5 year olds according to the Child and Adult Care Food Program guidelines.
    • Tips for a Safe and Healthy Life. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      http://www.cdc.gov/family/tips

    Resources for Managing Health Care of Children

    Accurate and accessible child care health records and resources are important for the following reasons:

    • To fulfill licensing requirements
    • To protect child care programs and child care employees from liability
    • To provide the best possible health and emergency care for children

    The director of a child care program is responsible for developing and maintaining a health record system. Employees should be informed about how and when to use the system. Permanent health records should be kept on file at the child care center for every child enrolled. For the protection of the center and as a source of information for parents, health records should generally be kept on file for five years following the child’s last attendance at the center. Parts of the active records must be made available for evaluation by licensing inspectors. Child care records should contain the following information:

    • Complete child and family health history
    • Copy of a recent physical examination
    • Dental records
    • Detailed health records regarding handicapped children, children with chronic illness, and children with progressive diseases.
    • Directions for giving medication
    • Emergency information
    • Immunization records
    • Parent’s signed permission form for screening tests given at the center, screening results, and recommendations made to parents as a result of screening tests
    • Parent’s written request for giving medication to a child
    • Records of all accidents and injuries, regardless of their seriousness

    All entries should be accurate, up to date, and dated.

    Creating Safe Environments for Children

    Safety is everyone’s responsibility. All of the adults in a child care center—child care practitioners, teachers, kitchen personnel, van drivers, and volunteers—should be observant and safety conscious. More than anything else, parents expect their children to be safe while in child care. Accidents are the major cause of injury and death among young children. Planning and maintaining safe surroundings is critical. This is accomplished by following safety regulations, continually monitoring environment, and teaching safety information appropriate to their ages. Various groups that influence safety regulations in child care centers include local and state governmental agencies, funding agencies, insurance companies, and the legal profession. Safe indoor and outdoor environments for young children require careful planning and constant checking. Hazards should be eliminated, such as those that could cause burns, electrical shock or fire, suffocation, drowning, poisoning, cuts, and falls. Transportation safety is an important concern for child caregivers. Each center should make and follow a plan for the safe arrival and departure of children. In order to plan and maintain a safe environment, caregivers need to know which activities are typical of children at different ages. This information is also needed in teaching children safety practices.

    Children and Family Crisis

    Special problems such as divorce, family violence, or illness or death in the family can strongly impact children. During very difficult family changes, children may have developmental regressions. Such behavior is not a selfish way to get attention. It may be a sign that the child is under great stress and needs helps from caregivers in order to cope with the stress. Understanding how various factors may influence children helps the caregiver know how best to relate to them. In a divorce, be aware of the legal terms of the divorce that impact child custody. Find out who is to pick a child up from the child care center. Do not hand children over to a person not authorized to take them.

    Role of Society in Protection of Children and Families

    Society has a responsibility in protecting children and families against abuse and violence. According to a publication by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the educator has a vital role in identifying, reporting, and preventing child abuse and neglect. Over the last few decades, various organizations have developed programs directed at informing educators that they are a valuable resource. Child care providers and educators must become involved in preventing and responding to child abuse and neglect. These reasons are related to:

    • Community efforts
    • Educational opportunities
    • Legal concerns
    • Professional responsibilities
    • Personal commitments

    Additional information on this publication can be found at: http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/educator/educator.pdf

    Child Protective Services Division of Texas is another organization available to assist families in crisis. The Child Protective Services Division investigates reports of abuse and neglect of children. It also:

    • Places children in adoptive homes
    • Places children in foster care
    • Provides services to children and families in their own homes
    • Provides services to help youth in foster care make the transition to adulthood

    For additional information and legal defintions of abuse and neglect, visit:
    http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Protection/About_Child_Protective_Services/

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module 3 handouts

    • Break the Abuse Cycle
    • KWL Chart-Child Abuse
    • Myths and Facts About Child Abuse and Neglect
    • Rubric for Projects— Responsibilities that Promote Health and Wellness of Children

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Child Guidance lesson: Eat Right, Exercise and Stay Healthy!
      Child Guidance covers an array of topics from developing healthy eating habits and knowing how much sleep children need to how and what to teach children about safety and sanitation. This lesson will provide you with opportunities to explore these and other Child Guidance topics.
      http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/eat-right-exercise-stay-healthy/
    • Locate and print pictures of children sleeping, exercising, eating, washing their hands, etc. Also print pictures of MyPlate. Tape all pictures on the wall or create a looping slide presentation with these pictures. As class begins have students brainstorm the connections between the pictures and Child Guidance.
    • Focus on differentiating between signs of good health and symptoms of illness. This may be done in the form of a T chart on notebook paper.
    • Allow students to analyze how exercise and eating promote good health and help reduce illness in children.
    • As a class, allow students to brainstorm, list, and possibly demonstrate several types of exercises appropriate for children of different ages, e.g., jumping jacks and stretches.
    • Have students navigate to http://www.fruitsandveggiesmatter.gov and click on Analyze MyPlate. This is an interactive exercise. Instruct students to create a healthy breakfast, lunch or dinner for a child of a specific age. The program will allow them to drag food items on to plate. Students will receive a nutritional analysis of their selections.
    • Relate to Child Guidance and the prevention of illness. Focus on how to teach children to wash hands properly, such as singing the Happy Birthday song twice.
    • Demonstrate how to make a healthy snack, such as a yogurt parfait, that would be appropriate as an after school snack for school-age children. Discuss age appropriate snacks and habits that could help prevent obesity in children.
    • Have students each make a healthy snack. As students make snacks, have them determine which food groups have been included. Refer back to MyPlate references, and discuss why this would be important information to teach a child.
    • Create this scenario: Students are child care experts and have been charged with the task of individually creating a 12-month calendar entitled Responsibilities That Promote Health and Wellness of Children. Each month is to represent a Child Guidance topic or technique. Review the components of the rubric Rubric for Projects— Responsibilities that Promote Health and Wellness of Children that will be used to assess this project. Student-made calendars can include pictures from magazines, original sketches, or electronic means, with appropriate captions related to project objectives.
    • Print copies of 10 Tips for Creating a Healthy Meal. Have students practice a prereading prediction strategy and try to determine the 10 tips prior to reading the article. Students can then quickly skim the article and determine if they are on the right track before thoroughly reading the article.
      http://www.choosemyplate.gov/healthy-eating-tips/ten-tips.html
    • Print a copy of MyPlate and distribute to students to read.
      http://www.choosemyplate.gov/food-groups/
    • Use Wii to dance/exercise. Allow students to take turns playing games on Wii that include exercise. Students that aren’t exercising on the Wii can partner with a buddy and exercise together. For example, they may do jumping jacks, lunges or squats.
    • Incorporate the “YMCA” dance into a lesson. Have students create an activity for local elementary school children as a way to promote exercising. Conclude the lesson by having the children dance to the “YMCA” song, available on YouTube™, for exercise.
    • Invite the school nurse, counselor, or social worker as a guest speaker to discuss ways to promote health and wellness of children.
    • Have students discuss the rise in childhood obesity and associated health problems, and then create a poster or brochure to use during Health Awareness Week.
      • Themes:
        • Follow MyPlate for Healthy Eating and Living
        • Wise Food Choices + Exercise = Healthy Children
        • Sample Menus
    • Healthy Foods for School Aged Children
      Have students organize a school-wide food drive for healthy, non-perishable foods appropriate for children (determine age group). Donate collected items to a food bank.
    • Child Development Lesson: The Hidden Epidemic
      Have you ever known someone that has been a victim of child abuse and neglect? Child abuse and neglect are serious problems in our country. There are presently no signs of the problem getting any better. Over 3 million reports of child abuse are made every year in the United States, involving an estimated 6 million children.
      http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-hidden-epidemic/
    • Before reading a child abuse story, have students fill in the blanks in the KWL Chart on Child Abuse (see Graphic Organizers/Handouts section below). Students will briefly list the facts they already know about the topic and write them down in short phrases. After reading the story, have them complete the second column with the new facts they learned from their reading.
      1. Provide each student with a copy of Myths and Facts about Child Abuse and Neglect. This activity can be done individually or with a partner.
      2. Allow students to brainstorm and determine 10 alternatives to lashing out at a child. Develop a list and post in classroom.
      3. Have students develop an informational child abuse and neglect awareness flyer or tri-fold brochure. The flyers/brochures will be placed in the counselors’ offices and distributed to all faculty, staff, and students.
      4. FCCLA members may visit local elementary schools and use the handouts provided on the website to encourage discussion of the topic, “If parents nurture, kids blossom.” Members may also provide small potted plants for each elementary student and give each student a preprinted sticker.
      5. Classroom projects can be expanded to create community awareness of child abuse and neglect. Create teams and assign duties to complete the selected project. Example: Students develop, print and distribute flyers to local child daycare centers to raise child abuse awareness. Steps may include researching day cares in the area, contacting managers/owners of the facilities, and making arrangements to distribute the flyers. Students will reflect on how the experience, knowledge, and skills they acquired related to their project, their own lives and their community.

    Resources and References

    Textbooks

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child Development Early Stages Through Age 12. (7th ed., pp. 490-501). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Decker, C. (2004). Children: The Early Years. (5th ed., pp. 533-572). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Johnson, L. (2004). Strengthening Family & Self. (3rd ed., pp. 635-659). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Ryder, V., & Decker, C. (2010). Parents and Their Children. (7th ed., pp. 541-547). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Sasse, C. (2004). Families Today. (4th ed., pp. 667-668). Peoria: McGraw Hill.

    Websites

    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      U.S. Department of Health and Human Services – Tips for a Safe and Healthy Life
      http://www.cdc.gov/family/tips
    • Child Abuse Awareness
      Founded in 1959 by Sara O’Meara and Yvonne Fedderson, Childhelp® is a leading national non-profit organization dedicated to helping victims of child abuse and neglect. Childhelp’s approach focuses on prevention, intervention, and treatment.
      http://www.childhelp.org
    • Child Abuse: Emotional, Sexual, Physical
      There are several types of child abuse, but the core element that ties them together is the emotional effect on the child. Children need predictability, structure, clear boundaries, and the knowledge that their parents are looking out for their safety.
      http://helpguide.org/mental/child_abuse_physical_emotional_sexual_neglect.htm#types
    • Choose MyPlate
      USDA website information, interactive videos, food groups, and tips for the day.
      http://www.choosemyplate.gov and 10 Tips Nutrition Education Series. The Ten Tips Nutrition Education Series provides consumers and professionals with high quality, easy-to-follow tips in a convenient, printable format. These are perfect for posting on a refrigerator.
      http://www.choosemyplate.gov/healthy-eating-tips/ten-tips.html
      • Choose MyPlate
      • Add More Vegetables to Your Day
      • Focus on Fruits
      • Make Half Your Grains Whole
      • Got Your Dairy Today?
      • With Protein Foods, Variety is Key
      • Build a Healthy Meal
      • Healthy Eating for Vegetarians
      • Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits
      • Liven Up Your Meals With Vegetables and Fruits
      • Kid-Friendly Veggies and Fruits
      • Be a Healthy Role Model for Children
      • Cut Back on Your Kid’s Sweet Treats
      • Salt and Sodium
      • Eat Seafood Twice a Week NEW
      • Eating Better on a Budget NEW
      • Use SuperTracker Your Way NEW
      • Enjoy Your Food, But Eat Less NEW
      • Make Better Beverage Choices NEW
    • Fruits and Veggies Matter
      Interactive website includes tools to examine what you eat. This site is used in the summative part of the lesson.
      http://www.fruitsandveggiesmatter.gov/activities/analyze_my_plate.html
    • Healthy Children
      This site can be used to research Child Guidance topics and includes a symptom checker and various safety checklists.
      http://www.healthychildren.org/English/Pages/default.aspx
    • Nutrition and Well-Being A to Z
      Frequently asked questions on nutrition A to Z
      http://www.faqs.org/nutrition/Met-Obe/Nutrients.html
    • Prevent Child Abuse America
      Since 1972, Prevent Child Abuse America (PCA America) has led the way in building awareness, providing education and inspiring hope to everyone involved in the effort to prevent the abuse and neglect of our nation’s children
      http://www.preventchildabuse.org/index.shtml
    • Prevent Child Abuse America
      What You Can Do: Report Suspected Abuse or Neglect
      http://www.preventchildabuse.org/public-policy/read-our-position-statements
    • Printable Calendars
      Free printable calendar templates for use with Microsoft Word.
      http://www.printablecalendar.ca
    • Safekids.org
      Child Safety Fact Sheets which may be used when addressing Child Guidance TEKS.
      http://www.safekids.org
    • Sleep for Kids
      This site contains information on the importance and amount of sleep needed by children of different ages.
      http://www.sleepforkids.org
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
      2012 Resource Guide—Preventing Child Maltreatment and Promoting Well Being: A Network for Action.
      Resource Guide includes tip sheets for parents and caregivers, ways to get involved, and six protective factors.
      https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubpdfs/2012guide.pdf
    • U.S. department of Health and Human Services resources
      National Child Abuse Prevention Month (April) information.
      Child Welfare Information Gateway connects child welfare and related professionals to comprehensive information and resources to help protect children and strengthen families.
      http://www.childwelfare.gov/

    YouTube™

    • “Dear Mr. Jesus”
      Uploaded by Louisiana Leroux on Jul 23, 2009
      The song “Dear Mr. Jesus” was recorded in September 1985 by Sharon Batts. At the age of nine, the third grader’s tiny voice touched our hearts as she sang to Jesus about the beating of another girl, how it scared her, and her request to him: “Please don’t let them hurt your children.”
      http://youtu.be/Tsax8Yw0x5c
    • “Alyssa Lies”
      Uploaded by i40films on Jan 19, 2010
      Jason Michael Carroll’s “Alyssa Lies” video has become an internet sensation. It has become an excellent communication tool for abused children to share who they can get help from their unfair situations.
      http://youtu.be/nLh5vbBLpxI
    • YMCA” song
      Incorporate the “YMCA” dance into a lesson. Have students create an activity for local elementary school children as a way to promote exercising. Conclude the lesson by having the children dance to the “YMCA” song, available on YouTube™, for exercise.

    Child Guidance: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. What does health awareness involve?

    • a. the way a child grows, learns and behaves
    • b. recognizing wellness and the symptoms of illness and disability
    • c. arranging the child care environment so that children remain interactive
    • d. families being involved in the physical, social, emotional, and cognitive development of children

    2. What are three reasons to keep accurate child care health records?

    • a. to provide the best health and emergency care for children
    • b. to fulfill licensing requirements
    • c. to protect child care programs and child care employees from liability
    • d. all of the above

    3. Why should safety be such an important issue in quality child care?

    • a. the information is needed for teaching children safety practices
    • b. the safety practices that young children learn and use at an early age will often be the ones they will follow as adults
    • c. more than anything else, parents expect their children to be safe while in
      child care
    • d. caregivers should realize that children forget easily and may need to be reminded about safety

    4. How might family changes and problems affect children?

    • a. they will develop a trust between caregiver and other children
    • b. they will feel negative and threatened by caregiver
    • c. they may start to experience separation anxiety or stranger anxiety
    • d. they may have developmental regressions

    5. The following are the reasons related to why child care providers and educators must become involved in preventing and responding to child abuse and neglect

    • a. community efforts and educational opportunities
    • b. legal concerns and professional responsibilities
    • c. personal commitments
    • d. all of the above

  • IV. Child Growth and Development

    TEKS Addressed

    (4) The student analyzes the effect of play in the development of children.

    • (A) create examples of play that promote the physical, intellectual, emotional and social development of children
    • (B) describe characteristics and safety features of developmentally appropriate play activities, toys and equipment for children
    • (C) describe strategies caregivers may use to encourage constructive and creative play
    • (D) determine potential uses and management of technology, media and resources to foster healthy child development
    • (E) determine safeguards to prevent misuse and abuse of technology and media with children
  • Module Content

    Child Growth and Development is the fourth unit of study in the Child Guidance course. This section contains two TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Promoting Child Development Through Play
    • B. Technology, Media, and Resources

    Promoting Child Development Through Play

    • 1. Creating effective examples of play that promotes development
    • 2. Developmentally appropriate and safe activities, toys, and equipment
    • 3. Caregiver strategies for constructive and creative play

    Caregivers should plan teaching strategies which offer a variety of different learning activities set up to achieve specific goals and objectives in the physical, emotional, social and intellectual development of children. The process children use in playing and discovering in learning centers is more important than the end product. Indoor learning centers might include activity areas for art, blocks, computer, science, dramatic play, language arts, manipulative play, math, music and quiet time. Indoor learning center activities offer an opportunity for children to develop some of the following skills: eye-hand coordination, motor skills, creativity, sensory abilities, language and number skills, task completion, communication and the enjoyment of singing, listening, and moving to music. Outdoor learning centers might include wheel toys, sand and water, climbing, swinging, and quiet time, which offer opportunities for the development of fine and gross motor skills, social skills, creative expression, a sense of accomplishment and sensory experiences.

    Technology, Media, and Resources

    • 1. Uses and management
    • 2. Safeguards

    According to the Fred Rogers Center study “Technology in the Lives of Teachers and Classrooms: Survey of Classroom Teachers and Family Child Care Providers,” most teachers and providers have access to and are comfortable using technology with the children in their settings. Additionally, regardless of child care or classroom setting, children have access to and frequently use many forms of digital technology. Typically, they report using the Internet for work-related business or to find activities to use with their children. Half of the respondents report that they frequently use the Internet to find information to help a child. Nearly half of all teachers and providers report frequently using the Internet to stay in touch with parents or a team member. Importantly, when asked about their comfort with searching online, nearly all of the classroom teachers (92%) and family child care providers (94%) report being either successful or very successful in their ability to use the Internet.

    Technology used such as:

    • Audiocassettes
    • CD players
    • Computer
    • DVD players
    • Electronic games and books
    • Email to keep in contact with the child’s parents
    • Facebook or MySpace
    • Flikr
    • IPads
    • Internet
    • Lap tops
    • Play educational video games
    • Record player
    • Smartboard
    • Smartphones
    • TV
    • Twitter
    • YouTube™

    Child care centers can install software that restricts access to online content. One possible measure against children misuse of Internet is to install softwares that prevent your computer from accessing websites with certain words specified in the software’s setting section. Internet and children is a critical issue that every child care provider should always take serious.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module 4 handouts

    • Projects Rubric
    • KWL Chart Play With Me

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Child Guidance lesson: Play With Me! In this lesson, students will learn the importance of play in young children and how it encourages them to think creatively. The activities in this lesson will provide a knowledge base for working with children.
      http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/play-with-me/
      • Lead discussion, and include questions such as:
        • What was your favorite toy as a child and why?
        • What was your favorite center to play in when you were in elementary school?
        • Do you have to spend a lot of money on a toy for it to promote creative or constructive play? Ask for examples.
    • Before starting the lesson, have students fill in the blanks in the KWL Chart Play With Me (see Graphic Organizers/Handouts section below). Students will briefly list the facts they already know about the topic and write them down in short phrases. After reading the lesson, have them complete the last column with the new facts they learned about the topic.
    • Tell a story from your childhood and relate it to how it encouraged you to be creative and promote development.
    • Have students describe strategies parents and caregivers can use to encourage constructive play and creative play.
    • Give students the option of creating a play center or a toy for a child ages 3 to 5.
      • If students select to create a center, they may use computer animation software or create a three dimensional diorama. Students must research types of centers and include a written report on the type of center they created and how it will promote the physical, intellectual, emotional and/or social development of children.
      • If students choose to create a toy, they must research the process of developing a toy and create a prototype. Their final project will include a written report explaining the steps in developing the toy and how it will encourage constructive and/or creative play. Review the components of the rubric Projects Rubric that will be used to assess this project.
    • Have students give examples of how play affects physical, intellectual, and social-emotional development.
    • Have student observe pre-school children during playtime and record how the playtime affected the children’s physical, intellectual, and social-emotional development.
    • Have students develop a “Parent’s Checklist when Shopping for Children’s Toys”.
    • Team with an elementary class or a local day care and have students observe and play with younger children for a class period. Document findings.
    • Have students organize a toy drive and donate the proceeds to a local charity for underprivileged children.

    Resources and References

    Textbooks

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child Development Early Stages Through Age 12. (7th ed., pp. 27-45). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Decker, C. (2004). Children: The Early Years. (5th ed., pp. 27-42). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Johnson, L. (2004). Strengthening Family & Self. (3rd ed., pp. 290-301). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Ryder, V., & Decker, C. (2010). Parents and Their Children. (7th ed., pp. 81-88, 181-185). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Sasse, C. (2004). Families Today. (4th ed., pp. 421-436). Peoria: McGraw Hill.

    Websites

    • National Association for the Education of Young Children
      Articles and information on children
      http://www.naeyc.org

    Child Guidance: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. What should be the relationship of learning centers to the goals and objectives of the child care program?

    • a. caregivers should group the children according to their developmental stages
    • b. caregivers should plan teaching strategies which offer a variety of different learning activities set up to achieve specific goals and objectives in the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of children
    • c. the environment supports children’s needs and promotes their interest in
      learning
    • d. b and c

    2. Indoor learning centers might include activity areas such as_________

    • a. swings, obstacle course and sandbox
    • b. science, dramatic play, and language arts
    • c. manipulative play, math, music, and quiet time
    • d. band c

    3. Why should outdoor learning activities be planned?

    • a. they teach children about their surroundings and help them develop concepts
    • b. they offer opportunities for the development of motor skills, social skills, creative expression, a sense of accomplishment, and sensory experiences
    • c. quiet spaces outside provide children an area to play along quietly.
    • d. all of the above

    4. According to Fred Rogers Center, nearly all of the classroom teachers (92%) and family child care providers_________ report being either successful or very successful in their ability to use the Internet.

    • a. 90%
    • b. 84%
    • c. 88%
    • d. 94%

    5. Child care centers can take precautions for safeguards to prevent misuse and abuse of technology and media with children by_______________.

    • a. monitoring the sites they visit each day
    • b. regulating their use of the Internet
    • c. buying children educative programs that will bring out the negative effects of misuse of the internet by children
    • d. all of the above

  • V. Guidance

    TEKS Addressed

    (5) The student summarizes appropriate guidance techniques for children of various ages and developmental levels.

    • (A) identify the various types of guidance and the effects on children
    • (B) determine appropriate guidance techniques
    • (C) explain behaviors that may lead to child abuse
    • (D) identify strategies that deter abusive behavior
  • Module Content

    Guidance is the fifth unit of study in the Child Guidance course. This section contains three TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Types of Guidance
    • B. Appropriate Guidance Techniques
    • C. Child Abuse

    Types of Guidance

    The term guidance means different things to different people. To some it means telling children what to do. To others it means punishment for inappropriate behavior. Guidance really involves ways of helping children learn to behave appropriately. Through guidance, children are taught to control their actions and to make decisions. Guidance combines support, encouragement, and setting limits. Guidance encourages appropriate behavior and helps stop problem behavior. Over a longer time period, it promotes the development of self-confidence and self-control. Guidance is needed to keep children safe and healthy. It also helps children to like themselves and to get along well with others. In deciding how to guide children, one must know how different developmental levels affect behavior. A caregiver should be able to analyze positive and problem behavior in children in order to identify guidance techniques which promote positive behavior.

    Understanding child development helps a caregiver guide behavior. Physical, emotional, social, and cognitive development influence guidance techniques that a caregiver can use. Knowing the sequence of physical development helps caregivers know which behaviors to expect at different stages. Child guidance is greatly affected by four types of social development:

    • Egocentrism- Children tend to see the world from their own viewpoint. Young children slowly learn to change their points of view.
    • Moral development- The process of learning “right” and “wrong” is called moral development. It is wise to teach young children the possible results of their behaviors.
    • Prosocial behaviors- Cooperating, helping, respecting, comforting, and sharing are all prosocial behaviors.
    • Self-concept- A child’s self-concept begins to develop in infancy. Developing a healthy self-concept is greatly influenced by how a person responds to a child.

    Appropriate Guidance Techniques

    Promoting Positive Behavior

    Caregivers should actively promote positive behaviors, which improve the atmosphere and help prevent problems. Positive behaviors include prosocial skills, self-control, and getting along with others. Many direct guidance strategies used by caregivers help to promote positive behavior in children. Direct guidance is used when a caregiver works directly with a child. To promote positive behavior, a few general guidelines should be followed, which include observing children at all times, being consistent, modeling positive behavior, communicating at the child’s level, setting appropriate limits, and encouraging initiative, independence, and responsibility.

    These are three different types of guidance techniques:

    • Redirecting- With redirection, children are led in a new activity related to their play at the time.
    • Encouraging use of words- Help children use words to share their wishes. For example, when Suzy reaches for a car that Joshua is using, the caregiver might say, “Suzy, ask Joshua, ‘May I play with the yellow car?’ “ If Joshua says, “No,” the caregiver can help Suzy choose another toy from the shelf.
    • Giving the child a choice- The caregiver can also distract a child from a conflict or from negative behavior by giving choices. Giving him or her two choices at a time makes the decision easier on the child and caregiver.
      Using any one of these positive guidance techniques can help deter abusive behavior by reducing the frustration.

    Child Abuse

    • 1. Behaviors that may lead to child abuse
    • 2. Strategies that deter abusive behavior

    Child abuse and neglect are serious problems in our country, and there are presently no signs of the problem getting any better. Over 3 million reports of child abuse are made every year in the United States, involving an estimated 6 million children. While physical injuries may or may not be immediately visible, abuse and neglect can have consequences for children, families, and society that last lifetimes, if not generations.

    Not all abused and neglected children will experience long-term consequences. The outcomes of individual cases vary widely and are affected by a combination of factors, including the following:

    • The child’s age and developmental status when the abuse or neglect occurred
    • The type of abuse (neglect, physical, sexual)
    • The frequency, duration and severity of abuse
    • The relationship between the victim and his or her abuser (English et al., 2005; Chalk, Gibbons, & Scarupa, 2002)

    What are the behaviors that may lead to child abuse?
    Neglect may occur when parents cannot meet their child’s needs. This may be the result of unemployment, family illness, misappropriation of family funds, or lack of intelligence and education on how to properly care for children. According to Decker (2004), drug and alcohol abuse is present in 40 percent of reported neglect and abuse cases. Poverty and financial stress can also lead to child abuse. A parent that does not have coping skills or parenting skills can create parental stress that leads to child abuse. Other behaviors that may lead to child abuse are unwanted pregnancy, single- or teen-parenting, the parent having been abused as a child, lack of self-esteem, marriage problems, illness or a recent stressful event (death in the family, separation or divorce).

    Strategies to Deter Abusive Behavior
    According to Prevent Child Abuse America, there are strategies families can use to deter abusive behavior. Refer to http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childmaltreatment/prevention.html for additional information. The prevention program includes:

    • Child care opportunities
    • Early and regular child and family screening and treatment
    • Education for parents
    • Family support services
    • Life skills training for children and young adults
    • Programs for abused children
    • Public information education
    • Support programs for new parents

    Researchers have begun to explore why, given similar conditions, some children experience long-term consequences of abuse and neglect while others emerge relatively unscathed. The ability to cope, and even thrive, following a negative experience is sometimes referred to as “resilience.” A number of protective and pro-motive factors may contribute to an abused or neglected child’s resilience. These include individual characteristics, such as optimism, self-esteem, intelligence, creativity, humor, and independence, as well as the acceptance from peers and positive individual influences such as teachers, mentors, and role models. Other factors can include the child’s social environment and the family’s access to social supports. Community well-being, including neighborhood stability and access to safe schools and adequate health care, are other protective and pro-motive factors (Fraser & Terzian, 2005).

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module 5 handouts

    • Break the Abuse Cycle
    • Handout – Positive Language
    • KWL Chart Child Guidance
    • Myths and Facts About Child Abuse and Neglect
    • Poem Children Learn What They Live
    • Rubric for Child Guidance Booklet

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Child Guidance lesson: Positive Guidance = Positive Children. Positive guidance is necessary for the development of young children. Understanding the differences among guidance techniques will help you understand how to more effectively work with children as a future child guidance professional, future parent, or child care provider.
      http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/positive-guidance-positive-children
    • Hand each student a marker and have him or her write one example of positive guidance for children on one piece of construction paper. Discuss student responses. Identify various types of guidance and their effects on children.
    • Complete the first two sections of handout KWL Chart Child Guidance.
    • Introduce YouTube™ video, Behavior Management – Positive Guidance Techniques
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mQOpSqMwJNU
      Discuss. Have students write a one-sentence summary.
    • Discuss the importance of using positive language versus negative language when talking with children. Allow for discussion and questions.
    • Divide the class into groups. Each group will create a list of five negative statements that are often used to correct children’s behavior. Have students practice rewording the negative statements into positive statements. Example: “Don’t leave your toys on the floor” can be converted to “Put your toys back in the toy box.” “Don’t hit the cat!” converts to “This is how you pet the cat.” (model behavior). Complete
    • Handout Positive Language. Allow students to share their statements.
    • Have students develop a booklet for parents on specific ways to discipline children based on age.
    • Use a video camera to video tape students role-playing guidance scenarios.
      Have students create a “movie“’ relating to positive guidance techniques. Students can create skits depicting examples of ways child care providers can use redirection, consistency, and time out.
    • Child Development lesson: The Hidden Epidemic Have you ever known someone that has been a victim of child abuse and neglect? Child abuse and neglect are serious problems in our country. There are presently no signs of the problem getting any better. Over 3 million reports of child abuse are made every year in the United States, involving an estimated 6 million children.
      http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-hidden-epidemic/
    • Locate and set up the music video “Concrete Angel” by Martina McBride.
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KtNYA4pAGjI have video playing as students enter the classroom.
    • Read Poem Children Learn What They Live. Discuss the poem and have students write a one sentence summary about what the poem meant to them.
    • Child abuse information can be found at http://www.childhelp.org/pages/statistics
    • Develop a video educating others on the types and warning signs of abuse. Include positive ways to break the cycle of abuse. Students will complete handout Break the Abuse Cycle.
    • During National Child Abuse Prevention month, students can provide a child abuse awareness presentation at the monthly PTSA meeting.
    • Invite guest speakers, who may include a child daycare owner to speak on guidelines for reporting abuse, a local family or school counselor to speak about abuse and counseling services available for abuse victims, and/or local law enforcement officer to speak about abuse from a law enforcement perspective.
    • Provide each student with a copy of Myths and Facts about Child Abuse and Neglect. This activity can be done individually or with a partner.
    • Allow students to brainstorm and determine ten alternatives to lashing out at a child. Develop a list and post it in the classroom.
    • Have students develop an informational child abuse and neglect awareness flyer or tri-fold brochure to be placed in the counselor’s offices and distributed to all faculty, staff and students. Allow the students time to complete the handout. Discuss answers as a class.
    • Expand the classroom project to create community awareness of child abuse and neglect. Create teams and assign duties to complete the selected project. Example: Students develop, print, and distribute booklets to local child daycare centers to raise child abuse awareness. Steps may include researching day cares in the area, contacting managers/owners of the facilities, and making arrangements to distribute the booklets. Students will be assessed with Rubric for Child Guidance Booklet.

    Resources and References

    Textbooks

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child Development Early Stages Through Age 12. (7th ed., p. 64). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Decker, C. (2004). Children: The Early Years. (5th ed., p. 68). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Johnson, L. (2004). Strengthening Family & Self. (3rd ed., pp.317-343 ). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Ryder, V., & Decker, C. (2010). Parents and Their Children. (7th ed., pp. 88-102). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Sasse, C. (2004). Families Today. (4th ed., p. 678). Peoria: McGraw Hill.

    Websites

    • Child Abuse Awareness
      Founded in 1959 by Sara O’Meara and Yvonne Fedderson, Childhelp® is a leading national non-profit organization dedicated to helping victims of child abuse and neglect. Childhelp’s approach focuses on prevention, intervention and treatment.
      http://www.childhelp.org
    • Child Abuse: Emotional, Sexual, Physical
      There are several types of child abuse, but the core element that ties them together is the emotional effect on the child. Children need predictability, structure, clear boundaries, and the knowledge that their parents are looking out for their safety.
      http://helpguide.org/mental/child_abuse_physical_emotional_sexual_neglect.htm#types
    • Child Development Institute
      Useful information on positive parenting guidance.
      http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/parenting/
    • Childhelp.org
      Child Abuse in America. Children are suffering from a hidden epidemic of child abuse and neglect. Every year 3.3 million reports of child abuse are made in the United States involving 6 million children; that’s because reports can include multiple children. The United States has the worst record in the industrialized nations – losing five children every day due to abuse-related deaths.
      http://www.childhelp.org/pages/statistics
    • Prevent Child Abuse America
      Since 1972, Prevent Child Abuse America (PCA America) has led the way in building awareness, providing education, and inspiring hope to everyone involved in the effort to prevent the abuse and neglect of our nation’s children.
      http://www.preventchildabuse.org/index.shtml
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      What You Can Do: Report Suspected Abuse or Neglect
      http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childmaltreatment/prevention.html
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Resources
      Child Welfare Information Gateway connects child welfare and related professionals to comprehensive information and resources to help protect children and strengthen families.
      http://www.childwelfare.gov/

    YouTube™

    • Behavior Management – Positive Guidance Techniques
      This was a video made for my technology class. It details positive guidance techniques when managing children’s behavior. I acknowledge that the situation in this video is staged and children may not be this open to receiving counsel or to solving the problem. However, the principles outlined can help assist when attempting positive guidance with children at any time.
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mQOpSqMwJNU
    • Concrete Angel” by Martina McBride
      Music video by Martina McBride performing Concrete Angel.
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KtNYA4pAGjI

    Child Guidance: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. How can understanding the sequence of physical development help a caregiver know what behaviors to expect in children?

    • a. it helps caregivers determine how to control the children’s thoughts and actions
    • b. it helps caregivers reinforce the rules of the center
    • c. it helps caregivers analyze the child’s problem behaviors
    • d. it helps caregivers know which behaviors to expect at different stages

    2. What are three ways that child caregivers can influence and promote positive behavior?

    • a. identify the problem, consider solutions, and evaluate the situation
    • b. redirection, use encouraging words, and give the children choices
    • c. provide toys, games and computer software to correct problem behavior
    • d. watch children closely, use time out extensively and make fun of the children

    3. What is direct guidance?

    • a. direct guidance is used when a child works directly with another child
    • b. a caregiver consistently giving choices to the child
    • c. is used when a caregiver is working directly with a child
    • d. a caregiver correcting the child’s problems with a time-out

    4. According to Prevent Child Abuse America, why is early and regular child and family screening and treatment important?

    • a. to report child abuse incidents to local or state departments of human services
    • b. to detect problems children may be having, including neglect and abuse, and to ensure these children receive the necessary health, mental health, and others services which protect them from becoming abusive parents
    • c. to expand the parents social contacts and improve their self-esteem
    • d. to prevent the child from being mislabeled and prevent long-term negative consequences

    5. What is resilience?

    • a. learning more about healthy relationships, communication, and stress
    • b. the ability to cope, and even thrive, following a negative experience
    • c. concentration on cognitive and developmental skills of young children
    • d. acceptance of educational, supportive and therapeutic services for parents

  • VI. Careers and Success at Work

    TEKS Addressed

    (6) The student makes informed career decisions that reflect personal, family, and career goals.

    • (A) analyze the impact of career decisions on care giving
    • (B) propose short-term and long-term career goals
    • (C) assess personal interests, aptitudes, and abilities needed in the child-care profession
    • (D) exhibit employability skills such as communication, problem solving, leadership, teamwork, ethics, and technical skills
    • (E) demonstrate effective verbal, nonverbal, written, and electronic communication skills
    • (F) demonstrate skills and characteristics of leaders and effective team members
    • (G) evaluate employment and entrepreneurial opportunities and educational requirements for early childhood development and services
  • Module Content

    Careers and Success at Work is the sixth unit of study in the Child Guidance course. This section contains five TEA units of study that include:

    • A. Impact of Career Decisions on Caregiving
    • B. Short-term and Long-term Career Goals
    • C. Personal Career Assessment
    • D. Employability Skills
    • E. Careers in Early Childhood Development and Services

    Impact of Career Decisions on Caregiving

    The term caregiver refers to a person (secondary caregiver) who has the job of caring for children in the child care setting. A caregiver may also be called an early childhood or child care practitioner. Caregivers may be directors, teachers, associate teachers, or teacher assistants, and have a nurturing, caring role. The need for high-quality, affordable early care and education has increased due to the growing number of working mothers, dual-career families, and single-parent families. Most often, parents are the primary caregivers for their children. The child care profession provides secondary or substitute care. The profession is also known as early childhood education and care, which emphasizes the inclusion of education services in the care of children. The demand for child care services and caregivers is increasing. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment of childcare workers is expected to grow by 20 percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations. Growth is expected due to increases in the number of children who require childcare and continued demand for preschool programs.

    Short-term and Long-term Career Goals

    Short- and long-term career goals should align with opportunities based on interests and work values. Goal setting is necessary because it allows you to plan for your short-term future as well as your long-term future. When making career choices in the area of Child Guidance, you need to be a good manager of time, resources and goal setting. Match characteristics of the current or most recent occupation with similar occupations, and find specific information such as the fastest growing jobs, levels of education and training requirements, and average salaries. For a self-assessment, skills transferability, work exploration, career clusters and occupational information, refer to http://www.texascaresonline.com/wowmenu.asp

    Personal Career Assessment

    Students can visit several sites such as Texas Workforce Commission for a personal career assessment. Refer to https://www.texasworkprep.com/jhg.htm This will help the students assess their interests and personalities. Certification is available upon completion.

    Students can take an O*Net Work Importance Locator or Interest Profiler self-assessment test at: http://www.texascaresonline.com/wowmenu.asp

    Employability Skills

    • 1. Effective communication skills
    • 2. Effective team members
    • 3. Ethics
    • 4. Leadership
    • 5. Problem solving
    • 6. Technical skills

    • Effective communication skills are important because childcare workers must be able to talk with parents and colleagues about the progress of the children in their care. They need both good writing and speaking skills to provide this information effectively.
    • Effective team members have people skills. Childcare workers need to work well with people to develop good relationships with parents, children, and colleagues. Physical stamina. Working with children can be physically taxing, so childcare workers should have a lot of energy.
    • Ethics should address professional responsibilities in four areas: children, families, colleagues, and community and society.
    • Leadership includes having instructional skills. Childcare workers need to be able to explain things in terms young children can understand.
    • Problem-solving skills include patience. Working with children can be frustrating, so childcare workers need to be able to respond to overwhelming and difficult situations calmly.
    • Technical skills are important. According to the Fred Rogers Center study “Technology in the Lives of Teachers and Classrooms: Survey of Classroom Teachers and Family Child Care Providers,” most teachers and providers have access to and are comfortable using technology with the children in their settings.

    Careers in Early Childhood Development and Services

    • 1. Employment and entrepreneurial opportunities
    • 2. Educational requirements

    According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment of childcare workers is expected to grow by 20 percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations. Parents will continue to need assistance during working hours to care for their children. Because the number of children requiring childcare is expected to grow, demand for childcare workers is expected to grow as well.

    In the past decade, early childhood education has become widely recognized as important for children’s development. Childcare workers often work alongside preschool teachers as assistants. This continued focus on the importance of early childhood education, in addition to increases in the number of children in this age group, will spur demand for preschool programs and thus for childcare workers. Workers with formal education should have the best job prospects. However, even those without formal education who are interested in the occupation should have little trouble finding employment due to the need to replace workers who leave the occupation.

    • Childcare workers must meet education and training requirements, which vary with state regulations. Some states require these workers to have a high school diploma, but many states do not have any education requirements.
    • Employers often prefer to hire workers with at least a high school diploma and, in some cases, some postsecondary education in early childhood education.
    • Beginning in 2013, workers in Head Start programs must at least be enrolled in a program in which they will earn an associate’s degree in early childhood education or a child development credential.
    • Many states require providers to complete some training before beginning work. Often, these requirements can be satisfied by having some college credits or by earning a degree in early childhood education.
    • States do not regulate educational requirements for nannies and babysitters. However, some employers may prefer to hire workers with at least some formal instruction in education or a related field, particularly when they will be hired as full-time nannies.
    • Some states and employers require childcare workers to have a nationally recognized certification. Most often, states require the Child Development Associate (CDA) certification offered by the Council for Professional Recognition. CDA certification includes coursework, experience in the field, and a high school diploma.
    • Some states recognize the Child Care Professional (CCP) designation offered by the National Child Care Association. Candidates for the CCP must have a high school diploma, experience in the field, and continuing education.
    • Some employers may require certifications in CPR and first aid.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module 6 handouts

    • Basic Information for a Résumé
    • Chronological Résumé Template (for rough draft)
    • Functional Résumé Template (for rough draft)
    • Goal Setting Outline
    • KWL Chart Goal Setting
    • Rubric for Résumé

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Provide a scenario using short-term and long-term goals, and then write the short-term and long-term goals of your scenario on the board as a class. Examples: Plan a vacation, plan a birthday party, etc. Teacher note: Pose scenarios, allowing time for students to brainstorm long-term and short-term goals.
    • Students will complete KWL Chart-Goal Setting.
    • Have students compile a list of five short-term goals and five long-term goals. Short-terms goals need to be achievable within the year, and long-term goals need to be achievable within three years. Share with the class. Complete Goal Setting Outline
    • Assist students as they work on their personal long- and short-term goals, asking questions pertaining to their career goals.
    • Have students each write a one-page personal reflection on what they learned from this lesson and how they plan to use the information now and in the future.
    • Child Guidance lesson: End of Course Project Options. Ladies and gentlemen, our Child Guidance course is coming to an end. We have approximately ____ weeks until the end of the school year (semester). In this lesson we will be reviewing all of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) and student expectations for this course. Your final task will be to plan, prepare, and present an individual END OF COURSE PROJECT. You will have the opportunity to research and investigate one or more specific course topics that are of interest to you.
      http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/end-of-course-project-options-child-guidance
    • Students will prepare and present an individual END OF COURSE PROJECT. They will have the opportunity to research and investigate one or more specific course topics that are of interest to them.
    • Practicum in Human Services lesson Show Yourself Off: Write a Résumé!
      A well written résumé is ONE essential element of a PROFESSIONAL PORTFOLIO. This résumé lesson can be used in all Human Services courses as an introduction to the concept of a professional portfolio as well as a refresher for students updating and completing their Human Services PROFESSIONAL PORTFOLIO in Practicum in Human Services.
      Because the Human Services job market is so competitive, you need the right tools to give you an edge. A well written résumé will do the job. In this lesson you will learn to differentiate between types of résumés as well as how write or update your résumé as you complete your PROFESSIONAL PORTFOLIO.
      http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/show-yourself-off-write-a-resume-4
    • Allow students five minutes to brainstorm and write down their accomplishments/hobbies/activities/honors/awards on the paper using http://www.online-stopwatch.com.
    • Have students examine and compare examples of functional and chronological résumés using handouts Chronological Résumé Template and Functional Résumé Template. Provide an in-depth explanation of each résumé component.
    • Have students complete their information using the graphic organizer Basic Information for a Résumé ,
    • Give students a choice of preparing a chronological or functional résumé using the templates Chronological Résumé Template and Functional Résumé Template
    • Allow time for students to type their résumés using a word processing software such as Microsoft Word™.
      Have students proofread and edit each other’s résumés prior to submitting for assessment. They will be assessed with Rubric for Résumé.

    Resources and References

    Textbooks

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child Development Early Stages Through Age 12. (7th ed., pp. 631-659). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Decker, C. (2004). Children: The Early Years. (5th ed., pp. 699-711). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Johnson, L. (2004). Strengthening Family & Self. (3rd ed., pp. 462-466, ). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Ryder, V., & Decker, C. (2010). Parents and Their Children. (7th ed., pp. 587-591). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Sasse, C. (2004). Families Today. (4th ed., pp. 577-578). Peoria: McGraw Hill.

    Websites

    • AchieveTexas
      A college and career initiative designed to help students (and their parents) make wise education choices. It is based on the belief that the curricula of the 21st century should combine rigorous academics and relevant career education.
      http://www.achievetexas.org
    • The National Association of Child Care Professionals
      The nation’s leader among associations serving childcare owners, directors, and administrators. The organization’s goal is to improve, enhance and strengthen the credibility of the people who lead the child care industry by providing membership services and benefits.
      http://www.naccp.org
    • Résumé Templates
      Find over 250 free résumé templates along with tips for writing your résumé and the job interview process.
      http://www.Resumetemplates.org

    YouTube™

    • Free Résumé Templates in Microsoft Word
      Uploaded by TechLinkOnline on Jun 2, 2010
      You can create your resume in Microsoft Word with free résumé templates. There are many résumé templates to choose from.
      http://youtu.be/zOgunk36lzw
    • If It’s to Be, It’s Up to Me
      Four-minute otivational video for students on goal-setting and taking responsibility.
      https://youtu.be/UthWDpvkuFU

    Child Guidance: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. How would you define a caregiver?

    • a. a person (secondary caregiver) who has the job of caring for children in the child care setting
    • b. someone with a nurturing, caring role
    • c. someone who determines appropriate guidance techniques and promotes the physical, intellectual, emotional, and social development of children.
    • d. all of the above

    2. Why has the need for high quality, affordable early care and education increased?

    • a. it has become more profitable
    • b. it is due to the growing number of working mothers, dual-career families, and single-parent families
    • c. it is government subsidized
    • d. parents are becoming more mobile

    3. The Child Development Associate (CDA) certification is offered by the Council for Professional Recognition. CDA certification includes which three areas?

    • a. coursework, college degree, and two years of experience
    • b. coursework, high school diploma and a job shadowing experience
    • c. coursework, experience in the field, and a high school diploma
    • d. no coursework, two years experience in the field. and a college degree

    4. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment of childcare workers is expected to grow by__________ percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations.

    • a. 15
    • b. 20
    • c. 28
    • d. 22

    5. Beginning in 2013, workers in Head Start programs must at least be enrolled in a program in which they will earn a(n) ____________ degree in early childhood education or a child development credential.

    • a. bachelor’s
    • b. master’s
    • c. high school
    • d. associate’s

  • VII. End of Course Project Options Lesson/Course Outline

    An excellent way to end the semester or school year is with a culminating course project. See End of Course Project Options Lesson for Child Guidance.

    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/end-of-course-project-options-child-guidance/

    Culminating activities at the end of the course give students an opportunity to reflect and apply all of their knowledge and skills into an end of course project.

    Child Guidance Course Outline
    The lessons in this course may be used in any sequence. The suggested sequence order is based on the Scope and Sequence for the course.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/2013/02/10/child-guidance/

  • Quiz

    Child Guidance Online Course

    Progress:

    1. What elements contribute to a positive physical child care environment?

    2. What are some guidelines for teachers and caregivers to follow in communicating with parents?

    3. What are ethics?

    4. What is the purpose of the Texas Day-Care Minimum Standards and Guidelines?

    5. Ways to prevent abuse include___________.

    6. According to the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services, Texas Child Care licensing is responsible for__________.

    7. What services do child care resource and referral agencies (CCR & Rs) provide for parents?

    8. The major factors parents need to consider when selecting child care are_________.

    9. What are some child care options?

    10. An advantage of a national child care center chain is_____________.

    11. The cost of child care services is _______of a family’s income.

    12. In the article "Five Steps to Choosing Safe and Healthy Child Care, parents need to consider the following:

    13. What does health awareness involve?

    14. What are three reasons to keep accurate child care health records?

    15. Why should safety be such an important issue in quality child care?

    16. How might family changes and problems affect children?

    17. The following are the reasons related to why child care providers and educators must become involved in preventing and responding to child abuse and neglect

    18. According to the lesson "The Hidden Epidemic, over three million reports of child abuse are made every year in the United States, involving an estimated ______ million children.

    19. What should be the relationship of learning centers to the goals and objectives of the child care program?

    20. Indoor learning centers might include activity areas such as_________

    21. Why should outdoor learning activities be planned?

    22. According to Fred Rogers Center, nearly all of the classroom teachers (92%) and family child care providers_________ report being either successful or very successful in their ability to use the Internet.

    23. Child care centers can take precautions for safeguards to prevent misuse and abuse of technology and media with children by________

    24. According to Lekotek Resources- Top Ten Tips for Choosing Toys, when choosing developmentally appropriate toys for differently-abled kids, you should consider:

    25. How can understanding the sequences of physical development help a caregiver know what behaviors to expect in children?

    26. What are three ways that child caregivers can influence and promote positive behavior?

    27. What is direct guidance?

    28. According to Prevent Child Abuse America, why is early and regular child and family screening and treatment important?

    29. What is resilience?

    30. According to the website Childhelp, what country has the worst record in the industrialized nation – losing five children every day due to abuse-related deaths?

    31. According to Decker (2004), drug and alcohol abuse is present in ______ percent of reported neglect and abuse cases.

    32. A number of protective and promotive factors may contribute to an abused or neglected child’s resilience. These include:

    33. How would you define a caregiver?

    34. Why has the need for high quality, affordable early care and education increased?

    35. The Child Development Associate (CDA) certification offered by the Council for Professional Recognition includes which three areas?

    36. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment of childcare workers is expected to grow by ________ percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations.

    37. Beginning in 2013, workers in Head Start programs must at least be enrolled in a program in which they will earn a(n) ____________ degree in early childhood education or a child development credential.

    38. According to the National Association of Child Care Professionals, the organization's goal is to:

    39. Childcare workers must meet education and training requirements, which vary with state regulations.

    40. Child Guidance is in the:

    41. Child Guidance can be added to _________ sequence of courses.

    42. Child Guidance is a(n) _______________ course that allows students to make informed choices related to child growth and guidance.

    43. Students taking this course will be able to pursue careers in careers in

    44. Child Guidance is an articulated course for one credit.

    45. CTE stands for:

    46. There are _____________ Career Clusters.

    47. CTE equips students with:

    48.The suggested scope and sequence for this course is divided into ___________sections.

    49. Teachers approved for ATC courses must hold a___________ degree in the teaching discipline, or a minimum of an associate degree and demonstrated competencies directly related to the subject area to fulfill SACS requirements.

    50. TEKS stands for:

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