Child Development Online Course

  • Child Development Online Course Introduction

    Course Learning Objectives

    The objective of this online class is to acquaint CTE teachers with the Child Development course by providing information that will be of assistance during instructional implementation in the following areas:

    • Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills
    • Course scope and sequence
    • Instructional resources
    • References
    • Suggested teaching strategies

    Students will identify this course as part of a Career and Technical Education (CTE) program of study, understand that CTE in Texas is organized around 16 career clusters and 79 career pathways, and that Child Development is one of 12 courses in the Human Services career cluster that equips students with:

    • core academic skills
    • employability skills
    • job specific technical skills

    Training Overview

    Welcome to the Child Development self-paced professional development course. This training program will provide a thorough overview of the TEKS for the Child Development class. The suggested scope and sequence of this course is divided into seven modules that may be taught to your students in either a semester or yearlong format. Each section will be explored in addition to providing instructors with resources, references and suggested teaching strategies.

    It is important to begin teaching Child Development (One-Half to One Credit) and all other courses with the end in mind. The state of Texas recommends ending Child Development with an end of course project. A suggested end of course project lesson plan is located under the Human Services tab on this website. So in addition to the seven modules of curriculum, time must also be scheduled for the end of course project to be completed during the time allotted for the class. Some school districts will offer this class as a semester course and others will present it in a yearlong format. It is vital to the planning process to align each unit with the school calendar to prevent unexpected interruption in curriculum implementation.

    Important
    This online course consists of an introduction and seven modules. Carefully read all course content to become familiar with the TEKS, student expectations, published lessons, and suggested activities. Names of handouts, graphic organizers, and slide presentations appear in bold letters. Refer to attachments at the end of each module for additional information. 12 pre-assessment multiple choice statements can be found at the end of the Introduction. Each module ends with five multiple choice statements.

    After completing the course you will be required to complete a 50 question quiz and submit your name and email address. You will receive a certificate of completion at that address.

    The certificates for the successful completion of the online courses are NOT automatically computer generated and are reviewed individually. Certificates will be generated Monday through Friday between the hours of 8:00am and 5:00pm.
    For questions, contact: sfacte@gmail.com

    As approved by the Texas Education Agency, a passing score of 80 is required to receive a certificate equalling six (6) Continuing Professional Education (CPE) credits.

    Refer to the Introductory Lesson: Child Development for an introduction to Career and Technical Education, Career Clusters™, coherent sequence of courses, and programs of study.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/introductory-lesson-child-development/

    Child Development: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. The Parenting and Paternity Awareness (P.A.P.A.) curriculum is prepared by the___________.

    • a. Texas Council on Family Violence
    • b. Dibble Institute
    • c. Texas Attorney General’s Office
    • d. Prevent Child Abuse America

    2. Toddlers are not aware of their _________ and ________ in addition to their likes or dislikes.

    • a. feelings
    • b. bodily functions
    • c. thoughts
    • d. financial status

    3. Which unit is not part of the Roles and Responsibilities of Parenting module?

    • a. Parenting Skills and Responsibilities
    • b. Nutrition
    • c. Prevention of Family Violence
    • d. Relationship Skills

    4. Which unit of study listed below is in the Prenatal Care and Development Module?

    • a. Protection and Safety of Infants and Children
    • b. Play, Literacy and Development
    • c. Appropriate Developmental Activities
    • d. Factors Affecting Fetal Development

    5. The student prepared activities should include opportunities for preschool children to __________ as they learn by using their senses of sight, sound, smell and touch.

    • a. read
    • b. write
    • c. explore
    • d. relax

    6. Which career is not a suggested profession involving infants?

    • a. Elementary Teacher
    • b. Neonatal Intensive Care Specialist
    • c. Infant Mental Health Specialist
    • d. Pediatrician

    7. School age activities should include:

    • a. vigorous physical exercise
    • b. reading development
    • c. stress management
    • d. all of the listed suggestions

    8. The Play, Literacy and Development unit of the Toddler Development module does not include:

    • a. mathematics
    • b. self-reliance
    • c. science
    • d. outdoor play

    9. It is important to offer a variety of foods to preschool children while monitoring portion size. It is best to start with _________ portions and then ____________ portions as requested by the child.

    • a. large, decrease
    • b. small, increase
    • c. large, increase
    • d. small, decrease

    10. First aid and CPR skills are addressed in which module?

    • a. Roles and Responsibilities of Parenting
    • b. Prenatal Care and Development
    • c. Infant Development, Including Children with Special Needs
    • d. Career Opportunities in Child Development

    11. The school age years in child development ranges from the ages of __________ to ___________.

    • a. 7 to 13
    • b. 6 to 11
    • c. 6 to 18
    • d. 12 to 18

    12. A suggested unit lesson plan project topic for school age children does not include which of the following:

    • a. Genetic Testing
    • b. Conflict Resolution
    • c. Stress Management
    • d. Self-Discipline

  • I. Roles and Responsibilities of Parenting

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student analyzes roles and responsibilities of parenting. The student is expected to:

    • (A) investigate parenting skills and responsibilities, including child support and other legal rights and responsibilities that come with parenthood
    • (B) analyze relationship skills, including money management, communication skills and marriage preparation
    • (C) examine skills relating to the prevention of family violence

    Module Content

    Roles and Responsibilities of Parenting is the first module in the Child Development course. This section contains three units of study that include:

    • A. Relationship Skills
    • B. Parenting Skills and Responsibilities
    • C. Prevention of Family Violence

    Relationship Skills

    The Relationship Skills unit will focus on the importance of money management, appropriate communication skills and marriage preparation. Relationships have significantly changed over the last several decades and lasting bonds are harder to develop. All too often, couples fall in love, get married, and start a family based on emotional feelings without establishing a working plan for their future resulting in marriage failure. To avoid these mistakes relationships must be approached in a manner that incorporates structure and organization in addition to the emotional bonds.

    Money management is a key part of a successful lasting relationship. Texas is a community property state, which essentially means that all earned income and purchased property during the marriage is owned jointly by both parties. It is the couples’ joint responsibility to manage their resources. All couples need a financial plan to guide their lifestyle and protect their future.

    Communication skills are the glue that binds the couple together. Both parties have different background experiences that shape their ideas of a relationship. Open communication allows for the couple to connect their past and join their future. Couples that have surface communication skills are much like a childhood art project glued together with a glue stick. Sometimes they stay together but more often than not they come apart with time. On the other hand, couples that have a strong communication base are bound together with industrial strength glue that cannot be separated.

    Marriage preparation is the preparation for married life. It is not the marriage ceremony. As the couple plans for marriage, they will need to create a life plan that includes strong communication and money management.

    Parenting Skills and Responsibilities

    The unit focus is to determine parenting readiness and to understand parental responsibilities. A responsibility is a condition for which a person assumes the duties, obligations, and accountability for something. The responsibilities of parenting are endless. Some important responsibilities that affect health and happiness of parents and children include the following:

    • child guidance
    • legal and moral responsibilities
    • financial responsibilities
    • health and safety responsibilities
    • social and emotional development
    • cognitive development
    • Child Guidance

    All children need guidance. Guidance includes all of an adult’s actions and words that are used to influence a child’s behavior. Children need guidance for a variety of reasons. Some of these reasons include the following:

    • to teach children what actions are acceptable and what actions are not
    • to teach children how to interact with others
    • to promote children’s healthy attitudes about themselves
    • to establish a positive self-concept and high self-esteem
    • to ensure children’s safety
    • to encourage self-discipline
    • to teach children self-control

    The guidance parents use should be appropriate for the child. It should be appropriate for the child’s age and abilities and for the situation.

    • Legal and Moral Responsibilities

    Legal responsibilities of parenting include those things that are required because of a law. One example of a legal responsibility is protecting children by placing them in appropriate seat restraints while traveling in a motor vehicle. Divorced parents have a legal responsibility to provide economic security for their children by making child support payments.

    Moral responsibility involves rearing children to be responsible and contributing members of society. A child’s moral development involves his or her respect of others, understanding of rules, and ability to make good value decisions about what is right and what is wrong. The development of morals and a conscience relates closely to social, emotional and cognitive development.

    • Financial Responsibilities

    Financial and career stability should be considered before deciding to have children. Children are expensive. Just as one must assess his or her financial condition before purchasing a car or home, individuals must seriously evaluate their ability to financially support a dependent child. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimates the cost of rearing a child to age eighteen in 2012 is more than $234,900. It does not include prenatal and birthing costs or any education beyond high school. This figure includes the costs of housing, food at and away from home, transportation, clothing, medical care, education through grade twelve and other miscellaneous expenses.

    Adequate child care is expensive. In many families, it is by far the largest household expense. In some of the more expensive states, the cost of child care for infants equals about half of the median income for single moms.

    • Health and Safety Responsibilities

    Every child must have basic needs met to ensure healthy development. A need is a condition in which something is required for physical or mental well-being. Food, water, clothing, and shelter are examples of basic needs. Parents want their children to be safe and protected. Safety begins with medical checkups, inoculations and safe physical and emotional surroundings. To provide and maintain a safe environment, parents should be aware of safety practices to implement and to teach.

    • Social and Emotional Development

    Children need affection. The affection of parents and other family members is important for the social and emotional development of children. The nurturing provided by a parent plays an important role in the development of a positive self-esteem and in the development of a child’s relationships. For a young child, these relationships might include positive interactions with other children through play. As a teenager, positive and healthy interactions might be exhibited through dating. Regardless of age, all children need to know that they are loved and accepted by their parents and family members.

    A child’s self-concept is developed primarily as a result of interaction with the family. Self-concept is how a person sees his or her own identify, abilities, and worth. Children are born not knowing who they are. As they grow, they learn about who they are by what they can do and what they are told about themselves by the people around them. Self-image and self-concept are molded by the attitudes reflected in the faces, voices, and words of those who are important to them.

    • Cognitive Development

    Cognitive development is how children gain the ability to think and know about things. Some of this mental development is gained through learning. Intelligence and mental ability can be defined in many ways. The family influences how a child’s mind develops through what they teach the child and how they support the child. The family environment should provide opportunities for children to exercise thinking skills. A child who is involved in learning activities at an early age may find it easier to learn in school. However, too much pressure from parents to do well can frustrate and turn them off to learning.

    The promotion of strong stable families is the key message to present to students in this unit. The impact of adult relationships affects the child during their upbringing and serves as a model for their future relationships. Parenting is the entire process of raising a child to be a successful productive member of society upon achieving adulthood. Not everyone should be a parent. Parenting requires special aptitudes and competencies that all individuals do not want or have. The lifestyle of a family must change to meet the demands of a new infant.

    Individuals should be socially and emotionally mature enough to handle the responsibilities of being a parent before making a decision to become a parent.

    Prevention of Family Violence

    This unit is an overview of how to prevent family violence. The first step to preventing family violence is to know the makeup of healthy family relationships. Once the criterion is established for a healthy relationship, it is then easier to determine what makes that relationship unhealthy. Acts of violence and crime are caused by alcohol and drug abuse or homelessness. Many acts of violence and crime affect children. Children who have been exposed to violent and criminal acts may need professional counseling to help them overcome the lasting effects of these acts. Addiction to drugs and alcohol can cause families to suffer in many ways. Children of parents who abuse drugs and alcohol may be subject to violence, neglect, and danger. Family violence is often a result of a need for power and control in a relationship. This need may be a result from a history of family violence or inappropriate gender-role messages. Conflict resolution skills are needed and ground rules for handling conflict need to be established in all families. Conflict will occur in all relationships. The answer to family success is to find a way to manage anger and resolves issues as they arise without violence.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    • Graphic Organizer: A Little Thing that Changes EVERYTHING!
    • Graphic Organizer: Break the Abuse Cycle
    • Guided Practice -Teacher Resource Myths and Facts About Child Abuse and Neglect
    • Is It Safe While Pregnant?
    • Myths and Facts About Child Abuse and Neglect
    • Parent Interview
    • Rubric for Child Abuse Awareness Flyer
    • Rubric for Three Minute- Commercial

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Have students develop a list of reasons couples might give for choosing or not choosing parenthood. Students may change the list to add reasons that were not on the list.
    • Develop a cartoon to show the lack of knowledge or responsibilities of parenthood.
    • Discuss why and how parenthood today is easier or more difficult now than in the past.
    • Ask students to write a paragraph entitled “What parenthood means to me”.
    • Students can develop a list of resources available to parents to learn good child care skills.
    • Have students interview two or more parents about the rewards and responsibilities of parenthood. Have the students develop their own questions for the interview.
    • Have students work in groups of 3-4 to prepare a presentation on one of the following:
      • Financial responsibilities of parenthood
      • Challenges of Single Parenting
      • Challenges of Parenting a Special Needs Child
      • Finding Adequate Quality Child Care
    • Develop a list of adjectives or phrases to describe strong and weak couple relationships. List ways to strengthen a relationship.
    • Identify the responsibilities of parenthood during the first two months, at four months, at six months, at eight months and at twelve months. How do the responsibilities change as the child gets older?
    • Refer to lesson A Little Thing That Changes Everything at http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-little-thing-that-changes-everything-woodward/ for additional references and resources.
    • Discuss the Texas Attorney General’s Child Support program. See https://www.texasattorneygeneral.gov/cs/about-the-child-support-program for the most current information on the rights and responsibilities of parents.
    • Distribute Is It Safe While Pregnant? handout. Having access to the internet, students will complete the handout as they research the information at http://americanpregnancy.org/?s=Is+It+Safe+While+P Allow students to share their information.
    • Any Baby Can video. A video on personal stories of parents of special needs children.
      http://youtu.be/lBjh4VaDqXQ
    • Take notes on the graphic organizer: A Little Thing that Changes EVERYTHING! as the teacher presents the information of the PowerPoint™ lesson. Fold a piece of paper in half lengthwise. On the left side of the column are main ideas. On the right side, write subtopics and detailed information. After direct instruction, use the notes as a study guide. Fold the paper in half so you only see the main ideas. With a partner, quiz each other on the details and subtopics.
    • Provide students with a Rubric for Three-Minute Commercial (see All Lesson Attachments tab) that will be used to assess their completed three minute commercial.
    • Along with a written reflection, students work in groups to develop a three-minute commercial. Topics to include: educating new parents-to-be on environmental hazards to the unborn baby, prenatal care, preparing for parenthood or congenital birth defects. Be creative and develop a unique commercial that will compel new parents to be aware of parenting responsibilities and how a baby will change their lives. Students will present their commercials to the class upon completion during lesson closure. Commercials may be performed as a skit, compiled as a video on the computer, or developed in a song.
    • Interview a parent using handout Parent Interview, to see how parenthood affected their life. After the interview, students will each write a one page personal reflection on what they learned from this interview and how they plan to use the information now and in the future.
    • Invite a local couple to speak about becoming a first time parent. Teens can gain a perspective on the benefits of good prenatal care and the responsibilities of parenthood.
    • Students will write a one page personal reflection on what they learned from this lesson and how they plan to use the information now and in the future.
    • Create a live binder or digital file for the course that includes all of your resources in one easily accessible location.
    • Develop a list of possible guest speakers. Guest speakers can include a stay-at-home mom and dual-career couple. Discuss the similarties and the differences of parenthood.
    • Refer to Child Development Lesson: The Hidden Epidemic
      Have you ever known someone that has been a victim of child abuse and neglect? Child abuse and neglect are serious problems in our country. There are presently no signs of the problem getting any better. Over 3 million reports of child abuse are made every year in the United States, involving an estimated 6 million children.
      http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-hidden-epidemic/
    • Before reading a child abuse story, have students fill in the blanks in the KWL Chart on Child Abuse. Students will briefly list the facts they already know about the topic and write them down in short phrases. After reading the story, have them complete the second column with the new facts they learned from their reading.
    • Provide each student with a copy of Myths and Facts about Child Abuse and Neglect. This activity can be done individually or with a partner.
    • Allow students to brainstorm and determine 10 alternatives to lashing out at a child. Develop a list and post in classroom.
    • Have students develop an informational child abuse and neglect awareness flyer or tri-fold brochure. The flyers/brochures will be placed in the counselors’ offices and distributed to all faculty, staff, and students.
    • FCCLA members may visit local elementary schools and use the handouts provided on the website to encourage discussion of the topic, “If parents nurture, kids blossom.” Members may also provide small potted plants for each elementary student and give each student a preprinted sticker.
    • Classroom projects can be expanded to create community awareness of child abuse and neglect. Create teams and assign duties to complete the selected project. Example: Students develop, print, and distribute flyers to local child daycare centers to raise child abuse awareness. Steps may include researching day cares in the area, contacting managers/owners of the facilities, and making arrangements to distribute the flyers. Students will reflect on how the experience, knowledge, and skills they acquired related to their project, their own lives, and their community.
    • View the Parenting and Paternity Awareness (P.A.P.A.) curriculum provided by the Texas Attorney General’s office at https://www.texasattorneygeneral.gov/cs/parenting-and-paternity-awareness-p.a.p.a Review the P.A.P.A. curriculum provided by the Texas Attorney General’s Office. It is divided into 14 lessons that are designed specifically for the state of Texas. This curriculum has a variety of strategies that will adapt to different learning styles. These lessons cover child support, parent responsibilities and family violence.
    • Create a digital portfolio for the course. Use the modules from the Child Development scope and sequence to organize the portfolio. The Roles and Responsibilities of Parenting module should include:
      • The student’s future goals
      • A description of their future spouse and family life
      • Their definition of a healthy and unhealthy relationship
      • A list with contact links to family organizations that promotes healthy relationships and prevents violence.
    • The Parenting and Paternity Awareness (P.A.P.A.) curriculum and the Utah Education Network have a variety of handouts and graphic organizers that are useful in the presentation of this module to your students. They are provided as links to the various lessons. Study these resources and utilize the ones that best meet the needs of your current students.

    References and Resources

    Textbook

    • Decker, Celia. Child Development; Early Stages Through Age 12. 7th. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox, 2011. 63-66 and 77-97.

    Websites

    • American Pregnancy Association
      The American Pregnancy Association is a national health organization committed to promoting reproductive and pregnancy wellness through education, research, advocacy, and community awareness.
      http://www.americanpregnancy.org
    • Any Baby Can
      Since 1982, Any Baby Can has been a compass for families in need. Providing direction and guidance for families of children with special needs is at the heart of this organization. The impact the birth of a child with special needs has on the family is immense. Instantly, the family’s dreams are altered and their lives are changed forever. The stress has the potential to tear even the strongest families apart.
      http://www.anybabycansa.org/

    YouTube™

    Child Development: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. The Parenting and Paternity Awareness (P.A.P.A.) curriculum is prepared by the______________.

    • a. Texas Council on Family Violence
    • b. Dibble Institute
    • c. Texas Attorney General’s Office
    • d. Prevent Child Abuse America

    2. The Relationship Skills unit does not include:

    • a. Child Support
    • b. Money Management
    • c. Marriage Preparation
    • d. Communication Skills

    3. Which unit is not part of the Roles and Responsibilities of Parenting module?

    • a. Parenting Skills and Responsibilities
    • b. Nutrition
    • c. Prevention of Family Violence
    • d. Relationship Skills

    4.____________ is a skill that is needed to help prevent family violence.

    • a. Literacy
    • b. Mathematics
    • c. Researching
    • d. Conflict Resolution

    5. Parenting skills and responsibilities do not include:

    • a. Child Support
    • b. Labor and delivery
    • c. Legal Rights
    • d. Legal Responsibilities

  • II. Prenatal Care and Development

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student analyzes roles and responsibilities of parenting. The student is expected to:

    • (D) demonstrate first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills

    (2) The student investigates components of optimal prenatal care and development. The student is expected to:

    • (A) identify signs and stages of pregnancy
    • (B) analyze environmental and hereditary factors affecting fetal development such as Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance, genetics, and substances and how they affect the developing child and prenatal brain development
    • (C) describe nutritional needs prior to and during pregnancy such as impact of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates on fetal brain development
    • (D) analyze reasons for medical care and good health practices prior to and during pregnancy
    • (E) critique technological advances on prenatal care and development such as sound waves used for sonograms, amniocentesis and alpha-fetoprotein test
    • (F) analyze the process of labor and delivery

    Module Content

    Prenatal Care and Development is the second module of study in the Child Development course. This section contains six units of study that include:

    • A. Signs and Stages of Pregnancy
    • B. Factors Affecting Fetal Development
    • C. Importance of Good Nutrition and Health Practices During Pregnancy
    • D. Medical Care and Technological Advances
    • E. Labor and Delivery
    • G. First Aid and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Skills

    Module II Handouts

    Signs and Stages of Pregnancy

    The Signs and Stages of Pregnancy unit will focus first on the signs or symptoms of pregnancy. It will then address the three trimesters or stages of pregnancy and address the changes for the mother as well as the developing child.

    Prenatal development is the growth of an infant that takes place before birth. The period of prenatal growth is very important because it can determine the difference between a healthy and an unhealthy beginning of life. The infant begins as a single cell; it takes approximately thirty-eight to forty weeks of development from the moment of conception until the infant is considered full-term. The three stages of prenatal development include the period of the zygote, the period of the embryo, and the period of the fetus. During prenatal development, monthly growth of the infant can be detected.

    The signs or symptoms of pregnancy are different for all women. Some women have obvious signs or symptoms identifying their pregnancy and others have faint detectors. A pregnant woman’s body undergoes a great deal of change including:

    • a rise in body temperature
    • cessation of the menstrual period
    • fullness and tenderness of the breasts
    • nausea and vomiting
    • increased appetite
    • frequent urination
    • increased fatigue
    • enlargement of the abdomen
    • weight gain
    • noticeable movement of the fetus
    • detection of a fetal heartbeat

    A pregnancy test should be administered to confirm the pregnancy. This is most often done through a urine test that is designed to detect hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) hormone that is made when a fertilized egg implants in the uterus.

    Physical discomforts often bother pregnant women. Some of these discomforts include morning sickness, heartburn, constipation, shortness of breath, backache, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, and edema.

    The pregnancy will last approximately forty weeks and is divided into three trimesters. The first trimester is a time of rapid development for the fetus. The skeletal structure and organs are developing quickly during this period. The mother is experiencing several changes also that include:

    • extreme tiredness
    • stomach upset
    • mood swings

    By the second trimester, the nausea and fatigue are subsiding and more visible signs of the expanding uterus are taking place. The fetus is developing muscle tissue and creating a more complex skeleton. The skin is beginning to form and the baby can hear and swallow. The third trimester is when the development is completed and the baby prepares for delivery. The mother is experiencing shortness of breath, having trouble sleeping and beginning to have random Braxton Hicks contractions.

    Factors Affecting Fetal Development

    A multitude of factors affect the developing fetus. Genetics plays a significant role in fetal development. A child’s physical characteristics are contributed from both parents and Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance can be used to determine how certain characteristics are transmitted from one generation to the next. Heredity, the environment, and the mother’s health all have an impact on prenatal development.

    • Heredity

    Heredity occurs simultaneously with conception. Once conception has taken place, a person’s heredity already has been determined. Heredity is the transfer of characteristics from the parents to their offspring. Heredity determines how the fetus will develop and what characteristics she or he will possess. The chromosomes and genes that are contained in the nucleus of the reproductive cells determine a person’s heredity. The male reproductive cell is the sperm and the female reproductive cell is the egg. The head of the sperm and the nucleus of the egg contain the genetic material that determines the offspring’s characteristics.

    • Environment

    The environment is all the surrounding conditions that influence development and growth. A fetus’ environment includes the conditions inside the uterus and the outside environment of the mother. When the environment affects the mother, it usually affects the fetus’ environment as well. A developing child is subject to the environment and substances that it comes into contact with during the gestational period. After an infant is born, his or her inherited potential continues to be affected by the environment. The environment can affect inherited potential through education, shelter, health, economics, and other factors.

    • Mother’s Health

    An expectant mother has much control over the substances that enter the body. While some substances are needed for the development of the fetus, other substances and conditions can be quite harmful to the fetus. The mother’s health and what she consumes during the pregnancy can alter the normal prenatal development process. Some environmental factors include cigarette smoke, alcohol consumption, caffeine intake, x-rays, drug use, illness and poor nutrition. These factors determine the developing child’s future health and brain development.

    Importance of Good Nutrition and Healthy Practices During Pregnancy

    One of the most important factors in prenatal development is nutrition. Not only is nutrition important during pregnancy but also long before pregnancy takes place. During pregnancy the developing child uses the nutrients that the mother consumes to grow properly. The mother must consume adequate nutrients to maintain her health and that of her growing baby. A pregnant woman usually needs about 1,800 to 2,200 calories a day. All of the essential nutrients play a role in fetal development and must be consumed accordingly. For example, proteins have a positive effect on the development of fetal tissue including the brain and the needed increased blood supply. Carbohydrates and lipids are sources of energy and are needed for the health and growth of the developing baby. It is important for the mother to consume her nutrients from fresh products and to avoid highly processed food sources. The pregnant mother should avoid unpasteurized products such as milk and cheese to avoid potential food borne illness. She should also avoid the consumption of alcohol as well as other substances to protect the baby from the negative effects it has on fetal development

    Medical Care and Technological Advances

    As soon as a woman suspects she is pregnant, she should see a physician. Regular medical care should be planned throughout the gestational period. Medical care during the pregnancy can help prevent and detect complications. At the first prenatal visit, the expectant parents will complete a form on family health history and the mother’s health history. This helps the physician determine any problems that may arise. Quality care will include prenatal testing such as blood screening in an alpha-fetoprotein test, and an amniocentesis to detect genetic abnormalities. Tests such as amniocentesis, chorionic villi samplings, and ultrasound can be performed to detect birth defects and other conditions. Sonograms are also used to monitor fetal development and check for complications. Medical advancements are occurring on a regular basis and more and more healthy babies are being born because of quality medical care.

    Complications can occur during pregnancy and may be characterized by vaginal bleeding, abnormal weight gain, severe abdominal pain, persistent headaches, urinary complications, fever, severe vomiting, unusual and excessive swelling of the face and hands, dizziness, and vision problems.

    Labor and Delivery

    This unit should cover the entire labor and delivery process. Once labor begins, it advances through three stages. The three stages are dilation, expulsion of the infant, and expulsion of the placenta.

    The delivery process requires preparation and planning to ensure a positive experience for that new family. Birthing choices need to be made early in the pregnancy and preparations should be made accordingly. Today, parents have many options to consider about how and where their children will be born. These options include:

    • prepared childbirth
    • traditional hospital birth
    • family-centered care
    • childbirth with medication
    • caesarean section
    • home delivery
    • Leboyer method
    • in-hospital birthing center.

    Many hospitals also offer:

    • childbirth and parenting classes and lactation consultants.
    • certified nurse-midwives on staff.
    • the ability to have an unmedicated, “natural” delivery.
    • birthing pools or tubs for water births.
    • birthing stools, birthing balls, and other equipment to help you feel comfortable during labor.
    • the option to wear your own clothes during labor and delivery.
    • the option to have friends and family attend the birth and to videotape your delivery.

    The mother should take a childbirth education course at her local hospital to become familiar with the facilities and their practices. Key areas of concern should be signs of labor or complications, types of birth, stages of delivery and pain relief options.

    First Aid and CPR Skills

    All parents should have a basic understanding of first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills. Infant CPR is taught in some of the childbirth preparation classes. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a technique involving heart and lungs that is used when breathing stops. Administering CPR can restore breathing and restart the heart if heart failure accompanies the loss of breathing. This valuable technique should be learned by all parents in case an emergency arises where professional help is not immediately available. Emergencies happen all too often and early preparation can save a life. This unit should cover how to secure the scene of an accident to protect the victim and the first responders. The training should also demonstrate to the students when to call for emergency help and how to administer basic first aid and CPR if needed.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    Module II Handouts

    • Adult Ready Reference Card
    • Burn Scald Safety
    • Career as a Neonatal Intensive Care Specialist
    • Conscious Choking Poster
    • CPR and First Aid Guidelines Note Taking
    • Criteria for First Aid Board Game
    • Down Syndrome Fact Sheet
    • Down Syndrome Notes
    • Down Syndrome Research Project
    • Families with Multiple Births Research Questions
    • Four Corner Word Wall
    • Hand Washing Poster
    • Is It Safe While Pregnant?
    • KWL – Down Syndrome
    • Multiple Births Starburst Chart
    • Multiple Births: Truths or Untruths
    • Rubric for Three-Minute Commercial
    • Pediatric Ready Reference
    • Poison Safety
    • Rubric for First Aid Board Game
    • Rubric-Down Syndrome Research Project
    • Rubric for Three Minute Commercial
    • Rubric for Visual Display
    • Suffocation and Choking Safety
    • Texas Education Agency Requirements for Instruction in CPR

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Have students brainstorm a list of “wives’ tales” they may have heard about pregnancy. Discuss why these myths may be inaccurate.
    • Discuss in detail with the use of photos, the events that occur at conception.
    • Invite a biology teacher to class to discuss genetics, the DNA, chromosomes, genes and heredity. Have students develop questions for the biology teacher.
    • Have students research medical procedures common during pregnancy such as ultrasound, amniocentesis, or chorionic villus and discuss the purpose of each procedure.
    • Have students discuss how knowing the genetic backgrounds beforehand would determine or indicate some of the traits their children might inherit.
    • Have students discuss the importance of being good to your baby before it is born.
    • Instruct students to research the signs and symptoms of pregnancy and how it correlates to the three trimesters of pregnancy.
    • Obtain a recording from the womb (ask an OB/GYN physician) so students can hear the sound of breathing, heartbeat, blood flow and movement in the uterus.
    • Invite a dietitian or OB/GYN nurse to discuss with the class the importance of prenatal care, healthy eating practices, healthy weight and tips for preparing nutritious balanced meals during pregnancy.
    • See lesson A Little Thing That Changes Everything at http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/a-little-thing-that-changes-everything-woodward/ for additional references and resources.
    • Distribute Is It Safe While Pregnant? handout. Having access to the internet, students will complete the handout as they research the information at http://www.americanpregnancy.org Allow students to share their information.
    • Provide students with a Rubric for Three-Minute Commercial that will be used to assess their completed three minute commercial. Along with a written reflection, students work in groups to develop a three-minute commercial. Topics to include: educating new parents-to-be on environmental hazards on the unborn baby, prenatal care, preparing for parenthood or congenital birth defects. Be creative and develop a unique commercial that will compel new parents to be aware of parenting responsibilities and how a baby will change their lives. Students will present their commercials to the class upon completion during lesson closure. Commercials may be performed as a skit, compiled as a video on the computer, or developed in a song.
    • Presentation of three-minute commercials by students. Presentations will be assessed by Rubric for Three-Minute Commercial.
    • Reflection: Using the information gathered in the Three-Minute Commercial, students will write a one page written reflection analyzing their commercial. Students will reflect on how this activity and information on educating new parents on the effects of environmental hazards on the unborn baby, prenatal care, preparing for parenthood or congenital birth defects. will assist them in future. The reflection and rubric will be submitted for assessment.
    • Develop a video that will educate others of the impact of good prenatal care during pregnancy. Include suggestions for other parents-to-be to reduce the environmental hazards during pregnancy. The video can be shown on the school foyer marquee before and after school each day for a week.
    • Choose a health condition that might exist before pregnancy and research what affect the condition might have on the unborn or pregnant woman.
    • Invite a doctor to speak on the health and emotional thoughts of pregnancy.
    • See lesson Happy Birthday Times 2,3, 4…. at http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/happy-birthday-times-2-3-4/ for additional references and resources.
    • Distribute graphic organizer, Multiple Births Starburst Chart. Students will use the information from the slide presentation and previous activity to complete the chart. Students will place five facts on the graphic organizer.
    • Students will develop a class list/ wallboard of multiple birth facts. Select a scribe to write down facts on a poster board or sheet of butcher paper. Each team will share one fact with the class. Scribe will add facts to the class list/ wallboard.
    • Distribute handout, Multiple Births: Truths or Untruths and have students individually complete activity. As a class, discuss correct answers.
    • Divide class into subgroups of three. Distribute Families with Multiple Births. Allow student groups to randomly select a family from the list.
    • Introduce a mini research assignment and provide detailed instructions. Inform students that they will be researching a multiple birth family. Challenges, complications and consequences related to the birth of the multiple children will be explored, see Families with Multiple Children Research Questions. Students will compile their information on a poster board, electronic poster or slide presentation. Students will be expected to present their findings to the class. Explain each component of Rubric for Visual Display so that students understand how this project will be assessed. Student groups will present their visual, findings and oral presentation during lesson closure.
    • Locate a local certified first aid and CPR instructor and make arrangements to have them present the course to your students. The school nurse is often a certified instructor. The American Heart Association is an excellent resource for information on the subject; and they have a list of certified CPR instructors in your area.
    • Plan a field trip to a local hospital to tour the labor and delivery area.
    • Plan a first aid and CPR certification class for your students.
    • Have students complete a chart on prenatal development and the side effects the pregnancy has on the mother during each trimester. This chart can be completed during the instruction time as a note taking guide or as a separate project.
    • Update the digital portfolio for the course. The Prenatal Care and Development module should include:
      • Prenatal growth chart
      • A list with contact links to women’s health organizations and government websites
      • Contact information for first aid and CPR course instructor as well as links to the American Heart Association webpage
      • Links to your local hospital and the contact information needed to plan a field trip to the maternity portion of the hospital.
    • Develop a brochure which will educate others on multiple births in the U.S.. Include reasons for the rise in multiple births and prenatal risks to the mother and babies.
    • Invite local parents of twins, triplets, etc. to speak about their multiple pregnancy experience, and what life is like raising multiples.
    • Invite a neonatal pediatric nurse to speak on the care of premature babies.
    • Refer to lesson Down syndrome for additional resources, activities and handouts at: http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/down-syndrome/
    • Compile a family tree including medical histories to determine if any genetic defects are present in your family. Investigate community resources for genetic counseling if you feel your family may be at risk for these defects. Would you seek genetic counseling? What are reasons for and against genetic counseling?
    • Research Rh incompatibility. Why is Rh incompatibility only a problem when the mother is Rh negative and the infant is Rh positive? What effects would the Rh factor have if the mother is Rh positive and the infant Rh negative? What, if any, methods are being researched and developed to combat the problem of Rh incompatibility?
    • Research the type of childbirth method you would be the most interested in trying if you were becoming a parent. After gathering your infornation, determine if this method would be suitable for you. If not, what other method might better suit your needs?

    References and Resources

    Textbook

    • Decker, Celia. Child Development; Early Stages Through Age 12. 7th. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox, 2011. 77-97, 119-141.

    Websites

    • Note: Videos should be previewed before student viewing.
    • American Pregnancy Association
      The American Pregnancy Association is a national health organization committed to promoting reproductive and pregnancy wellness through education, research, advocacy, and community awareness.
      http://www.americanpregnancy.org
    • Any Baby Can
      Since 1982, Any Baby Can has been a compass for families in need. Providing direction and guidance for families of children with special needs is at the heart of this organization. The impact the birth of a child with special needs has on the family is immense. Instantly, the family’s dreams are altered and their lives are changed forever. The stress has the potential to tear even the strongest families apart.
      http://www.anybabycansa.org/
    • The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women’s Health sponsor the www.womenshealth.gov website and have provided a multitude of valuable handouts and graphic organizers for public use as well as the other resources referenced in this module. www.womenshealth.gov

    YouTube™

    Child Development: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Pregnant mothers should avoid the consumption of ___________ during pregnancy.

    • a. milk
    • b. unpasteurized milk
    • c. green vegetables
    • d. poultry

    2. The Prenatal Care and Development module has _________ units of study.

    • a. 8
    • b. 7
    • c. 6
    • d. 5

    3. The main purpose of sonograms are to__________.

    • a. determine the sex of the baby
    • b. to see which parent the baby looks like
    • c. to make a video to the baby
    • d. to monitor fetal development and check for complications

    4. CPR stands for___________.

    • a. Community Partners Resuscitation
    • b. Cardio Pulse Resuscitation
    • c. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
    • d. Cardiopulmonary Relieve

    5. ____________ is not a factor that affects fetal development.

    • a. Delivery
    • b. Mendel’s Law
    • c. Genetics
    • d. Nutrition

  • III. Infant Development, Including Children with Special Needs

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student analyzes roles and responsibilities of parenting. The student is expected to:

    • (E) assess the safety of purchases for children such as cribs, toys, clothing and food

    (3) The student investigates strategies for optimizing the development of infants of diverse backgrounds, including those with special needs. The student is expected to:

    • (A) explain the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual needs of the infant
    • (B) generate ideas and gather information relevant to care and protection of infants such as child care options, abuse, guidance, services and agencies, immunizations and appropriate health care
    • (C) draw conclusions regarding the impact of the infant on the family in areas such as roles, finances, responsibilities and relationships
    • (D) identify typical growth and development of infants such as brain development and mental health
    • (E) select and use appropriate standard international units to identify nutritional needs for infants such as caloric requirements, protein, lipids, carbohydrates and portion control
    • (F) research the advantages of breast feeding

    Module Content

    Infant Development, Including Children with Special Needs, is the third module of study in the Child Development course. This module contains five units of study that include:

    • A. Physical, Emotional, Social and Intellectual Needs of the Infant
    • B. Protection and Safety of Infants and Children
    • C. Impact of the Infant on the Family
    • D. Infant Growth and Development
    • E. Nutrition and Feeding

    Physical, Emotional, Social and Intellectual Needs of the Infant

    The first year is critical to the physical, emotional, social and intellectual development of a child’s life. Infants learn with all of their senses by using their eyes, ears, mouth and hands to explore their new world. It is important to understand the aspects of growth during this stage to nurture healthy growth and development of the infant. Most of the developmental milestones occur in a sequential order and transpire within specific time frames allowing assistance to be provided to children with special needs as considered necessary. How your child plays, learns, speaks, and acts offers important clues about your child’s development. Developmental milestones are things most children can do by a certain age.

    • Physical development of a two month old
      • can hold head up and begins to push up when lying on tummy
      • makes smoother movements with arms and legs
    • Physical development of a four month old
      • holds head steady, unsupported
      • pushes down on legs when feet are on a hard surface
      • may be able to roll over from tummy to back
      • can hold a toy and shake it and swing at dangling toys
      • brings hands to mouth
      • when lying on stomach, pushes up to elbows
    • Physical development of a six month old
      • rolls over in both directions (front to back, back to front)
      • begins to sit without support
      • when standing, supports weight on legs and might bounce
      • rocks back and forth, sometimes crawling backward before moving forward
    • Physical development of a nine month old
      • stands, holding on
      • can get into sitting position
      • sits without support
      • pulls to stand
      • crawls
    • Physical development of a twelve month old
      • gets to a sitting position without help
      • pulls up to stand, walks holding on to furniture (“cruising”)
      • may take a few steps without holding on
      • may stand alone
    • Social/emotional development of a two month old
      • begins to smile at people
      • can briefly calm himself (may bring hands to mouth and suck on hand)
      • tries to look at parent
    • Social/emotional development of a four month old
      • smiles spontaneously, especially at people
      • likes to play with people and might cry when playing stops
      • copies some movements and facial expressions, like smiling or frowning
    • Social/emotional development of a six month old
      • knows familiar faces and begins to know if someone is a stranger
      • likes to play with others, especially parents
      • responds to other people’s emotions and often seems happy
      • likes to look at self in a mirror
    • Social/emotional development of a nine month old
      • may be afraid of strangers
      • may be clingy with familiar adults
      • has favorite toys
    • Social/emotional development of a twelve month old
      • is shy or nervous with strangers
      • cries when mom or dad leaves
      • has favorite things and people
      • shows fear in some situations
      • hands you a book when he wants to hear a story
      • repeats sounds or actions to get attention
      • puts out arm or leg to help with dressing
      • plays games such as “peek-a-boo” and “pat-a-cake”
    • Intellectual development of a two month old
      • pays attention to faces
      • begins to follow things with eyes and recognize people at a distance
      • begins to act bored (cries, fussy) if activity doesn’t change
    • Intellectual development of a four month old
      • lets you know if she is happy or sad
      • responds to affection
      • reaches for toy with one hand
      • uses hands and eyes together, such as seeing a toy and reaching for it
      • follows moving things with eyes from side to side
      • watches faces closely
      • recognizes familiar people and things at a distance
    • Intellectual development of a six month old
      • looks around at things nearby
      • brings things to mouth
      • shows curiosity about things and tries to get things that are out of reach
      • begins to pass things from one hand to the other
    • Intellectual development of a nine month old
      • watches the path of something as it falls
      • looks for things he sees you hide
      • plays peek-a-boo
      • puts things in her mouth
      • moves things smoothly from one hand to the other
      • picks up things like cereal o’s between thumb and index finger
    • Intellectual development of a twelve month old
      • explores things in different ways, like shaking, banging, throwing
      • finds hidden things easily
      • looks at the right picture or thing when it’s named
      • copies gestures
      • starts to use things correctly; for example, drinks from a cup, brushes hair
      • bangs two things together
      • puts things in a container, takes things out of a container
      • lets things go without help
      • pokes with index (pointer) finger
      • follows simple directions like “pick up the toy”

    Check the milestones a child has reached by his or her 1st birthday. A parent can take this to talk with their child’s doctor at every visit about the milestones their child has reached and what to expect next.

    Act early by talking to the child’s doctor if a child:

    • doesn’t crawl
    • can’t stand when supported
    • doesn’t search for things that she sees you hide
    • doesn’t say single words like “mama” or “dada”
    • doesn’t learn gestures like waving or shaking head
    • doesn’t point to things
    • loses skills he once had
  • In order to evaluate the impact of parenting roles and responsibilities, parents and child care professionals should have an understanding of the different theorists affecting child development, such as Piaget, Erikson, Skinner, and Kohlberg.

    Protection and Safety of Infants and Children

    Newborns need constant care and attention in order to have their needs met. Infants’ needs include hygiene, sleep, safety, and health. Protection and safety of infants and children covers every aspect of a child’s life beginning at birth. Care and attention to safety factors are necessary to prevent injury or accidental death. The simple tasks of putting an infant to sleep on its back, protecting their soft spot, supporting their head, and using a car seat properly are all daily tasks that are vital to protecting the child.

    • Cribs
      When selecting a crib, certain features should be checked in order to assure a safe environment for an infant. Pillows are not necessary for infants and may even be harmful, causing suffocation. Infants normally are placed on their stomachs or sides to sleep. These positions are best because the infants are less likely to choke if they spit up. If infants are put to sleep immediately after eating, it probably is best to lay them on their stomachs.
    • Car seats
      Any time an infant rides in an automobile, he or she should be securely fastened in a car seat. Car seats are designed to protect an infant in case an accident occurs. They are designed to spread the force of an impact throughout an infant’s entire body so that one particular area does not receive more shock than another. Car seats also prevent an infant from being flung out of the car or from hitting objects in the car.
    • Toys and Equipment
      The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has developed standards for equipment such as strollers, play pens, and expandable gates. The ASTM was asked to develop these standards by the Juvenile Products Manufacturers Association (JPMA). Companies seeking approval by JPMA voluntarily submit their products for testing. If the products pass the tests, a special seal stating certification by JPMA is placed on the product.

    This unit should address the precautions that should be taken to protect the growing child.

    Impact of the Infant on the Family

    Interaction between the parents and their infant is important in the development of their relationship with each other. Interaction also aids the infant’s development by providing stimulation than enhances growth. Parent-infant interaction occurs anytime the infant and parents engage in an activity together.

    • Bonding
      During the first month of life and in the months that follow, it is important that the parents bond with their infant. Bonding is enhanced by holding, feeding, stroking, rocking, and singing and speaking to the infant so that the infant feels secure and loved.

    Infants are a special gift to the family, but they create a change in all areas of the family. This unit is a time for students to explore the family changes after a new baby is born. Time management is going to be a challenge to the family. Infants require continuous care and attention. Each member of the family will have different changes and responsibilities to meet the needs of the newborn. Students should research the daily care, the added expenses, the impact for sibling and the adjustment to the marriage relationship that are identified after the birth on an infant.

    Infant Growth and Development

    Neonates must make many adjustments in order to adapt to life outside the womb. The new environment if the neonate is much different than the environment inside the womb. Parents’ actions can have an impact on how the neonate adjusts to the new environment. Loving parents who respond to the infant’s cries and hold the infant can ease the adjustments. Infancy is the time between birth and the first eighteen months. Babies in this short period of time rapidly grow from being completely helpless to being a walking talking little individual. Students are to identify the typical growth and development that occurs during this period, such as brain development and mental health.

    Nutrition and Feeding

    Nutrition and feeding is the final unit in the infant development module. The nutritional needs of infants are different for all babies. When the neonate is born, he or she depends on someone to provide the nourishment that is necessary for survival. Many parents may be concerned about what feeding method is best for their infant. Parents also may worry that their infant is not receiving the proper nutrition or not eating enough. Parents can choose to breast-feed or bottle-feed their infant. These options can be discussed with a physician in order to make the best choice for the infant and parents. Their nutritional needs are based on factors such as their height, activity level and how their bodies burn calories. During the first six months feed your child when they show signs of hunger. From six month to a year the infant will gradually be introduced to new foods. During this time the child will began feeding themselves finger foods. Mealtimes and snacks should also begin at the end of the infancy period. Meals and snacks should be provided to meet the caloric and nutritional needs that include the appropriate portions of protein, lipids, and carbohydrates.

    Handouts/Graphic Organizers

    • KWL Chart-The Balancing Act: Parenting Responsibilities
    • Optional Activity: Flour Baby Project Teacher Guidelines
    • Rubric for The Balancing Act: Parenting Responsibilities Financial Research Project
    • The Balancing Act: Parenting Responsibilities Financial Research Project
    • Venn Diagram- Compare and Contrast Breastfeeding and Bottle Feeding A Baby

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • See lesson Nutritional Needs: Infancy to Toddlers at http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/nutritional-needs-infancy-to-toddler/ for additional references and resources.
    • See lesson The Balancing Act: Parenting Responsibilities at http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/the-balancing-act-parenting-responsibilities/ for additional references and resources.
    • Distribute the KWL Chart-The Balancing Act: Parenting Responsibilities and have students fill in the first two sections. The last section of the KWL chart will be completed during lesson closure. Before reading, consider what you already know about the content to be read. Also consider what you want to know. After reading, write a short explanation of what you have learned.
    • Make reference to basic needs of a child.
    • Using demonstration life sized infant dolls, have students demonstrate the correct ways to hold a newborn and an infant.
    • Demonstrate how to hold a baby while bottle feeding. Students will have questions about how much and how often to feed a baby. Using Venn Diagram Compare and Contrast Breastfeeding and Bottle Feeding A Baby, compare the decision, benefits and cost of breast feeding versus bottle feeding a baby. Have students discuss their findings.
    • Demonstrate diaper changing with both cloth and disposable diapers. Students will have questions about how often to change a baby. Stress the cost of disposable diapers and their effect on our environment.
    • What are the financial responsibilities of parents? What do babies need during the first year of life?
    • Provide the following scenario: Imagine you have a newborn baby.
      • Would you know how to care for the baby?
      • How much do you already know about meeting the needs of a newborn?
      • How much do you think it costs to have a baby? To raise a child to the age of 18?
      • Do you think you’re ready to care for a newborn?
      • What are the expectations of being a parent?
    • Focus on the costs involved in meeting the needs of child, from newborn up to the age of 18. Discuss the concepts of budgeting and cost of living.
    • Introduce The Balancing Act: Parenting Responsibilities Financial Research Project and Rubric for The Balancing Act: Parenting Responsibilities Financial Research Project. Scenario: You and your spouse are preparing to have your first child. You would like to know approximately how much raising this child will cost over the course of 18 years. The students will conduct research from information on the internet to research prices and create a realistic budget using the provided project handout as a guide. Assist students as they work on their budgets.
    • OPTIONAL ACTIVITY: Students will incorporate additional activities to this lesson by creating a flour baby. A New Kind of “Flour Baby” slide presentation and handout with a rubric are located in the lesson, The Balancing Act: Parenting Responsibilities. You may choose to incorporate this activity into this lesson. The actual making of the flour babies can be completed at home or before and after school.
    • See Optional Activity: Flour Baby Project Teacher Guidelines and A New Kind of “Flour Baby” PowerPoint™ for specific instructions.
    • Invite a nurse from either the local hospital or the school nurse to talk about how to care for infants.
    • Update the live binder or digital file with the Infant Development, Including Children with Special Needs module for the course.
    • Additional review questions:
      • What are the needs of a newborn?
      • What safety precautions are required when caring for a newborn, infant, child?
      • How did you feel when you were practicing feeding, bathing and diapering a baby?
      • Are you ready to become a parent?
      • Why is it important to be ready financially for a baby?

    References and Resources

    Books

    PowerPoint™

    • A New Kind of “Flour Baby”

    Textbooks

    • Decker, Celia. Child Development; Early Stages Through Age 12. 7th. Tinley Park, IL: Goodheart-Willcox, 2011. 85-90, 501-522.
    • Parnell, Frances Baynor (2001) Skills for Personal and Family Living, Tinley Park, Illinois: The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.

    Websites

    • American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
      ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), is a globally recognized leader in the development and delivery of international voluntary consensus standards.
      http://www.astm.org/
    • Juvenile Products Manufacturers Association
      JPMA has been recognized as an organization dedicated to enhancing children’s product safety.
      http://www.jpma.org/
    • National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
      Includes information on child safety precautions and laws pertaining to child safety seats.
      http://www.nhtsa.gov/Safety/CPS

    YouTube™

    Child Development: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. In order to evaluate the impact of parenting roles and responsibilities, parents and child care professionals should have an understanding of the different theorists affecting child development. Which of the following is not a theorist of child development?

    • a. Piaget
    • b. Lewis
    • c. Erikson
    • d. Skinner

    2. _________________ is not a safety consideration related to the care of infants.

    • a. Using a car seat
    • b. Placing the baby to sleep on its back
    • c. Using an infant carrier
    • d. Placing the baby to sleep on its stomach

    3. The Juvenile Products Manufacturers Association (JPMA) is responsible for_____________.

    • a. juvenile products manufactured outside of the United States
    • b. testing and certifying products for safety
    • c. testing only strollers, play pens and car seats
    • d. nutrition and feeding products for infants

    4. Infancy is the time between ______________ and ___________________.

    • a. birth and the first eighteen months
    • b. birth and the first twelve months
    • c. birth and the first twenty four months
    • d. birth and the first fifteen months

    5. The nutritional needs of infants are different for all babies. Their nutritional needs are based on factors such as _______________________________________.

    • a. height and activity level
    • b. activity level and how their bodies burn calories
    • c. height, activity level and how their bodies burn calories
    • d. how their bodies burn calories and height

  • IV. Toddler Development, Including Children with Special Needs

    TEKS Addressed

    (1) The student analyzes roles and responsibilities of parenting. The student is
    expected to:

    • (F) explain factors that contribute to literacy.

    (4) The student investigates strategies for optimizing the development of toddlers
    of diverse backgrounds, including those with special needs. The student is expected to:

    • (A) analyze the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual needs of the toddler
    • (B) create play activities for a toddler’s growth and development such as mathematics, science, physical movement, outdoor play, art and music
    • (C) identify patterns of typical growth and development of toddlers
    • (D) identify community resources relevant to the care and protection of toddlers, including child care services, health care services, and organizations such as the National Association for the Education of Young Children
    • (E) work independently or collaboratively to prepare snacks or meals that meet nutritional guidelines for toddlers such as caloric, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and portion control

    Module Content

    Toddler Development, Including Children with Special Needs, is the fourth module of study in the Child Development course. This module contains five units of study that include:

    • A. Physical, Emotional, Social and Intellectual Needs of the Toddler
    • B. Play, Literacy, and Development
    • C. Toddler Growth and Development
    • D. Care and Protection of Toddlers
    • E. Nutrition

    Physical, Emotional, Social and Intellectual Needs of the Toddler

    During the second year, toddlers are moving around more, and are aware of themselves and their surroundings. Their desire to explore new objects and people also is increasing. During this stage, toddlers will show greater independence; begin to show defiant behavior; recognize themselves in pictures or a mirror; and imitate the behavior of others, especially adults and older children. Toddlers also should be able to recognize the names of familiar people and objects, form simple phrases and sentences, and follow simple instructions and directions.

    Positive Parenting Tips
    Following are some of the things a parent can do to help their toddler during this time:

    • read to the toddler daily.
    • ask her to find objects for you or name body parts and objects.
    • play matching games with the toddler, like shape sorting and simple puzzles.
    • encourage him to explore and try new things.
    • help to develop the toddler’s language by talking with her and adding to words she starts. For example, if your toddler says “baba”, you can respond, “Yes, you are right. That is a bottle.”
    • encourage the child’s growing independence by letting him help with dressing himself and feeding himself.
    • respond to wanted behaviors more than you punish unwanted behaviors (use only very brief time outs). Always tell or show the child what she should do instead.
    • encourage the toddler’s curiosity and ability to recognize common objects by taking field trips together to the park or going on a bus ride

    Play, Literacy, and Development

    During this unit students are to learn how to create play activities that promotes toddler growth and development. These activities should include mathematics, science, physical movement, outdoor play, art and music. They should also be able to explain the factors that contribute to literacy. Below are some play activities for a toddler’s growth and development:

    • Math – Toddlers can learn colors and shapes using puzzles.
    • Science – Toddlers learn to place things in categories (sort and classify)
    • Physical movement – Encourage use of climbing equipment, such as padded inclines, sturdy boxes, etc.
    • Outdoor play – Encourage kicking a ball by providing an area outside to kick the ball in a corner or a cardboard box.
    • Art – Provide markers and paper for the child to make marks. Use art to represent objects, feelings, ideas, etc.
    • Music – Make up rhymes and songs to which toddlers can clap, dance, and sing along to. This helps toddlers develop rhythm and balance

    Toddler Growth and Development

    The toddler phase is a very active time in the child’s life. They become very mobile and physical. They are exploring their world and developing new skills rapidly. Their appetite may change or fluctuate during this phase. They will grow about two to three inches and gain approximately four pounds during the second year of life. All children come in different shapes and sizes and doctors often chart their growth to determine if there are any trends in the child’s growth that may need attention. Children are developing a sense of self awareness. They are aware of their feelings and thoughts in addition to their likes or dislikes. Their growth begins to slow at the end of this period. Their language is developing. They can make short sentences and they can follow instructions. Many changes occur as children move through the years from two to five. Physically they begin to lose their adipose tissue (“baby fat”) and their “pot belly”. As limbs grow longer, their bodies begin to become more proportioned. The development of large and small muscle allows for greater motor coordination. Cognitive and language development advances rapidly. Language development is greatly influenced by experiences and parental interaction. Changes in emotional development become evident as secondary emotions emerge: pride, jealousy, guilt, and embarrassment. Preschoolers can develop a variety of fears which requires patience and understanding on the part of parents and caregivers. Preschoolers are gradually moving from being self-centered and egocentric to being able to respond sensitively to others and consider the needs of others.

    Care and Protection of Toddlers

    Safety is a major concern for parents and caregivers. Toddlers are extremely active and busy exploring the world and they do not know to be careful or safe. So it is the responsibility of the child care provider or parent to ensure the safety of the inquisitive toddler. Students are to identify community resources that are relevant to care and protection of toddlers related to health care and child care.

    Child Safety First
    Because the child is moving around more, he will come across more dangers as well. Dangerous situations can happen quickly, so parents need to keep a close eye on the child. Here are a few tips to help keep a growing toddler safe:

    • Do NOT leave the toddler near or around water (for example, bathtubs, pools, ponds, lakes, whirlpools, or the ocean) without someone watching her. Fence off backyard pools. Drowning is the leading cause of injury and death among this age group.
    • Block off stairs with a small gate or fence. Lock doors to dangerous places such as the garage or basement.
    • Ensure that the home is toddler proof by placing plug covers on all unused electrical outlets.
    • Keep kitchen appliances, irons, and heaters out of reach of the toddler. Turn pot handles toward the back of the stove.
    • Keep sharp objects such as scissors, knives, and pens in a safe place.
    • Lock up medicines, household cleaners, and poisons.
    • Do NOT leave the toddler alone in any vehicle (that means a car, truck, or van) even for a few moments.
    • Store any guns in a safe place out of his reach.
    • Keep the child’s car seat rear-facing as long as possible. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, it’s the best way to keep her safe. The child should remain in a rear-facing car seat until she reaches the top height or weight limit allowed by the car seat’s manufacturer. Once the child outgrows the rear-facing car seat, she is ready to travel in a forward-facing car seat with a harness.

    Nutrition

    Nutrition is the final unit in the toddler development module. The nutritional needs of toddlers vary from child to child. Their nutritional needs are based on factors such as their height, activity level and how their bodies burn calories, but in general they should consume 1,000 to 1,400 calories per day through a variety of different foods. It is important to offer foods containing all of the essential nutrients to ensure proper growth and development. Variety in food offerings is essential to help them develop a liking for new tastes and textures. Toddlers should also continue to consume whole milk to insure that adequate dietary fat is consumed. For additional information on nutritional guidelines for toddlers, visit:
    http://kidshealth.org/parent/nutrition_center/healthy_eating/toddler_food.html

    Healthy Bodies

    • Give the child water and plain milk instead of sugary drinks. After the first year, when the nursing toddler is eating more and different solid foods, breast milk is still an ideal addition to his diet.
    • The toddler might become a very picky and erratic eater. Toddlers need less food because they don’t grow as fast. It’s best not to battle with him over this. Offer a selection of healthy foods and let him choose what he wants. Keep trying new foods; it might take time for him to learn to like them.
    • Limit screen time. For children younger than 2 years of age, the AAP recommends that it’s best if toddlers not watch any screen media.
    • The toddler will seem to be moving continually—running, kicking, climbing, or jumping. Let him be active—he’s developing his coordination and becoming strong.

    Handouts / Graphic Organizers

    • Safety and Children
    • Chart the Growth
    • The Importance of Toys and Play
    • Assessment: The Safety of Toys and Equipment

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • See lesson Nutritional Needs: Infancy to Toddlers at http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/nutritional-needs-infancy-to-toddler/ for additional references and resources.
    • Plan a field trip to a day care center to have the students observe toddlers. Students should describe ways toddlers differ from infants in terms of intellectual, social, emotional and physical development.
    • Ask the students to bring video tapes or DVD’s of themselves in the toddler stage. Have the class view them and identify the toddler characteristics such as walking, playing, kicking, climbing or jumping.
    • Chart the growth of toddlers boys and girls and discuss the differences using Chart the Growth using http://www.nal.usda.gov/wicworks/Learning_Center/growthcharts/weightforageboybw.pdf and http://www.nal.usda.gov/wicworks/Learning_Center/growthcharts/weightforagegirlbw.pdf
    • Plan to conduct food labs that meet the nutritional guidelines for toddlers, by planning to have students prepare snacks or meals that meet these requirements. Prepare a shopping list for the lab and prepare the necessary paperwork to secure funding for the labs according to your school district procedures.
    • Think about the nutritional guidelines for toddlers. Imagine you are part of a team preparing snacks or meals for toddlers. Write an essay in which you explain and defend how your choice of snack or meal meets the nutritional needs of toddlers. (10th and 11th grade persuasive writing).
    • Have students create and present a lesson plan to teach toddlers new skills in the areas of mathematics, science, physical movement, outdoor play, art and music. Have students save their lesson in a digital portfolio.
    • List safety factors to assess the safety of purchases for children such as cribs, toys, clothing, and food using handout Safety and Children.
    • As a writing strategy, have students write a paper describing what a toddler looks like, characteristics and mannerisms.
    • Have students compile a list of gross and fine-motor skills with the appropriate age in which it occurs.
    • Students will list what children learn from playing with a variety of toys using The Importance of Toys and Play.
    • Arrange a field trip to a child care center to assess the safety of toys and equipment. Complete handout Assessment: The Safety of Toys and Equipment. After the assessment, give a copy of the list to the child care director.
    • Have students navigate to http://www.fruitsandveggiesmatter.gov and click on Analyze MyPlate. This is an interactive exercise. Instruct students to create a healthy breakfast, lunch, or dinner for a child of a specific age. The program will allow them to drag food items on to plate. Students will receive a nutritional analysis of their selections.
    • Observe a class of three-year-old children in a child development or child-care center. Compare and contrast the physical, mental, emotional, and social development of three of the children. Applying what you have learned from this unit, formulate an explanation for the differing developmental levels of the children. A portion of your explanation may be speculative. Also, construct a one-day schedule of activities for this age group that would address and promote their physical, mental, and social development.
    • As a group project or community service project, develop a brochure explaining toddlers’ motor skills. Include all valid information such as the order and approximate age when toddlers develop their motor skills.
    • Have students summarize information from websites which manufacture toddler toys and play equipment. Research safety features for both indoor and outdoor equipment.
    • Invite a pediatrician or child psychologist to explain the temperament, skills, and development of toddlers.
    • Write a story from a toddler’s point of view which will help parents understand how a toddler feels, develops and speaks.
    • Develop a children’s book for toddlers that relate to social and emotional development of toddlers.
    • Plan a one-week menu (meals and snacks) for a three-year-old following the MyPlate.gov guidelines.

    References and Resources

    Textbook

    • Decker, C. A. (2004). Children The Early Years. Tinley Park, Illinois: The Goodheart-Wilcox Company, Inc.

    Websites

    • Center for Disease Control
      Skills such as taking a first step, smiling for the first time, and waving “bye bye” are called developmental milestones. Children reach milestones in how they play, learn, speak, behave, and move (crawling, walking, etc.).
      http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/index.html

    YouTube™

    Child Development: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Which unit of study listed below is not in the Toddler Development, Including Children with Special Needs Module?

    • a. Careers involving toddlers including those with special needs
    • b. Toddler Growth and Development
    • c. Care and Protection of Toddlers
    • d. Play Literacy and Development

    2. In general toddlers should consume ___________ to _____________ calories per day.

    • a. 1,000 to 1,400
    • b. 800 to 1000
    • c. 1,400 to 2,000
    • d. 800 to 1,400

    3. Play activities that promotes toddler growth and development should include ____________________.

    • a. mathematics, science, art and outdoor play
    • b. outdoor play, art, music and science
    • c. mathematics, science, physical movement, outdoor play, art and music
    • d. mathematics, physical movement, outdoor play and art

    4. The toddler phase is a very active time in the child’s life. They will grow about __________ inches and gain approximately four pounds during the second year of life.

    • a. four to five
    • b. two to three
    • c. one to two
    • d. four to six

    5. Some positive parenting tips a parent can do to help their toddler excel are:

    • a. read to the toddler daily
    • b. ask her to find objects for you or name body parts and objects
    • c. encourage him to explore and try new things
    • d. all of the above

  • V. Development of the Preschool Child, Including Children with Special Needs

    TEKS Addressed

    (5) The student analyzes the growth and development of preschool children of diverse backgrounds, including those with special needs. The student is expected to:

    • (A) analyze the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual needs of the preschool child;
    • (B) describe the role of play in a preschool child’s growth and development;
    • (C) develop activities for meeting developmental needs of preschool children such as moderate to vigorous physical exercise, reading development, communication, listening skills, and self-reliance;
    • (D) use complex inferences from text to support conclusions about care and protection of preschool children such as child care, family violence and abuse, guidance, services and agencies, and appropriate health care;
    • (E) work independently and collaboratively to prepare snacks or meals to meet nutritional guidelines such as caloric requirements, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and portion control; and
    • (F) identify appropriate licensing regulations for preschools.

    Module Content

    Development of the Preschool Child, Including Children with Special Needs, is the fifth module of study in the Child Development course. This module contains six units of study that include:

    • A. Physical, Emotional, Social and Intellectual Needs of the Preschool Child
    • B. Role of Play in Growth and Development of the Preschool Child
    • C. Activities for Meeting Developmental Needs
    • D. Care and Protection of Preschool Children
    • E. Nutritious Snacks and Meals
    • F. Preschool Licensing Regulations

    Physical, Emotional, Social and Intellectual Needs of the Preschool Child

    Children during the preschool age are exploring a wide range of emotions. They show anger, love, dependency, fear and many other emotions. During this stage children often have a vast imagination and frequently have imaginary friends. They are also becoming more independent and want to make decisions for themselves. They may like to select their own clothing or make other small selections. Their personal identity is forming during this period. Their physical, emotional, social, and intellectual identities are developing and emerging as they evolve through this phase of life.

    Role of Play in Growth and Development of the Preschool Child

    At the end of this unit students should be able to describe the role of play in a preschool child’s growth and development. Essentially, play is the work of children. Playing for children is learning. They learn from coming in contact with objects, people, and events. While children play they explore the world around them through various types of play such as cooperative, dramatic, and manipulative.

    Caregivers should plan teaching strategies which offer a variety of different learning activities set up to achieve specific goals and objectives in the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of children. The process children use in playing and discovering in learning centers is more important than the end product. Indoor learning centers might include activity areas for:

    • art
    • blocks
    • computer, science
    • dramatic play
    • language arts
    • manipulative play
    • math
    • music
    • quiet time

    Indoor learning center activities offer an opportunity for children to develop some of the following skills:

    • eye-hand coordination
    • motor skills
    • creativity
    • sensory abilities
    • language
    • number skills
    • task completion
    • communication
    • the enjoyment of singing, listening, and moving to music.

    Outdoor learning centers might include wheel toys, sand and water, climbing, swinging, and quiet time, which offer opportunities for the development of fine and gross motor skills, social skills, creative expression, a sense of accomplishment, and sensory experiences.

    Activities for Meeting Developmental Needs

    During this unit, students will develop activities for meeting developmental needs of preschool children such as moderate to vigorous physical exercise, reading development, communication, listening skills, and self-reliance. These activities should include opportunities for preschool children to explore as they learn by using their senses of sight, sound, smell and touch.

    Care and Protection of Preschool Children

    Students will be able to use complex inferences from text to support conclusions about care and protection of preschool children such as child care, family violence and abuse, guidance, services and agencies, and appropriate health care. During this unit students should become familiar with the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services website. This government site addresses the legal rights protecting families and children in the state of Texas. Their services range from family protection to child care service regulations.
    Safety is everyone’s responsibility. ln a child care center, all of the adults in the center—child care practitioners, teachers, kitchen personnel, van drivers, and volunteers—should be observant and safety conscious. More than anything else, parents expect their children to be safe while in child care. Accidents are the major cause of injury and death among young children. Planning and maintaining safe surroundings is critical. This is accomplished by:

    • following safety regulations, continually monitoring environment
    • teaching safety information appropriate to their ages
    • safe indoor and outdoor environments for young children require careful planning and constant checking
    • hazards should be eliminated, such as those that could cause burns, electrical shock or fire, suffocation, drowning, poisoning, cuts, and falls
    • transportation safety is an important concern for child caregivers
    • each center should make and follow a plan for the safe arrival and departure of children

    In order to plan and maintain a safe environment, caregivers need to know which activities are typical of children at different ages. This information is also needed in teaching children safety practices. Various groups that influence safety regulations in child care centers include local and state governmental agencies, funding agencies, insurance companies, and the legal profession.

    Nutritious Snacks and Meals

    Students will work independently and collaboratively to prepare snacks or meals to meet nutritional guidelines such as caloric requirements, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and portion control for preschool children. It is important to offer a variety of foods while monitoring portion size. It is best to start with small portions and then increase portions as requested by the child. During this phase, children are beginning to have their food choices influenced by media. It is important to maintain balance and control of all of the essential nutrients by the parents and child care providers.
    One important responsibility of a parents of a preschool child is seeing that nutritious meals and snacks are served. If the child is enrolled in a child care center, local rules and state licensing standards guide the director in this important task. If a center receives funds from an outside source, the guidelines of the funding agency must also be followed. Food service rules and guidelines are used to protect children and should be strictly followed. Rules and regulations can be viewed at http://www.squaremeals.org/Programs/ChildandAdultCareFoodProgram.aspx

    Below are a variety of resources to assist parents and child care centers with planning healthy snacks and incorporating fruits and vegetables into their menus:

    • Healthy Snacks for Young Children from Team Nutrition Iowa, Iowa Public Television at http://www.iptv.org/rtl/downloads/SlidesFood1.pdf A collection of recipes for healthy snacks for young children. Each card provides a book title appropriate for young children relevant to the specific foods in the recipe. The recipes provide a fruit, vegetable, or bread/grain serving for snacks for 1 to 5 year olds according to the Child and Adult Care Food Program guidelines.
    • Tips for a Safe and Healthy Life. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      http://www.cdc.gov/family/tips

    Preschool Licensing Regulations

    Students will be able to identify appropriate licensing regulations for preschools. This information changes on a regular basis. It is best to update the presentation of this unit every time the course is taught. The Texas Department of Family and Protective Services will update their website with the latest Texas licensing regulation information. This information is useful for parents to insure that they select the best preschool for their child and it serves as a regulating guide for child care or preschool providers.

    In Texas, the Texas Department of Protective and Regulatory Services is the agency responsible for licensing child care facilities and seeing that the guidelines are followed. The Texas Child Care Licensing is responsible for:

    1. regulating all child-care operations and child-placing agencies to protect the health, safety, and well-being of children in care, largely by reducing the risk of injury, abuse, and communicable disease
    2. establishing and monitoring operations and agencies for compliance with licensing standards, rules, and law
    3. informing parents and the public about child care along with informing them about the histories of specific homes, child-care operations, as well as child-placing agencies in complying with minimum standards of care
    4. providing technical assistance to providers on meeting licensing standards, rules, and law

    The purpose of child care licensing is to enforce Texas Child-Care Licensing Law, Rules & Minimum Standards, thus maintaining a safe and healthy environment for young children being cared for outside the home. Other legislation and public policies that affect early child care programs include child care funding, health and fire regulations, in addition to zoning ordinances. Legislation and regulations may vary from county to county or city to city. It is important for child care directors to be informed of legislation and regulations that apply to their facility. Refer to the following website for additional information:
    http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child_Care/About_Child_Care_Licensing/

    Parents need to choose carefully the child care facility. Caregivers and the environment at the facility will have a great impact on the child’s emotional, social, cognitive and physical development.
    Parents should consider these factors in choosing a quality child care program:

    • Regulations
    • Physical Setting
    • Program
    • Teachers and Staff
    • Discipline
    • Parents
    • Health
    • Family Needs
    • Safety

    Parents who are considering placing a child in child care should contact the local child-related organizations for information, especially child care resource and referral agencies (CCR&Rs). The CCR&Rs are service agencies that provide information to parents who are looking for any type of child care. Refer to the following website for additional information http://www.naccrra.org/

    Handouts / Graphic Organizers

    • Caring for Kids 3-5
    • DG Tip Sheet for Kid Friendly Veggies and Fruits
    • Essential Nutrients for Preschool to School-Age Children A to Z
    • Essential Nutrients for Preschool to School-Age Children A-Z (Teacher Key)
    • Nutritional Foods for Preschool and School-Age Children Project
    • Nutritional Needs As Children Grow
    • Nutritional Needs As Children Grow (Teacher Key)
    • Nutritious Recipes for Children
    • Rubric for Nutritional Foods for Preschool and School-Age Children Project

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Update the live binder or digital file with the Preschool Development, Including Children with Special Needs module for the course.
    • Plan to conduct food labs that meet the nutritional guidelines for preschool children, by planning to have students prepare snacks or meals that meet these requirements. Use http://www.choosemyplate.gov/food-groups/ website as a planning tool for the lab.
    • Prepare a shopping list for the lab and prepare the necessary paperwork to secure funding for the labs according to your school district procedures.
    • Have students create and present a lesson plan to teach preschoolers new skills in the areas of vigorous physical exercise, reading development, communication, listening skills and self reliance. Have student save their lesson in a digital portfolio.
    • Think about the nutritional guidelines for preschool children. Imagine you are part of a team preparing snacks or meals for preschool children. Write an essay in which you explain and defend how your choice of snack or meal meets the nutritional needs for them. (10th and 11th grade persuasive writing).
    • Refer to lesson Nutritional Needs: Preschool to School-Age for additional resources, activities and handouts at: http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/nutrition-needs-as-children-grow-preschool-to-school-age/
    • Investigate the last five years of abuse in your community. Categorize the cases by the types of abuse and the sex and age of the child. What trends have been established in the child abuse cases? Have child abuse cases increased or decreased in the past five years? What predictions can be made for the next five years? How can child abuse be prevented?
    • Students can define what norms are. How can parents use norms in providing quality care?
    • Have students describe the physical, social, emotional, cognitive, and language characteristics in three-year olds.
    • Students can determine one teaching strategy that promotes physical development. Social development? Emotional development? Cognitive and language development?
    • Students can research characteristics of social and emotional development in four-year-olds? Cognitive and language development?
    • Students can investigate the importance of imagination as a stimulus for learning.
    • Interview a preschool teacher and ask her/him to describe a day with a preschooler. What kind of eye-hand coordination, developmental skills, and mannerisms do preschool children possess?
    • Using a magazine which features children such as a child development magazine, have students cut out pictures of preschoolers engaged in various activities. For each picture, identify whether the child pictured is using fine-or gross-motor skills.
    • Invite a pediatrician or child psychologist to explain the temperament, skills, and development of preschoolers.
    • Write a story from a preschooler’s point of view which will help parents understand how a preschooler feels, develops and speaks.
    • Interview a preschooler about something exciting that happened to him or her. Have the child draw a picture. Write a brief summary about the interview, including quotes from the child. Display the child’s drawing and your brief summary in the classroom.
    • Design a system for parents on helping preschooler’s become responsible. Develop it into a poster with pictures, large graphics, and easy to follow.
    • Scenario: You are an owner of a children’s garment company. You are to design clothes for preschoolers which have self-help and safety features.
    • Think of some ordinary items you have around the house. Describe how each item can be a way to develop a preschool child intellectually.
    • Scenario: You are the owner of a child care center. Make or gather the materials for one or more examples of planned activities for preschool children.
    • Develop a children’s book to encourage independence such as self-feeding, self-dressing, helping others and grooming skills.
    • Have students research and report on products and items for grooming, dressing and eating that are designed to encourage self-help skills of preschool children.
    • Have students brainstorm to list as many nature-related activities to do with a preschool child as possible.
    • Have students write at least 10 possible ways parents or caregivers can encourage creativity in preschool children. Have students debate “Why do you think television does or does not promote creativity in preschool children?”
    • Research the career as a preschool teacher. What are some personal qualitities, teacher certification and communication skills a preschool teacher needs.
    • Have students develop a milestones card to give parents or caregivers to use to measure how well the preschoolers are developing and learning.
    • Scenario: You are attending a birthday party for a preschool child. You must purchase a toy for the child with a $40.00 budget. Students must describe the toy, its benefits and safety features. They may research the Internet or provide students with toy catalogs. Have students present their information to their classmates.

    References and Resources

    Textbooks

    • Decker, C. (2011). Child development early stages through age 12. (7th ed., pp. 490-501). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Decker, C. (2004). Children: the early years. (5th ed., pp. 533-572). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Johnson, L. (2004). Strengthening family & self. (3rd ed., pp. 635-659). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Ryder, V., & Decker, C. (2010). Parents and their children. (7th ed., pp. 541-547). Tinley Park: Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
    • Sasse, C. (2004). Families today. (4th ed., pp. 667-668). Peoria: McGraw Hill.

    Websites

    • Center for Disease Control
      Skills such as taking a first step, smiling for the first time, and waving “bye bye” are called developmental milestones. Children reach milestones in how they play, learn, speak, behave, and move (crawling, walking, etc.).
      http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/index.html
    • Child Abuse Awareness
      Founded in 1959 by Sara O’Meara and Yvonne Fedderson, Childhelp® is a leading national non-profit organization dedicated to helping victims of child abuse and neglect. Childhelp’s approach focuses on prevention, intervention, and treatment.
      http://www.childhelp.org
    • Choose MyPlate
      USDA website information, interactive videos, food groups, and tips for the day.
      http://www.choosemyplate.gov and 10 Tips Nutrition Education Series. The Ten Tips Nutrition Education Series provides consumers and professionals with high quality, easy-to-follow tips in a convenient, printable format. These are perfect for posting on a refrigerator.
      http://www.choosemyplate.gov/healthy-eating-tips/ten-tips.html
      • Choose MyPlate
      • Add More Vegetables to Your Day
      • Focus on Fruits
      • Make Half Your Grains Whole
      • Got Your Dairy Today?
      • With Protein Foods, Variety is Key
      • Build a Healthy Meal
      • Healthy Eating for Vegetarians
      • Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits
      • Liven Up Your Meals With Vegetables and Fruits
      • Kid-Friendly Veggies and Fruits
      • Be a Healthy Role Model for Children
      • Cut Back on Your Kid’s Sweet Treats
      • Salt and Sodium
      • Eat Seafood Twice a Week NEW
      • Eating Better on a Budget NEW
      • Use SuperTracker Your Way NEW
      • Enjoy Your Food, But Eat Less NEW
      • Make Better Beverage Choices NEW
    • Prevent Child Abuse America
      Since 1972, Prevent Child Abuse America (PCA America) has led the way in building awareness, providing education and inspiring hope to everyone involved in the effort to prevent the abuse and neglect of our nation’s children
      http://www.preventchildabuse.org/index.shtml
    • Safe Kids Worldwide
      Child Safety Fact Sheets which may be used when addressing Child Guidance TEKS.
      http://www.safekids.org/
    • Sleep for Kids
      This site contains information on the importance and amount of sleep needed by children of different ages.
      http://www.sleepforkids.org/
    • Tips for a Safe and Healthy Life
      U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      http://www.cdc.gov/family/tips
    • 2012 Resource Guide—Preventing Child Maltreatment and Promoting Well Being: A Network for Action.
      Resource Guide includes tip sheets for parents and caregivers, ways to get involved, and six protective factors.
      http://www.childwelfare.gov/
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services resources – National Child Abuse Prevention Month (April) information.
      Child Welfare Information Gateway connects child welfare and related professionals to comprehensive information and resources to help protect children and strengthen families.
      http://www.childwelfare.gov/

    YouTube™

    • “Dear Mr. Jesus”
      Uploaded by Louisiana Leroux on Jul 23, 2009
      The song “Dear Mr. Jesus” was recorded in September 1985 by Sharon Batts. At the age of nine, the third grader’s tiny voice touched our hearts as she sang to Jesus about the beating of another girl, how it scared her, and her request to Him: “Please don’t let them hurt your children.”
      http://youtu.be/Tsax8Yw0x5c
    • “Alyssa Lies”
      Uploaded by i40films on Jan 19, 2010
      Jason Michael Carroll’s “Alyssa Lies” video has become an internet sensation. It has become an excellent communication tool for abused children to share who they can get help from their unfair situations.
      http://youtu.be/nLh5vbBLpxI

    Child Development: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Play is the _________ of children.

    • a. work
    • b. sleep
    • c. dream
    • d. emotion

    2. Activities for meeting developmental needs of preschool children in this course do not include which of the following:

    • a. resting
    • b. vigorous physical exercise
    • c. reading development
    • d. self-reliance

    3. The student prepared activities should include opportunities for preschool children to __________ as they learn by using their senses of sight, sound, smell and touch.

    • a. read
    • b. write
    • c. explore
    • d. relax

    4. It is important to offer a variety of foods to preschool children while monitoring portion size. It is best to start with _________ portions and then ____________ portions as requested by the child.

    • a. large, decrease
    • b. small, increase
    • c. large, increase
    • d. small, decrease

    5. Preschool children often have a _________________ imagination.

    • a. simple
    • b. vague
    • c. plain
    • d. vast

  • VI. Development of School-Age Children Including Children with Special Needs

    TEKS Addressed

    (6) The student analyzes the growth and development of school-age children of diverse backgrounds, including those with special needs. The student is expected to:

    • (A) analyze the physical, emotional, social and intellectual needs of the school-age child
    • (B) analyze the role of the school environment on the growth and development of the school-age child
    • (C) analyze how individual and group identities are established and change over time to identify typical growth and development of the school-age child such as brain development and social, emotional, and physical development
    • (D) investigate care and protection of school-age children such as child care, abuse, guidance, services and agencies, immunizations and appropriate health care
    • (E) develop activities appropriate for school-age children such as moderate to vigorous physical exercise, reading development, communication, listening skills, independence, conflict resolution, stress management, and self-discipline
    • (F) work independently or collaboratively to create nutritious snacks or meals appropriate for school-age children to prepare, including considerations such as caloric requirements, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and portion control
    • (H) discuss legislation and public policies affecting children

    Module Content

    Development of School-Age Children, Including Children with Special Needs, is the sixth module of study in the Child Development course. This module contains seven units of study that include:

    • A. Physical, Emotional, Social, and Intellectual Needs of the School-Age Child
    • B. Role of the School Environment on Growth and Development
    • C. Growth and Development of the School-Age Child
    • D. Care and Protection of School-Age Child
    • E. Appropriate Development Activities
    • F. Nutritious Snacks or Meals
    • G. Legislation and Public Policies Affecting Children

    Physical, Emotional, Social, and Intellectual Needs of the School-Age Child

    The school-age years in child development ranges from the ages of six to eleven. In the beginning of this phase, children are often experiencing being away from their homes on a daily basis for the entire day for the first time and by the end they are self competent. These changes range from physical, emotional, social, and intellectual. Physically they grow and develop into adolescents during these years. Emotionally, socially and intellectually these years shape their personalities and self identity. Children rapidly gain an understanding of life and the world around them during this phase in life. The level of self competence is based on experiences and the success rate of learning.

    The presentation of this unit will be easy to facilitate with students due to the fact that they have recently experienced these years in their own lives. It is important to be mindful of possible student sensitivity to certain topics in this unit and to adjust the presentation accordingly. Some students may have a disability in one of the subject areas and others may have experienced a social or emotional challenge that could surface during the course presentation.

    Role of the School Environment on Growth and Development of the School-Age Child

    The school environment has a significant impact on the growth and development of the school-age child. The school environment should be a safe, comfortable, stable setting for learning and development. Children learn best in a secure atmosphere. The school is responsible for providing the least restrictive learning environment for all students. Quality education professionals that work with children in this age group establish relationships with their students that create a desire for learning by all. If students struggle learning during this period, their self competence development will be affected. Essentially, the school environment is the primary learning atmosphere for the child in this age group.

    Growth and Development of the School-Age Child

    Growth and development of the school-age child varies significantly between children during this period. Some children will develop slower than others and some will grow quickly. Generally, children tend to grow in height more than weight during this period. Height is normally not affected by environmental factors, but on the other hand, weight is associated with nutritional habits and activity levels influenced by the child’s surroundings. Proportionately, children look more like small adults and they will often experience growth pains due to bone and muscle growth.

    Care and Protection of School-Age Children

    This unit is designed to investigate the care and protection of school-age children. Areas that could be investigated are child care, abuse guidance, immunizations and health care. The child care needs during this period change based on the school schedule. After school and summer care are needed versus regular daily care. Local child protective service organizations are generally available as a resource for current information about child abuse and guidance. They may also provide services as a guest speaker on the topic of care and protection. Health care and immunizations are essential to the care and protection of the school age child. This unit could be presented with the help of the school nurse. School nurses are current on the care needed for children of this age. They are privileged to the medical needs of the classroom students and would be able to present material in a manner that protects student privacy while providing quality information.

    Appropriate Development Activities

    Appropriate development activities for school-age children should include several strategies. These children are:

    • learning to see things from the viewpoint of others
    • using deductive and inductive reasoning
    • noting transformations
    • focusing on more than one part

    Due to the fact that these children are learning so quickly, activities should be well planned and organized so that the children will expand their knowledge and progress at an appropriate rate.

    Nutritious Snacks or Meals

    This unit is intended for students to work collaboratively or independently to prepare nutritious meals or snacks for the school aged child. It is important to understand the caloric requirements, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and portion control that children need during the school-age years. Nutrition education is continuously improving. Have your student research nutritional needs by using government websites and current medical journals. The presentation of this unit should be continuously evolving. Our nation has a serious nutrition awareness problem. A multitude of health care problems are caused by poor nutritional habits. It is vital for the health of our nation to educate children on proper nutrition.

    Legislation and Public Policies Affecting Children

    Society is becoming more and more concerned about children’s welfare. Throughout the past century, many actions have been taken to ensure children’s well-being. Before the existence of laws and organizations protecting children from harsh treatment, many children were forced to work long hours with little pay in unsafe conditions. Children who were abused had no one to go to for help. Disabled children did not receive expert care to help them develop.
    Children today are very fortunate to have many different types of resources to enhance their lives. These resources can be on the local, state, national, or international level and may be funded by the government, through private and corporate donations, from fees charged for services, or through private membership. Resources and societal changes affecting children include laws, agencies, social services, and private groups that improve children’s lives.
    One of the first groups organized to fight for children’s right was the Child Labor Committee, which was founded in 1901 to help children who were subject to dangerous, unsanitary working conditions.
    Legislation and public policies affecting children are continuously changing. Laws passed to protect abused and neglected children include laws on reporting child abuse, laws punishing abusers, and methods of removing children from unsafe environments.
    Society has taken measures to ensure that children receive quality child care as well as an education to enhance their development. Children in child care are protected by state laws mandating child care center practices, while school-age children are required by law to be enrolled in school by a certain age.
    With the growing acceptance of disabled people in society, programs and organizations have been formed to help disabled people and their families. Laws, support groups, and organizations are available for the protection and advancement of disabled people.
    Prior to presenting this unit, check with local school administrators, a childcare provider, and health professionals before addressing these issues to be sure that your presentation is current. If you have any guest speakers during the course, have them address legislation that affects their area of expertise.

    Handouts / Graphic Organizers

    Module 6 handouts

    • Article STOP and JOT
    • Caring for Kids 3-5
    • DG Tip Sheet for Kid Friendly Veggies and Fruits
    • Essential Nutrients for Preschool to School-Age Children A to Z
    • Essential Nutrients for Preschool to School-Age Children A-Z (Teacher Key)
    • Nutritional Foods for Preschool and School-Age Children Project
    • Nutritional Needs As Children Grow
    • Nutritional Needs As Children Grow (Teacher Key)
    • Nutritious Recipes for Children
    • Rubric for Nutritional Foods for Preschool and School-Age Children Project

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • Create a unit project that has students develop and present a project appropriate for school age children that include the following
      • Vigorous physical exercise
      • Reading development
      • Communication
      • Listening skills
      • Independence
      • Conflict resolution
      • Stress management
      • Self-discipline.
    • Plan to conduct food labs that meet the nutritional guidelines for school age children, by planning to have students prepare snacks or meals that meet these requirements. Use http://www.choosemyplate.gov/ website as a planning tool for the labs. Prepare a shopping list and prepare the necessary paperwork to secure funding for the labs according to your school district procedures.
    • Students will read about food safety recommendations from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to help keep kids safe after school and complete an Article STOP and JOT handout. Students will STOP after reading EACH paragraph and JOT down its main idea or key points. This strategy will allow students to gather and process their finding and thoughts prior to writing a summary.
      http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/safe-food-handling/food-safety-after-school/ct_index
    • Prepare a research presentation project for career opportunities in child development. Have students research careers related to each module of the course, the technical knowledge or skills required as well as propose short-and long-term career goals in child development.
    • Think about the nutritional guidelines for school-age children. Imagine you are part of a team preparing snacks or meals for school-age children. Write an essay in which you explain and defend how your choice of snack or meal meets the nutritional needs for them. (10th and 11th grade persuasive writing).
    • View the Utah Education Network website at http://www.uen.org/ to locate activities and lesson plans associated with the addressed TEKS.
    • Develop a game to teach children about nutrition:
      • healthy vs. unhealthy snacks
      • eating breakfast plus ideas
      • trying new foods
      • making a balanced meal-using the MyPlate format
      • healthy versus junk foods
    • Contact possible guest speaker related to the role of the school environment on growth and development in addition to the area of care and protection of the school-age child.
    • Determine nutrition information for preschool and school-age children as well as food lab recipes
    • Students will research recipes using http://cte.sfasu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Nutritious-Recipes-for-Children.pdf
      Recipe Finder Cookbook.
    • Students will solve puzzle using Jigsaw Planet
      http://www.jigsawplanet.com/?rc=play&pid=05ada4da69b9
    • Students will create a three day menu for a preschool child and a school-age child using the information from MyPlate.gov
    • Refer to lesson Nutritional Needs: Preschool to School-Age for additional resources, activities and handouts at: http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/nutrition-needs-as-children-grow-preschool-to-school-age/
    • Research resources available to your community using the newspaper, telephone directory, interviews, or other ways of locating social services and organizations that help children. Find out what services are offered, what qualifications recipients must meet, what the cost is, and how the services or organizations receive funds. Choose one resource you think is particularly beneficial to children. Throughly research the resource and write a report.
    • Pretend you are a child with special needs. How do you think someone will realize that you have a special need? What can be done to improve your special need? What resources are available to you and your family that will help ease the stress of having a child with a special need in the family? How do you feel about having a special need?

    References and Resources

    Textbook

    • Decker, C. A. (2004). Children The Early Years. Tinley Park, Illinois: The Goodheart-Wilcox Company, Inc.

    Websites

    • Center for Disease Control
      Skills such as taking a first step, smiling for the first time, and waving “bye bye” are called developmental milestones. Children reach milestones in how they play, learn, speak, behave, and move (crawling, walking, etc.).
      http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/index.html
    • Let’s Move: America’s Move to Raise a Healthier Generation of Kids
      Let’s Move! is dedicated to solving the problem of childhood obesity within a generation so that every child born today—grows up healthy. Provides corresponding activities for each step.
      http://www.letsmove.gov/kids
    • Nutrition Education of Texas
      Teaching Nutrition: Background information about nutrition, nutrients, and healthy eating habits. Topics include nutrients, food safety, selecting a balanced diet, nutritional needs during the lifecycle, nutrition and health. For additional information, visit:
      http://netx.squaremeals.org/teaching_nutrition.html

    YouTube™:

    Child Development: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. The school age years in child development ranges from the ages of __________ to ___________.

    • a. 7 to 13
    • b. 6 to 11
    • c. 6 to 18
    • d. 12 to 18

    2. Legislation and public policies affecting children are ____________________.

    • a. set in stone
    • b. stagnant
    • c. rarely change
    • d. continuously changing

    3. It is important to understand the_________________________that children need during the school age years.

    • a. caloric requirements, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and portion control
    • b. caloric requirements, vitamins, and lipids
    • c. caloric requirements, minerals and vitamins, and carbohydrates
    • d. caloric requirements, carbohydrates and portion control

    4. A suggested unit lesson plan project topic for school age children does not include which of the following:

    • a) Genetic Testing
    • b) Conflict Resolution
    • c) Stress Management
    • d) Self-Discipline

    5. One of the first groups organized to fight for children’s rights was the _____________, which was founded in 1901 to help children who were subject to dangerous, unsanitary working conditions.

    • a. Children’s Labor Laws
    • b. Child Labor Committee
    • c. Safer Environments for Children Committee
    • d. Child Labor Program

  • VII. Career Opportunities in Child Development

    TEKS Addressed

    (3) The student investigates strategies for optimizing the development of infants of diverse backgrounds, including those with special needs. The student is expected to:

    • (G) describe and apply technical knowledge and skills required to be successful in careers involving infants such as neonatal intensive care specialist and infant mental health specialist.

    (6) The student analyzes the growth and development of school-age children of diverse backgrounds, including those with special needs. The student is expected to:

    • (G) explore careers involving school-age children;
    • (I) propose short-term and long-term career goals in child development.

    Module Content

    Career Opportunities in Child Development is the final major section of the Child Development course. It is the seventh module of study in the Child Development course. This module contains three units of study that include:

    • A. Careers Involving Infants, Toddlers, Preschool and School-Age Children, including those with Special Needs
    • B. Technical Knowledge and Skills Required
    • C. Short-Term and Long-Term Career Goals in Child Development

    Careers Involving Infants, Toddlers, Preschool and School-Age Children, including those with Special Needs

    Many of the careers in Child Development have been addressed during the presentation of the course. Not all students have the same areas of interest. This unit is often best presented by the students themselves. Have students work independently or collaboratively to create presentations based on careers related to infant, toddlers, preschool and school-age children. There are a multitude of careers in these areas and each group of students will develop a unique perspective of child development career opportunities.

    Choosing a career is one of the most important decisions that a person makes. This is why the decision must be based on complete and accurate information. Each person must be aware of his or her personal values and skills as well as the career options that are available.

    One rapidly expanding field is that of child-related jobs. This is due partially to the increase in mothers who work outside the home. A second influencing factor is the recent wide-spread recognition of the importance of early childhood development. A variety of child-related careers are available and can be categorized according to the amount of contact with children. Careers that directly serve children:

    • Child Care Workers
    • Teachers
    • Mental and Physical Health Services
    • Protective and Social Services

    Careers that indirectly serve children:

    • Information Specialist
    • Child development instructors
    • Family life educators
    • Teacher educators
    • Consultants
    • Children’s Goods and Services Provider
    • Designer
    • Advertising and Marketing
    • Entertainers, Writers, and Artists
    • Entrepreneurship
  • According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment of childcare workers is expected to grow by 20 percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations. Parents will continue to need assistance during working hours to care for their children. Because the number of children requiring childcare is expected to grow, demand for childcare workers is expected to grow as well.

    In the past decade, early childhood education has become widely recognized as important for children’s development. Childcare workers often work alongside preschool teachers as assistants. This continued focus on the importance of early childhood education, in addition to increases in the number of children in this age group, will spur demand for preschool programs and thus for childcare workers. Workers with formal education should have the best job prospects. However, even those without formal education who are interested in the occupation should have little trouble finding employment due to the need to replace workers who leave the occupation.

    • Childcare workers must meet education and training requirements, which vary with state regulations. Some states require these workers to have a high school diploma, but many states do not have any education requirements.
    • Employers often prefer to hire workers with at least a high school diploma and, in some cases, some postsecondary education in early childhood education.
    • Beginning in 2013, workers in Head Start programs must at least be enrolled in a program in which they will earn an associate’s degree in early childhood education or a child development credential.
    • Many states require providers to complete some training before beginning work. Often, these requirements can be satisfied by having some college credits or by earning a degree in early childhood education.
    • States do not regulate educational requirements for nannies and babysitters. However, some employers may prefer to hire workers with at least some formal instruction in education or a related field, particularly when they will be hired as full-time nannies.
    • Some states and employers require childcare workers to have a nationally recognized certification. Most often, states require the Child Development Associate (CDA) certification offered by the Council for Professional Recognition. CDA certification includes coursework, experience in the field, and a high school diploma.
    • Some states recognize the Child Care Professional (CCP) designation offered by the National Child Care Association. Candidates for the CCP must have a high school diploma, experience in the field, and continuing education.
    • Some employers may require certifications in CPR and first aid.

    Technical Knowledge and Skills Required

    Students can visit several sites such as Texas Workforce Commission for a personal career assessment. Refer to https://www.texasworkprep.com/jhg.htm This will help the students assess their interests and personalities. Certification is available upon completion.

    Students can take an O*Net Work Importance Locator or Interest Profiler self-assessment test at: http://www.texascaresonline.com/wowmenu.asp

    • Employability Skills
      • 1. Effective communication skills
      • 2. Effective team members
      • 3. Ethics
      • 4. Leadership
      • 5. Problem solving
      • 6. Technical skills
    • Personal Characteristics

    As with any career, certain personal characteristics are related to success in child-related careers. Some of these characteristics are essential, while others are desirable. The importance of the characteristic varies according to the degree and type of contact with children a job requires. The following characteristics are necessary for a person seeking a career that involves direct contact with children. Characteristics one through six are less important if a career does not require direct contact with children.

    1. Enjoy children
    2. Be nurturing
    3. Have patience
    4. Remain flexible
    5. Be able to provide appropriate guidance and discipline
    6. Possess leadership skills
    7. Have concern for children’s welfare
    8. Understand child development
    9. Have good interpersonal communication skills

    Effective communication skills are important because childcare workers must be able to talk with parents and colleagues about the progress of the children in their care. They need both good writing and speaking skills to provide this information effectively.

    Effective team members have people skills. Childcare workers need to work well with people to develop good relationships with parents, children, and colleagues. Physical stamina. Working with children can be physically taxing, so childcare workers should have a lot of energy.

    Ethics should address professional responsibilities in four areas: children, families, colleagues, and community and society.

    Leadership includes having instructional skills. Childcare workers need to be able to explain things in terms young children can understand.

    Problem-solving skills include patience. Working with children can be frustrating, so childcare workers need to be able to respond to overwhelming and difficult situations calmly.

    Technical skills are important. According to the Fred Rogers Center study “Technology in the Lives of Teachers and Classrooms: Survey of Classroom Teachers and Family Child Care Providers,” most teachers and providers have access to and are comfortable using technology with the children in their settings.

    Short-Term and Long-Term Career Goals in Child Development

    Short- and long-term career goals should align with opportunities based on interests and work values. Goal setting is necessary because it allows you to plan for your short-term future as well as your long-term future. When making career choices in the area of Child Development, you need to be a good manager of time, resources and goal setting. Match characteristics of the current or most recent occupation with similar occupations, and find specific information such as the fastest growing jobs, levels of education and training requirements, and average salaries. For a self-assessment, skills transferability, work exploration, career clusters and occupational information, refer to http://www.texascaresonline.com/wowmenu.asp

    Handouts / Graphic Organizers

    • Occupational Outlook Handbook Flashcards
    • Pros and Cons of Employment Opportunities in Child Development
    • Rubric for Multimedia Presentation – Prezi™
    • Rubric for PowerPoint® Presentation
    • Setting Career Goals

    Teaching Strategies/Lesson Ideas

    • See lesson Careers in Child Development: Exploring Employment Opportunities at http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/careers-in-child-development-exploring-employment-opportunities/ for additional resources and references.
    • Update the live binder or digital file with the Development of School Age Children and the Career Opportunities in Child Development modules for the course.
    • Students will complete graphic organizer Setting Career Goals.
    • Introduce the Texas Work Prep Learning Management System. Direct students to the Texas Job Hunter’s Guide Course.
      https://www.texasworkprep.com/texasworkprep.htm
    • Inform students that this is an interactive free assessment that will allow them to identify their job values, interests, aptitudes, and skills assessments as well as assist them in preparing a résumé and teaching them interview skill tips. Students must complete all six sections and successfully pass a short quiz to receive their printable certificate. Stress the importance of having this type of documentation in their professional portfolio.
    • Students will research careers in Child Development using Occupational Outlook Handbook Flashcards.
    • Distribute the Rubric for PowerPoint™ Presentation and Rubric for Multimedia Prezi™ Presentation so students understand what is expected on their research projects.
    • Distribute graphic organizer Pros and Cons of Employment Opportunities in Child Development. Students should read through their selected career option and determine a minimum of eight advantages and eight disadvantages.
    • Introduce and guide students through the website components of the Occupational Outlook Handbook.
      http://bls.gov/ooh/
    • Students will locate the selected career and gather information for their multimedia presentation. The following information should be included:
      • Education requirement
      • Duties
      • Work environment
      • Salary
      • Job outlook
      • Similar occupations
      • Job specific terminology and definition
      • Contacts
    • If available, students should include a short video on their selected career in the presentation from the Career One Stop website:
    • Guide and assist students as needed as they work independently on their research projects.
    • Have student contact a professional in the child care profession and ask to ‘shadow’ that person for three days. The student must keep a journal and document each experience day to day. Examples can include: elementary teacher/principal, Head Start director, in-home child care provider, or pediatrician.
    • Invite a representative from a professional organization in the area of child care to share information. Have speaker focus on aspects of the organization which provides information to child care professionals. Have students write a summary report following the presentation.
    • Research the kind of education you would need in order to become a teacher, either for handicapped or gifted children. What schools near you offer this type of special training? In addition to formal education, what other traits and experiences would be good for a teacher of special needs children to possess? Do you think you would enjoy this type of work? Why?
    • Select an occupation in a child-related field that interests you. Using the Internet, journal classified advertisements, or personal interview; locate a specific job and research it. Determine the qualifications required, duties of a typical day, number of hours per week, salary, geographic location, professional attire, possibliltiy of advancement, or other aspects of the job. Considering your own personal interests and talents, would this job be for you? Give explanations to justify your response. Share your findings with the class in an oral presentation.

    Textbook

    • Sasse, Connie. Families Today. 4th. Peoria: McGraw-Hill , 2004. 125-137.

    Websites

    • AchieveTexas
      AchieveTexas is an education initiative designed to prepare students for a lifetime of success. It allows students to achieve excellence by preparing them for secondary and postsecondary opportunities, career preparation and advancement, meaningful work, and active citizenship.
      http://www.achievetexas.org/
    • Association for Childhood Education International
      Each child possesses a unique set of gifts and talents. Educators and others invested in the education of children should value each child as a unique and special individual.
      http://www.acei.org
    • Bureau of Labor Statistics
      Exploring career information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics
      http://www.bls.gov/k12/
    • Child Welfare League of America
      CWLA is a powerful coalition of hundreds of private and public agencies serving vulnerable children and families since 1920. Their expertise, leadership and innovation on policies, programs, and practices help improve the lives of millions of children in all 50 states.
      http://www.cwla.org
    • National Association of Child Care Professionals
      The nation’s leader among associations serving child care owners, directors, and administrators. The organization’s goal is to improve, enhance and strengthen the credibility of the people who lead the child care industry by providing membership services and benefits.
      http://www.naccp.org
    • National Association for the Education of Young
      Children
      Provide resources for Early Childhood Professionals to improve their practice through professional development, allowing them to grow in the field.
      http://www.naeyc.org
    • Occupational Outlook Handbook
      The nation’s premier source for career information
      http://bls.gov/ooh/
    • Professionalism
      An article conveying that no matter the industry – from customer service to an office job to construction and the trades – all of these jobs have one thing in common: in order to succeed and move ahead, you need to demonstrate professionalism-page 114.
      http://www.dol.gov/odep/topics/youth/softskills/Professionalism.pdf
    • The Texas Work Prep Learning Management System (LMS) designed and hosted by the Texas Workforce Commission. The Job Hunter’s Guide Course – This course will allow the student to gain knowledge and skills to attain employment. The course is approximately an hour and a half long. Students will receive a certificate upon completion of this course. Certificate can be printed and added to their professional portfolio.
      https://www.texasworkprep.com/texasworkprep.htm

    Child Development: Pre-Assessment Questions

    1. Why has the need for high quality, affordable early care and education increased?

    • a. it has become more profitable
    • b. it is due to the growing number of working mothers, dual-career families, and single-parent families
    • c. it is government subsidized
    • d. parents are becoming more mobile

    2. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment of childcare workers is expected to grow by _________ percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations.

    • a. 15
    • b. 20
    • c. 28
    • d. 22

    3. Beginning in 2013, workers in Head Start programs must at least be enrolled in a program in which they will earn a(n) ____________ degree in early childhood education or a child development credential.

    • a. bachelor’s
    • b. master’s
    • c. high school
    • d. associate’s

    4. The Child Development Associate (CDA) certification offered by the Council for Professional Recognition includes which three areas?

    • a. coursework, college degree, and two years of experience
    • b. coursework, high school diploma and a job shadowing experience
    • c. coursework, experience in the field, and a high school diploma
    • d. no coursework, two years experience in the field and a college degree

    5. Certain personal characteristics are related to success in child-related careers such as:

    • a. remain flexible and be able to provide appropriate guidance and discipline
    • b. possess leadership skills and have concern for children’s welfare
    • c. understand child development
    • d. all of the above

  • End of Course Project Options/Course Outline

    An excellent way to end the semester or school year is with a culminating course project. See End of Course Project Options Lesson for Child Development.

    http://cte.sfasu.edu/lesson-plans/end-of-course-project-options-child-development/

    Culminating activities at the end of the course give students an opportunity to reflect and apply all of their knowledge and skills into an end of course project.

    Child Development Course Outline
    The lessons in this course may be used in any sequence. The suggested sequence order is based on the Scope and Sequence for the course.
    http://cte.sfasu.edu/2013/02/10/child-development/

  • Quiz

    Child Development Online Course

    Progress:

    1. TEKS stands for

    2. CTE stands for_______________

    3. Child Development may be offered as a ____________________

    4. Which unit is not part of the Roles and Responsibilities of Parenting module?

    5. Which unit of study listed below is in the Prenatal Care and Development Module?

    6. The Parenting and Paternity Awareness (P.A.P.A.) curriculum is prepared by the ________________.

    7. Toddlers are not aware of their ________ and feelings in addition to their likes or dislikes.

    8. ____________ is not a factor that affects fetal development.

    9. The student prepared activities should include opportunities for preschool children to __________ as they learn by using their senses of sight, sound, smell and touch.

    10. The Relationship Skills unit does not include:

    11. ____________ is a skill that is needed to help prevent family violence.

    12. Parenting skills and responsibilities do not include

    13. Pregnant mothers should avoid the consumption of ___________ during pregnancy.

    14. The Prenatal Care and Development module has _________ units of study.

    15. The main purposes of sonograms are to__________.

    16. _________________ is not a safety consideration related to daily tasks that are vital to protecting the child.

    17. Which unit of study listed below is not in the Infant Development, Including Children with Special Needs Module?

    18. Infancy is the time between ______________ and ___________________.

    19. The nutritional needs of infants are different for all babies. Their nutritional needs are based on factors such as _______________________________________.

    20. Most of the developmental milestones in infancy occur within a ______________ order and transpire at in specific time frames allowing assistance to be provided to children with special needs as considered necessary.

    21. Which career is not a suggested profession involving infants?

    22. School age activities should include:

    23. The Play, Literacy and Development unit of the Toddler Development module does not include:

    24. CPR stands for___________

    25. Complications can occur during pregnancy and may be characterized by ____________________.

    26. In order to evaluate the impact of parenting roles and responsibilities parents and child care professionals should have an understanding of the different theorists affecting child development. Which of the following is not a theorist of child development?

    27. ________________________________(ASTM) has developed standards for equipment such as strollers, play pens, and expandable gates.

    28. The nutritional needs of infants are different for all babies. Their nutritional needs are based on factors such as _______________________________________.

    29. The Juvenile Products Manufacturers Association (JPMA) is responsible for_________________

    30. Which unit of study listed below is not in the Toddler Development, Including Children with Special Needs Module?

    31. In general toddlers should consume ___________ to _____________ calories per day.

    32. Play activities that promotes toddler growth and development should include ___________.

    33. Some positive parenting tips a parent can do to help their toddler excel are:

    34. The toddler phase is a very active time in the child’s life. They will grow about __________ inches and gain approximately four pounds during the second year of life.

    35. Preschoolers can develop a variety of ______ which requires patience and understanding on the part of parents and caregivers.

    36. Activities for meeting developmental needs of preschool children in this course do not include which of the following:

    37. The student prepared activities should include opportunities for preschool children to __________ as they learn by using their senses of sight, sound, smell and touch.

    38. It is important to offer a variety of foods to preschool children while monitoring portion size. It is best to start with _________ portions and then ____________ portions as requested by the child.

    39. Preschool children often have a _________________ imagination.

    40. The school age years in child development ranges from the ages of __________ to ___________.

    41. Legislation and public policies affecting children are ____________________.

    42. Which unit of study listed below is not in the Career Opportunities in Child Development Module?

    43. It is important to understand the_________________________that children need during the school age years.

    44. A suggested unit lesson plan project topic for school age children does not include which of the following:

    45. One of the first groups organized to fight for children's right was the _____________, which was founded in 1901 to help children who were subject to dangerous, unsanitary working conditions.

    46. Why has the need for high quality, affordable early care and education increased?

    47. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment of childcare workers is expected to grow by ________ percent from 2010 to 2020, faster than the average for all occupations.

    48. Beginning in 2013, workers in Head Start programs must at least be enrolled in a program in which they will earn a(n) ____________ degree in early childhood education or a child development credential.

    49. The Child Development Associate (CDA) certification offered by the Council for Professional Recognition. CDA certification includes which three areas?

    50. Certain personal characteristics are related to success in child-related careers such as:

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